UXT is a novel and essential cofactor in the NF-κB transcriptional enhanceosome
Rockefeller University Press -- Journal of Cell Biology
DOI 10.1083/jcb.200611081

As a latent transcription factor, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus upon stimulation and mediates the expression of genes that are important in immunity, inflammation, and development. However, little is known about how it is regulated inside the nucleus. By a two-hybrid approach, we identify a prefoldin-like protein, ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), that is expressed predominantly and interacts specifically with NF-κB inside the nucleus. RNA interference knockdown of UXT leads to impaired NF-κB activity and dramatically attenuates the expression of NF-κB–dependent genes. This interference also sensitizes cells to apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, UXT forms a dynamic complex with NF-κB and is recruited to the NF-κB enhanceosome upon stimulation. Interestingly, the UXT protein level correlates with constitutive NF-κB activity in human prostate cancer cell lines. The presence of NF-κB within the nucleus of stimulated or constitutively active cells is considerably diminished with decreased endogenous UXT levels. Our results reveal that UXT is an integral component of the NF-κB enhanceosome and is essential for its nuclear function, which uncovers a new mechanism of NF-κB regulation.