The Effects of Graded Levels of Calorie Restriction: XIII. Global Metabolomics Screen Reveals Graded Changes in Circulating Amino Acids, Vitamins, and Bile Acids in the Plasma of C57BL/6 Mice
Oxford University Press -- The Journals of Gerontology: Series A
DOI 10.1093/gerona/gly058
  1. Metabolomics
  2. Calorie restriction
  3. Aging
  4. Vitamin E
  5. Amino acids
  6. Bile acids


Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend life span and improve health span. Using a global mass spectrometry–based metabolomics approach, we identified metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed in the plasma of C57BL/6 mice, fed graded levels of calorie restriction (10% CR, 20% CR, 30% CR, and 40% CR) compared with mice fed ad libitum for 12 hours a day. The differential expression of metabolites increased with the severity of CR. Pathway analysis revealed that graded CR had an impact on vitamin E and vitamin B levels, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and fatty acid pathways. The majority of amino acids correlated positively with fat-free mass and visceral fat mass, indicating a strong relationship with body composition and vitamin E metabolites correlated with stomach and colon size, which may allude to the beneficial effects of investing in gastrointestinal organs with CR. In addition, metabolites that showed a graded effect, such as the sphinganines, carnitines, and bile acids, match our previous study on liver, which suggests not only that CR remodels the metabolome in a way that promotes energy efficiency, but also that some changes are conserved across tissues.