Association between maxillary and mandibular apical base lengths and severity of dental crowding or spacing in Class II malocclusion subjects: An in-vitro study
Medicina Oral, S.L. -- Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
DOI 10.4317/jced.55422


Anterior crowding/ spacing are one of the major problems that inspire patients to undergo orthodontic treatment. Several factors associated with anterior crowding/ spacing includes arch width and length, mesio-distal tooth diameter and proportions. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of maxillary and mandibular base lengths to the amount of anterior dental crowding/ spacing in patients with complete class II malocclusions.

Material and Methods

A retrospective study was done with 152 patients who were divided into four groups according to the severity of pre-treatment dental crowding/spacing present in the mandibular arch. Measurements were performed on the pre-treatment dental casts and lateral cephalograms. Statistical analysis was done using t-test and chi-square test.


Subjects with complete class II malocclusion and moderate to severe mandibular crowding [≥3mm] have significantly smaller base lengths as compared to the subjects with slight crowding or spacing [<3mm].


There exists an inverse correlation between maxillary and mandibular base lengths and the severity of dental crowding and direct correlation with spacing.

Key words:Apical base lengths, Class II malocclusion, Crowding, Incisor inclination, Spacing.