How much do combined affective and cognitive impairments worsen rehabilitation outcomes after hip fracture ?
Springer Science and Business Media LLC -- BMC Geriatrics
DOI 10.1186/s12877-018-0763-x
  1. Hip fracture
  2. Rehabilitation
  3. Functional status
  4. Elderly persons
  5. Mental status


To investigate the association between isolated and combined affective and cognitive impairments with functional outcomes and discharge destination in older patients admitted to rehabilitation after a hip fracture.


Prospective study in 612 community-dwelling patients aged 65 years and over, admitted to rehabilitation after surgery for hip fracture. Information on socio-demographics, medical, functional, affective, and cognitive status was systematically collected at admission. Functional status, length of stay and destination were assessed at discharge. Functional improvement was defined as any gain on the Barthel Index score between admission and discharge from rehabilitation.


At admission, 8.2% of the patients had isolated affective impairment, 27.5% had cognitive impairment only, and 7.5% had combined impairments. Rate of functional improvement steadily decreased from 91.2% in patients with no cognitive nor affective impairment to 73.8% in those with combined impairments. Compared to patients without any impairment, those with combined impairments had lower odds of functional improvement, even after adjustment for age, gender, health and functional status at admission (adjOR: 0.40; 95%CI: 0.16–1.0; p = .049). The proportion of patients discharged back home gradually decreased from 82.8% among patients without any impairment to only 45.6% in patients with combined impairments. In multivariate analysis, the odds of returning home remained significantly reduced in these latter patients (adjOR: 0.31; 95%CI:0.15–0.66; p = .002).


Affective and cognitive impairments had both independent, and synergistic negative association with functional outcome and discharge destination in patients admitted to rehabilitation after a hip fracture. Nevertheless, patients with combined affective and cognitive impairments still achieved significant functional improvement, even though its magnitude was reduced. Further studies should investigate whether these patients would benefit from better targeted, longer, or more intensive rehabilitation interventions to optimize their functional recovery.