- eosinophilic gastroenteritis
- upper gi bleeding
Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare idiopathic disease affecting multiple organs (stomach and small intestine) of the digestive tract. It is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall to a variable depth and symptoms associated with gastrointestinal tract disease. The prevalence of this condition is ranging from 8 and 28 per 100,000. We present a rare presentation of EGE manifesting as upper GI bleeding.
A 28-year-old male with PMH of EGE, duodenal ulcers, and stricture presented to the hospital with the chief complaints of three episodes of dizziness and melena over one day. His home medications included prednisone, montelukast, and pantoprazole. On admission, he was found to be tachycardic (150) while other vital signs were stable. Physical examination revealed cold, pale and clammy skin but was otherwise normal on examination. Initial labs showed hemoglobin (hgb) of 9.3. His hospital course was complicated with 1 episode of large volume hematemesis >1.5 L and brief loss of consciousness for which a code rapid response was called. On day 2, the hgb dropped to 5.7 and the patient received a blood transfusion. Emergent endoscopy (EGD) revealed high-grade duodenal stenosis, severe pyloroduodenal deformity and a duodenal ulcer with the visible vessel. Two clips were deployed blindly. Epinephrine could not be injected due to hard and fibrotic tissue around duodenal stenosis. The Interventional Radiology team was consulted and emergent angiography was done which revealed active bleeding from a branch of the gastric artery. Embolization was done and hemostasis was achieved successfully. He needed 5 units of PRBC transfusion in total. He was treated with pantoprazole twice a day intravenously since admission. For his known duodenal stricture, the surgical team was consulted. No acute surgical intervention was recommended. On discharge, he was sent home with pantoprazole 40 mg twice a day, slow tapering of prednisone and close follow up with gastroenterology, surgery, and primary care doctor within 1 week. The purpose of this case report is to increase awareness about this clinical condition among medical professionals.