Nomograms for predicting overall survival and cancer-specific survival in young patients with pancreatic cancer in the US based on the SEER database
PeerJ -- PeerJ
DOI 10.7717/peerj.8958
Keyword(s)
  1. Younger pancreatic cancer
  2. SEER
  3. Nomograms
  4. Prognosis
Abstract(s)

Background

The incidence of young patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) is on the rise, and there is a lack of models that could effectively predict their prognosis. The purpose of this study was to construct nomograms for predicting the overall survival (OS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) of young patients with PC.

Methods

PC patients younger than 50 years old from 2004 to 2015 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database were selected and randomly divided into training set and validation set. Univariable and forward stepwise multivariable Cox analysis was used to determine the independent factors affecting OS. The Fine and Gray competing risk regression model was used to determine the independent factors affecting CSS. We used significant variables in the training set to construct nomograms predicting prognosis. The discrimination and calibration power of models were evaluated by concordance index (C-index), calibration curve and 10-flod cross-validation.

Results

A total of 4,146 patients were selected. Multivariable Cox analysis showed that gender, race, grade, pathological types, AJCC stage and surgery were independent factors affecting OS. The C-index of the nomogram predicting OS in training and validation was 0.733 (average = 0.731, 95% CI [0.724–0.738]) and 0.742 (95% CI [0.725–0.759]), respectively. Competing risk analysis showed that primary site, pathological types, AJCC stage and surgery were independent factors affecting CSS. The C-index of the nomogram predicting CSS in training and validation set was 0.792 (average = 0.765, 95% CI [0.742–0.788]) and 0.776 (95% CI [0.773–0.779]), respectively. C-index based on nomogram was better in training and validation set than that based on AJCC stage. Calibration curves showed that these nomograms could accurately predict the 1-, 3- and 5-year OS and CSS both in training set and validation set.

Conclusions

The nomograms could effectively predict OS and CSS in young patients with PC, which help clinicians more accurately and quantitatively judge the prognosis of individual patients.