Structural basis for the activation of PLC-γ isozymes by phosphorylation and cancer-associated mutations
eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd -- eLife
DOI 10.7554/eLife.51700
  1. phospholipase C
  2. allostery
  3. interfacial regulation
  4. X-ray crystallography
  5. molecular dynamics
  6. cancer
  7. None

Direct activation of the human phospholipase C-γ isozymes (PLC-γ1, -γ2) by tyrosine phosphorylation is fundamental to the control of diverse biological processes, including chemotaxis, platelet aggregation, and adaptive immunity. In turn, aberrant activation of PLC-γ1 and PLC-γ2 is implicated in inflammation, autoimmunity, and cancer. Although structures of isolated domains from PLC-γ isozymes are available, these structures are insufficient to define how release of basal autoinhibition is coupled to phosphorylation-dependent enzyme activation. Here, we describe the first high-resolution structure of a full-length PLC-γ isozyme and use it to underpin a detailed model of their membrane-dependent regulation. Notably, an interlinked set of regulatory domains integrates basal autoinhibition, tyrosine kinase engagement, and additional scaffolding functions with the phosphorylation-dependent, allosteric control of phospholipase activation. The model also explains why mutant forms of the PLC-γ isozymes found in several cancers have a wide spectrum of activities, and highlights how these activities are tuned during disease.