We previously identified the limb salvage QTL1 (LSQ-1) on mouse chromosome 7 as a locus that offered protection against ischemic injury following induction of hind limb ischemia (HLI) a model of experimental peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in mice. To better understand the role of the LSQ-1 locus in post ischemic adaptation we characterized several genes within this locus and identified a number of genes that were important in tissue adaptation to ischemia, including BCL2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3). BAG3 is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays an important role in cell survival through the regulation of autophagy. BAG3 expression is induced in the gastrocnemius muscles of mice after hind limb ischemia but how ischemia regulates BAG3 expression is poorly understood. Additionally, the activation of NF-κB transcription factor is essential for cell survival after stress stimuli. We hypothesized that BAG3 upregulation following stress stimuli is regulated by NF-κB. We determined whether NF-κB is involved in BAG3-mediated survival of primary human skeletal muscle cells (HSMC) during ischemia and diabetic conditions. Within 6 hours of treatment, ischemia induced BAG3 mRNA (no ischemia vs ischemia: 1.0 ±0.09 vs 1.41±0.02; p<0.01) and protein expression (BAG3/total protein, no ischemia vs ischemia 1.0±0.01 vs 1.38±0.06; p<0.01). Knockdown of BAG3 expression by shRNA induced early cell damage in HMSC under ischemic conditions as measured by HMGB1 expression (HMGB1/total protein; control plasmid vs shRNA, 1.0±0.09 vs 1.71±0.04; p<0.01). Knockdown of p65 subunit of the NF-κB by shRNA significantly diminished BAG3 mRNA expression after ischemia (control plasmid vs shRNA: 2.11±0.18 vs 1.48±0.05; p<0.05). Moreover, treatment of HSMC with 750 uM palmitic acid (PA) and 100nM insulin for 3 days to mimic diabetic conditions significantly increased the expression of BAG3 mRNA (control vs PAL+Ins, 1.0±0.14 vs 2.27±0.08; p<0.01) and protein (BAG3/total protein, control vs PAL+Ins, 1.0±0.03 vs 1.39±0.11, p<0.01). Knocking down p65 attenuated these increase in BAG3 mRNA (PAL+Ins vs shRNA+PAL+Ins, 2.27±0.08 vs 1.56±0.02 p<0.01) and protein (BAG3/total protein; PAL+Ins vs shRNA+PAL+Ins, 1.39±0.11 vs 0.99±0.1; p<0.05) Thus, 1) BAG3 expression is important in cell survival under ischemic conditions, and 2) NF-kB plays a key role in upregulating the expression of BAG3 under diabetic and ischemic conditions.