Many studies have shown that mitochondrial metabolism has a fundamental role in induction of carcinogenesis due to the influence of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in all steps of oncogene transformation and cancer progression. It is widely accepted that the anticancer effect of conventional anticancer drugs is due to induction of oxidative stress and elevated intracellular levels of ROS, which alter the redox homeostasis of cancer cells. On the other hand, the harmful side effects of conventional anticancer chemotherapeutics are also due to increased production of ROS and disruption of redox homeostasis of normal cells and tissues. Therefore, there is a growing interest toward the development of natural antioxidant compounds from various sources, which could impact the redox state of cancer and normal cells by different pathways and could prevent damage from oxidant-mediated reactions. It is known that chitosan exhibits versatile biological properties, including biodegradability, biocompatibility, and a less toxic nature. Because of its antioxidant, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulatory activities, the biopolymer has been used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical, biomedical, food industry, health, and agricultural applications and has been classified as a new physiologically bioactive material.