Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), the source of chocolate, is one of the most important commodity products worldwide that helps improve the economic livelihood of farmers. Diseases like frosty pod rot caused by Moniliophthora roreri and witches’ broom caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa limit the cacao productivity, this can be solved by using resistant varieties. In the current study, we sequenced 229 cacao accessions using genotyping-by-sequencing to examine the genetic diversity and population structure employing 9,003 and 8,131 single nucleotide polymorphisms recovered by mapping against two cacao genomes (Criollo B97-61/B2 v2 and Matina 1-6 v1.1). In the phenotypic evaluation, three promising accessions for productivity and 10 with good tolerance to the frosty pod rot and witches’ broom diseases were found. A genome-wide association study was performed on 102 accessions, discovering two genes associated with productivity and seven to disease resistance. The results enriched the knowledge of the genetic regions associated with important cacao traits that can have significant implications for conservation and breeding strategies like marker-assisted selection.