Indications, Clinical Outcomes, and Survival Rate of Pediatric Penetrating Keratoplasty in Suburban Malaysia: A 10-year Experience
Cureus, Inc. -- Cureus
DOI 10.7759/cureus.3744
  1. clinical outcome
  2. pediatric penetrating keratoplasty
  3. suburban malaysia
  4. graft survival rate


To describe the demographics, indications, clinical outcomes and survival rate of penetrating keratoplasty in Malaysian children living in a suburban area, and discuss the literature on paediatric penetrating keratoplasty.


A retrospective review of medical records was performed on children younger than 17 years of age who had undergone penetrating keratoplasty in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from January 2008 to December 2017. We recorded demographic data, presenting visual acuity, indications, final visual acuity, and graft survival at 12 months into the postoperative period.


Sixteen eyes of 14 children had penetrating keratoplasty. Mean age was 7.8 ± 5.9 years. Both genders were equally affected. The main indications were infective keratitis (56.25%), congenital corneal opacity (18.75%) and trauma (12.50%). There were 62.50% of patients who had a preoperative visual acuity worse than 6/60. Fifty percent had other combined procedures during the surgery, including lens aspiration, peripheral iridectomy, pupilloplasty and glaucoma tube implant. Best corrected visual acuity of 6/12 or better was achieved in 18.75% of patients. A hazy graft was noted in 68.75% of patients, and was attributed to graft rejection, glaucoma and graft failure. There was a statistically significant association between the presence of vascularized cornea, intraocular inflammation and combined surgery with survival rate of the graft at one-year postoperative period (p < 0.05).


Infective keratitis is the main indication for penetrating keratoplasty in our pediatric patients. Good visual outcome was documented in a small percentage of the patients. Amblyopia and hazy graft were the main barriers to success in this group of patients. Vascularized cornea, inflammation and combined surgery had significantly affected the survival rate of the grafts in our series.