- lignocellulosic ethanol
- metabolic burden
- metabolomic fingerprint
- Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
- stress response
In the lignocellulosic yeast development, metabolic burden relates to redirection of resources from regular cellular activities toward the needs created by recombinant protein production. As a result, growth parameters may be greatly affected. Noteworthy, Saccharomyces cerevisiae M2n[pBKD2-Pccbgl1]-C1, previously developed by multiple δ-integration of the β-glucosidase BGL3, did not show any detectable metabolic burden. This work aims to test the hypothesis that the metabolic burden and the metabolomic perturbation induced by the δ-integration of a yeast strain, could differ significantly. The engineered strain was evaluated in terms of metabolic performances and metabolomic alterations in different conditions typical of the bioethanol industry. Results indicate that the multiple δ-integration did not affect the ability of the engineered strain to grow on different carbon sources and to tolerate increasing concentrations of ethanol and inhibitory compounds. Conversely, metabolomic profiles were significantly altered both under growing and stressing conditions, indicating a large extent of metabolic reshuffling involved in the maintenance of the metabolic homeostasis. Considering that four copies of BGL3 gene have been integrated without affecting any parental genes or promoter sequences, deeper studies are needed to unveil the mechanisms implied in these metabolomic changes, thus supporting the optimization of protein production in engineered strains.