Methods and materials: We used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Data collection was performed in the foot at risk office at Maria Auxiliadora hospital over a period of 3 years, dating from the october 2016 to september 2019.
Foot risk assessment was based on the International Working Group of Diabetic Foot (IWGDF) system, which evaluates peripheral neuropathy (with monofilament or tuning fork), biomechanical deformity, peripheral arterial disease (altered pulse or ankle branchial index) or a history of foot ulcer1,2. Foot risk frequency was found according to epidemiological characteristics, and the prevalence ratios with 95% confidence interval were calculated to association analysis, we perform bivariate and multivariate analysis using a generalized linear model. This study has the approval of the María Auxiliadora HospitaĹs Ethics Committee.
Results: a total of 402 subjects were included in this study, 63.3% were women, average age 62 yo and diabetes duration <10 years in 56%. 76.6% presented risk to develop ulcer, of which 54.7% presented biomechanical deformation, 37.3% Peripheral Neuropathy (NP), 35.4% Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD), and 12.7% history of foot ulcer. Patients with foot at risk were associated with older age (RP 1,006, 95% CI 1,001-1.01), and with a score> 5 with respect to <5 in the Total Symptom Score (RP 1.26, 95% CI 1.05-1.51).
Conclusions: 3 of 4 patients have a foot at risk of ulceration, predominantly due to biomechanical deformation and peripheral neuropathy, and this risk was associated with older age and greater pain symptomatology.
1. Bakker K, Apelqvist J, Schaper NC. Practical Guidelines on the management and prevention of the diabetic foot 2011. International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot Guidelines. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2012; 28(1):225-231