We aimed to investigate the non-linear features of the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in patients with chronic microvascular ischemia (CMI) in order to determine the brain correlates of emotional impairment that could impact the risk of developing acute ischemia. We compared the EEG responses of patients with CMI and age-matched healthy volunteers to non-verbal emotionally charged sounds. We analyzed the EEG data, the psychological assessment of the stimuli, and the results of neuropsychological and behavioral testing. We assessed the (in)stability of the envelope's amplitude by calculating its average frequency and the ratio of its standard deviation to its mean. The non-linear features were lower in the patient group in the resting state. The emotional stimulation induced a decrease in the frequency of the envelope's amplitude in all subjects. Changes in the fractal dimension during stimulation were only seen in the patient group, and they correlated with symptoms of emotional lability. The lower ratio of the alpha-rhythm envelope's standard deviation to its mean in the right hemisphere correlated with a higher sense of threat. The EEG and behavioral correlates of emotional impairment in patients with CMI were found.