Among the members of flaviviruses, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remains a potent infectious disease agent, with its associated pandemic prompting the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare it a global public health concern. Thus, rapid and accurate diagnosis of the ZIKV is needed. In this study, we report a new immunofluorescence biosensor for the detection of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) of the ZIKV, which operates using the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) signal from plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to amplify the fluorescence intensity signal of quantum dots (QDs) within an antigen-antibody detection process. The LSPR signal from the AuNPs was used to amplify the fluorescence intensity of the QDs. For ultrasensitive, rapid, and quantitative detection of NS1 of the ZIKV, four different thiol-capped AuNPs were investigated. Our biosensor could detect the ZIKV in a wide concentration range from 10–107 RNA copies/mL, and we found that the limit of detection (LOD) for the ZIKV followed the order Ab-L-cysteine-AuNPs (LOD = 8.2 copies/mL) > Ab-3-mercaptopropionic acid-AuNPs (LOD = 35.0 copies/mL). Immunofluorescence biosensor for NS1 exhibited excellent specificity against other negative control targets and could also detect the ZIKV in human serum.