The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that exercise training elicited a cardioprotective effect against ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) via the κ-opioid receptor (κ-OR)-mediated signaling pathway. Rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control group, the moderate intensity exercise (ME) group, the high intensity exercise (HE) group, and the acute exercise (AE) group. For the exercise training protocols, the rats were subjected to one week of adaptive treadmill training, while from the second week, the ME and HE groups were subjected to eight weeks of exercise training, and the AE group was subjected to three days of adaptive treadmill training and one day of vigorous exercise. After these protocols, the three exercise training groups were divided into different treatment groups, and the rats were subjected to 30 min of ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. Changes in infarct size and serum cTnT (cardiac troponin T) caused by I/R were reduced by exercise training. Moreover, cardiac dysfunction caused by I/R was also alleviated by exercise training. These effects of exercise training were reversed by nor-BNI (a selective κ-OR antagonist), Compound C (a selective AMPK inhibitor), Akt inhibitor and L-NAME (a non-selective eNOS inhibitor). Expression of κ-OR and phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt and eNOS were significantly increased in the ME, HE and AE groups. These findings demonstrated that the cardioprotective effect of exercise training is possibly mediated by the κ-OR-AMPK-Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.