The Jianchang duck is mainly distributed in Southwest China, and has the characteristics of fast growth rate and strong abilities in lipid deposition in the liver. In order to investigate the effects of domestication process on formation of the unique characteristics of Jianchang duck, the whole genome of sixteen individuals and three pooling of Jianchang duck were re-sequenced, and genome data of 70 mallards and 83 domestic ducks from thirteen different places in China were obtained from NCBI. The population stratification and evolution analysis showed gene exchanges existed between the Jianchang and other domestic duck populations, as well as Jianchang ducks and mallards. Genomic comparison between mallards and Jianchang ducks showed genes, including CNTN1, CHRNA9, and SHANK2, which is involved in brain and nerve development, experienced strong positive selection in the process of Jianchang duck domestication. The genomic comparison between Jianchang and domestic duck populations showed that HSD17B12 and ESM1, which affect lipid metabolism, experienced strong positive selection during the domestication process. FST analysis among populations of Jianchang duck with different plumage colors indicated that MITF was related to the phenotype of a white feather, while MC1R was related to the phenotype of hemp feather. Our results provided a base for the domestication process of Jianchang duck and the genomic genes for unique traits.