Journal of the Endocrine Society
Oxford University Press
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SAT-685 Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in T1d: The Era of SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Keto-Diet
Volume: 4, Issue: Suppl 1
DOI 10.1210/jendso/bvaa046.1504

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Abstract

Introduction Euglycemic diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a challenging diagnosis since near normal blood sugar levels can be misleading. In the present case, we describe a patient with Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) on SGLT2 who underwent a strict low carb diet. Case Report A 70-year-old female with past medical history of unspecified diabetes mellitus and primary hypothyroidism presented to emergency room complaining of nausea and dizziness of four days with decreased oral intake. She was alert and oriented, normal weight (52 kg, BMI 20 kg/m2) with stable vital signs, except for mild tachypnea (22/min). Initial labs showed serum glucose 136 mg/dL, bicarbonate 10 mmol/L (normal 20-31), anion gap of 27, venous blood gas pH 7.1, B-hydroxybutyrate 8.8 mmol/L (normal 0.02-0.27), glucosuria > 500 mg/dL, and moderate ketonuria. Screening for ethyl alcohol and ethylene glycol was negative. Lactic acid, cardiac enzymes, renal and liver function tests were normal. She was diagnosed with diabetes mellitus at age 37, on insulin since then. No alcohol use. Her new primary care physician found an A1C of 9.0% for which metformin 1000mg oral twice a day and empagliflozin 12.5 mg oral daily were added and aspart insulin was discontinued. Daily glargine remained at 20 units daily. She was advised to lose weight for which she started a keto-diet 4 weeks prior to this presentation. She had lost 15 pounds since then accompanied by polyuria and polydipsia. Upon admission, she received IV insulin and IV fluids. An endocrinology consultation was requested for euglycemic DKA secondary to SGLT2 complicated by starvation ketosis. Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase were positive at 250 IU/mL (normal < 5). She was discharged on glargine, aspart insulins and oral medications were discontinued. Conclusion This case shows the importance of identifying the specific type of diabetes for appropriate individualization of therapy. Following a keto-diet in unrecognized T1D can trigger ketoacidosis in the setting of SGLT2 inhibitors leading to euglycemic diabetes ketoacidosis.

Castellanos-Diaz, Mathews, Barsamyan, Julio, and Kadiyala: SAT-685 Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in T1d: The Era of SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Keto-Diet
https://www.researchpad.co/tools/openurl?pubtype=article&doi=10.1210/jendso/bvaa046.1504&title=SAT-685 Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis in T1d: The Era of SGLT-2 Inhibitors and Keto-Diet&author=Jessica Castellanos-Diaz,Sherin Elsa Mathews,Gayane Barsamyan,Leey-Casellas Julio,Sushma Kadiyala,&keyword=&subject=Diabetes Mellitus and Glucose Metabolism,Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus,AcademicSubjects/MED00250,