Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an anti-fibrinolytic agent that acts by inhibiting plasminogen activation and fibrinolysis. Although its first clinical use dates back more than 50 years, this hemostatic agent is still the object of intense clinical and developmental research. In particular, renewed interest in TXA has arisen following evidence that it has a beneficial effect in reducing blood loss in a variety of medical and surgical conditions at increased risk of bleeding. Given this characteristic, TXA is currently considered a mainstay of Patient Blood Management programs aimed at reducing patients’ exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion. Importantly, recent large randomized controlled trials have consistently documented that the use of TXA confers a survival advantage in a number of globally critical clinical conditions associated with acute bleeding, including traumatic injury and post-partum hemorrhage, without increasing the thromboembolic risk.