Compared to any other decade, the last two decades have been the most dynamic period in terms of advances in the knowledge on spinal dysraphism. Among the several factors of rapid advancement, such as embryology during secondary neurulation and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, there is no doubt that Professor Dachling Pang stood high amidst the period. I review here the last two decades from my personal point of view on what has been achieved in the field of spinal dysraphism, focusing on occult tethered cord syndrome, lumbosacral lipomatous malformation, terminal myelocystocele, retained medullary cord, limited dorsal myeloschisis and junctional neural tube defect. There are still many issues to revise, add and extend. Profound knowledge of basic science is critical, as well as refined clinical analysis. I expect that young scholars who follow the footsteps of precedent giants will shed bright light on this topic in the future.