Introduction The present study aimed to investigate the association between trunk muscle strength, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD), lumbar scoliosis angle (LSA), and appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI) and the severity locomotive syndrome (LS) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology in elderly individuals. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 168 individuals aged >60 years. We measured their trunk muscle strength (flexion and extension) and BMD, LSA, and ASMI using DXA. We defined degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DLS) as LSA ≥ 10° by the Cobb method using the DXA image. The locomotor function was evaluated using the timed up-and-go (TUG) test and the 25-question Geriatric Locomotive Function Scale (GLFS-25) score. Normal locomotor function, LS-1, and LS-2 were defined as a GLFS-25 score of <7, ≥7 and <16, and ≥16, respectively. We compared the three groups, analyzing the associations between all variables and the locomotor function using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Although there was no significant difference in sex ratio, BMD, ASMI, and trunk-flexor strength, significant differences were observed in age (p < 0.01), the prevalence of DLS (p = 0.02), trunk-extensor strength (p < 0.01), and trunk-extensor/flexor strength ratio (p < 0.01) among the three groups. In multiple regression analyses, the significant risk factors of the TUG test were age (β = 0.26), body mass index (β = 0.36), LSA (β = 0.15), ASMI (β = −0.30), and trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.19), whereas the significant factor of the GLFS-25 score was trunk-extensor strength (β = −0.31). Conclusions The results indicate that it is clinically important for LS to pay careful attention not only to BMD but also to lumbar scoliosis when DXA examination of the lumbar spine is routinely conducted. Moreover, it is essential to note that trunk-extensor strength is more important than trunk-flexor strength in maintaining locomotor function in elderly individuals.