In this study, we have surface-functionalized PEGylated-nanoliposomal doxorubicin (DOX) with anti-EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) aptamer via post-insertion of anti-EpCAM aptamer-conjugated DSPE-mPEG2000 into Caelyx® (ED-lip). The size, charge, release profile, and cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of formulation were determined. The characterization of the ED-lip demonstrated the slightly increase in size and PDI along with the decrease in zeta potential which indicated that post-insertion efficiently done. The results of flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy have shown that ED-lip enhanced the rate of cell uptake on C26 cell line compared to Caelyx®. The ED-lip also had more cytotoxic effects than Caelyx® which indicated the efficacy of anti-EpCAM aptamer as targeting ligand. The pharmacokinetic and tissue biodistribution of formulations in mice bearing C26 tumors demonstrated that ED-lip did not affect the distribution profile of DOX compared to Caelyx® in animal model. In addition, ED-lip effectively improved the tumor accumulation of DOX and promoted survival of animals compared to Caelyx®. These results suggest that the functionalization of Caelyx® with anti-EpCAM aptamer is promising in cancer treatment and merits further investigation.