Cherenkov excited short-wavelength infrared fluorescence imaging in vivo with external beam radiation
American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education -- Journal of Biomedical Optics
DOI 10.1117/1.JBO.24.5.051405
  1. Cherenkov emission
  2. short-wavelength infrared
  3. fluorescence imaging
  4. radiation


Cherenkov emission induced by external beam radiation therapy from a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) can be used to excite phosphors deep in biological tissues. As with all luminescence imaging, there is a desire to minimize the spectral overlap between the excitation light and emission wavelengths, here between the Cherenkov and the phosphor. Cherenkov excited short-wavelength infrared (SWIR, 1000 to 1700 nm) fluorescence imaging has been demonstrated for the first time, using long Stokes-shift fluorophore PdSe quantum dots (QD) with nanosecond lifetime and an optimized SWIR detection. The 1/λ2 intensity spectrum characteristic of Cherenkov emission leads to low overlap of this into the fluorescence spectrum of PdSe QDs in the SWIR range. Additionally, using a SWIR camera itself inherently ignores the stronger Cherenkov emission wavelengths dominant across the visible spectrum. The SWIR luminescence was shown to extend the depth sensitivity of Cherenkov imaging, which could be used for applications in radiotherapy sensing and imaging in human tissue with targeted molecular probes.