Toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis: The influence of age, number of retinochoroidal lesions and genetic polymorphism for IFN-γ +874 T/A as risk factors for recurrence in a survival analysis
Public Library of Science (PLoS) -- PLOS ONE
DOI 10.1371/journal.pone.0211627


To analyze risk factors for recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis.


Single center prospective case series.

Population and Methods

A total of 230 patients with toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis were prospectively followed to assess recurrences. All patients were treated with a specific drug regime for toxoplasmosis in each episode of active retinochoroiditis. Individuals with chronic diseases and pregnant women were excluded. Survival analysis by extended Cox regression model (Prentice-Williams-Peterson counting process model) was performed to evaluate the time between recurrences according to some potential risk factors: age, number of retinochoroidal lesions at initial evaluation, sex and interferon gamma +874 T/A gene polymorphism. Hazard Ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were provided to interpret the risk effects.


One hundred sixty-two recurrence episodes were observed in 104 (45.2%) patients during follow-up that lasted from 269 to 1976 days. Mean age at presentation was 32.8 years (Standard deviation = 11.38). The risk of recurrence during follow up was influenced by age (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01–1.04) and number of retinochoroidal lesions at the beginning of the study (HR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.07–2.40). Heterozygosis for IFN-γ gene polymorphism at position +874 T/A was also associated with recurrence (HR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.04–2.14).


The risk of ocular toxoplasmosis recurrence after an active episode increased with age and was significantly higher in individuals with primary lesions, which suggests that individuals with this characteristic and the elderly could benefit from recurrence prophylactic strategies with antimicrobials. Results suggest an association between IFN-γ gene polymorphism at position +874T/A and recurrence.