Longitudinal Changes in Refractive Error of Children with Infantile Esotropia
Springer Science and Business Media LLC -- Eye
DOI 10.1038/eye.2010.129
Keyword(s)
  1. infantile esotropia
  2. refractive error
  3. emmetropisation
  4. hypermetropia
  5. accommodative esotropia
  6. amblyopia
Abstract(s)

Aim

The aim of this study was to quantify changes in refractive status over time in children with infantile esotropia and to analyse a number of clinical factors associated with infantile esotropia to determine how they may affect emmetropisation.

Methods

Longitudinal cycloplegic refraction data were collected for 5-12 years from 143 consecutive children enrolled in a prospective study of infantile esotropia by 6 months of age. Changes in refractive error with age were summarized with descriptive statistics and the influence of amblyopia, undercorrection of hypermetropia, accommodation, and binocular factors on emmetropisation were evaluated by ANOVA and t-tests.

Results

Most had low to moderate hypermetropia on the initial visit (55% had <+3.00 D). While the initial refractive error is similar to normative data, the rapid decrease in hypermetropia that characterizes normal development during the first 9 months of life is absent in children with infantile esotropia. After 9 months of age, children with infantile esotropia follow a developmental course that is similar to the normative course; there is little change in hypermetropia during years 1-7, followed by a decline of approximately -0.5 D/yr beginning at age 8 years. None of the clinical factors examined had a statistically significant effect on the course of refractive changes with age.

Conclusions

Children with infantile esotropia exhibit a different pattern of refractive development than that seen in normative cohorts. The long term changes in refraction observed in children with infantile esotropia suggest that there is a need for long-term clinical follow-up of these children.