ResearchPad - Recent Articles https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Synthèse N° 3 : Bronchites chroniques obstructives de l’enfant : un concept émergent]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3bbefbd7-e62f-4045-af27-1f16169983e2 <![CDATA[Emergence of medicine for mass gatherings: lessons from the Hajj]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb782f3eb-d67c-404d-a661-9e4ca416cc52 Although definitions of mass gatherings (MG) vary greatly, they consist of large numbers of people attending an event at a specific site for a finite time. Examples of MGs include World Youth Day, the summer and winter Olympics, rock concerts, and political rallies. Some of the largest MGs are spiritual in nature. Among all MGs, the public health issues, associated with the Hajj (an annual pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia) is clearly the best reported—probably because of its international or even intercontinental implications in terms of the spread of infectious disease. Hajj routinely attracts 2·5 million Muslims for worship. WHO's global health initiatives have converged with Saudi Arabia's efforts to ensure the wellbeing of pilgrims, contain infectious diseases, and reinforce global health security through the management of the Hajj. Both initiatives emphasise the importance of MG health policies guided by sound evidence and based on experience and the timeliness of calls for a new academic science-based specialty of MG medicine.

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<![CDATA[Congenital Peripheral Vestibular Syndrome in a Domestic Ferret (<i>Mustela putorius furo</i>)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N75552dcc-fbb9-4052-b2da-77bdcdbf039d A 3-month-old intact female ferret (Mustela putorius furo) was presented with a 2-month history of ataxia. On physical examination, the ferret had difficulty standing upright. During the neurologic examination, the patient had a left head tilt and positional strabismus, circled to the left, and was ataxic. Results of the complete blood count were consistent with a mild normocytic normochromic anemia. Initial treatment was supportive. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed and revealed an asymmetry of the inner ears. A brainstem auditory evoked response test was also performed. History, clinical signs, and diagnostic test results indicated that the ferret was suffering from congenital peripheral vestibular syndrome and left-sided deafness. Congenital disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young ferrets with peripheral vestibular syndrome. Supportive care and physiotherapy can improve balance and motor function, leading to an acceptable quality of life.

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<![CDATA[Bacterial and viral co-infections complicating severe influenza: Incidence and impact among 507 U.S. patients, 2013–14]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf4a68488-c61d-4c12-84c0-a7dc1e6c53a5 Influenza acts synergistically with bacterial co-pathogens. Few studies have described co-infection in a large cohort with severe influenza infection.ObjectivesTo describe the spectrum and clinical impact of co-infections.Study designRetrospective cohort study of patients with severe influenza infection from September 2013 through April 2014 in intensive care units at 33 U.S. hospitals comparing characteristics of cases with and without co-infection in bivariable and multivariable analysis.ResultsOf 507 adult and pediatric patients, 114 (22.5%) developed bacterial co-infection and 23 (4.5%) developed viral co-infection. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of co-infection, isolated in 47 (9.3%) patients. Characteristics independently associated with the development of bacterial co-infection of adult patients in a logistic regression model included the absence of cardiovascular disease (OR 0.41 [0.23–0.73], p = 0.003), leukocytosis (>11 K/μl, OR 3.7 [2.2–6.2], p < 0.001; reference: normal WBC 3.5–11 K/μl) at ICU admission and a higher ICU admission SOFA score (for each increase by 1 in SOFA score, OR 1.1 [1.0–1.2], p = 0.001). Bacterial co-infections (OR 2.2 [1.4–3.6], p = 0.001) and viral co-infections (OR 3.1 [1.3–7.4], p = 0.010) were both associated with death in bivariable analysis. Patients with a bacterial co-infection had a longer hospital stay, a longer ICU stay and were likely to have had a greater delay in the initiation of antiviral administration than patients without co-infection (p < 0.05) in bivariable analysis.ConclusionsBacterial co-infections were common, resulted in delay of antiviral therapy and were associated with increased resource allocation and higher mortality. ]]> <![CDATA[Equipment for Exotic Mammal and Reptile Diagnostics and Surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N38d86450-4f37-4325-957a-56e35a21a438 The practice of veterinary medicine is facilitated by appropriate equipment, and exotic pet medicine is no exception. Exotic practitioners use standard or modified veterinary and human equipment, and now even enjoy the benefit of specialized products manufactured specifically for exotic pet practice.

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<![CDATA[An econometric analysis of SARS and Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3d7bc56a-24fd-4bba-8ce8-2e095c37230f This paper compares the impacts of SARS and human deaths arising from Avian Flu on international tourist arrivals to Asia. The effects of SARS and human deaths from Avian Flu are compared directly according to the number of human deaths. The nature of the short run and long run relationship is examined empirically by estimating a static line fixed effect model and a difference transformation dynamic model, respectively. Empirical results from the static fixed effect and difference transformation dynamic models are consistent, and indicate that both the short run and long run SARS effect have a more significant impact on international tourist arrivals than does Avian Flu. In addition, the effects of deaths arising from both SARS and Avian Flu suggest that SARS is more important to international tourist arrivals than is Avian Flu. Thus, while Avian Flu is here to stay, its effect is currently not as significant as that of SARS.

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<![CDATA[Successful clearance of human parainfluenza virus type 2 viraemia with intravenous ribavirin and immunoglobulin in a patient with acute myocarditis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndd8ff871-6437-4dba-abca-cfc5eb2bc29a Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection as an aetiology of acute viral myocarditis is rare, with only few cases reported in the literature to date. Here we report a case of fulminant HPIV-2 myocarditis in a 47 year-old man with viraemia who was successfully treated with intravenous ribavirin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). There are currently no recommendations on the treatment of HPIV myocarditis. We are, to our knowledge, the first to report a patient with a documented HPIV-2 viraemia that subsequently cleared after the initiation of antiviral therapy. Although it is difficult to definitively attribute the patient's clinical improvement to ribavirin or IVIG alone, our case does suggest that clinicians may wish to consider initiating ribavirin and IVIG in patients with HPIV myocarditis and persistent viraemia not responding to supportive measures alone.

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<![CDATA[Use of a mouse model to identify a blood biomarker for IFNγ activity in pediatric secondary hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N37226dd8-6d26-4664-be5a-9c05401b5d4e Life-threatening cytokine release syndromes include primary (p) and secondary (s) forms of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). Below detection in healthy individuals, interferon γ (IFNγ) levels are elevated to measurable concentrations in these afflictions suggesting a central role for this cytokine in the development and maintenance of HLH. Mimicking an infection-driven model of sHLH in mice, we observed that the tissue-derived levels of IFNγ are actually 500- to 2000-fold higher than those measured in the blood. To identify a blood biomarker, we postulated that the IFNγ gene products, CXCL9 and CXCL10 would correlate with disease parameters in the mouse model. To translate this into a disease relevant biomarker, we investigated whether CXCL9 and CXCL10 levels correlated with disease activity in pediatric sHLH patients. Our data demonstrate that disease control in mice correlates with neutralization of IFNγ activity in tissues and that the 2 chemokines serve as serum biomarkers to reflect disease status. Importantly, CXCL9 and CXCL10 levels in pediatric sHLH were shown to correlate with key disease parameters and severity in these patients. Thus, the translatability of the IFNγ-biomarker correlates from mouse to human, advocating the use of serum CXCL9 or CXCL10 as a means to monitor total IFNγ activity in patients with sHLH.

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<![CDATA[Magnesium and vitamin C supplementation attenuates steroid-associated osteonecrosis in a rat model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N455b95b9-f527-46f5-a039-adb990888dbd Magnesium (Mg)-based biometal attracts clinical applications due to its biodegradability and beneficial biological effects on tissue regeneration, especially in orthopaedics, yet the underlying anabolic mechanisms in relevant clinical disorders are lacking. The present study investigated the effect of magnesium (Mg) and vitamin C (VC) supplementation for preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) in a rat experimental model. In SAON rats, 50 mg/kg Mg, or 100 mg/kg VC, or combination, or water control was orally supplemented daily for 2 or 6 weeks respectively. Osteonecrosis was evaluated by histology. Serum Mg, VC, and bone turnover markers were measured. Microfil-perfused samples prepared for angiography and trabecular architecture were evaluated by micro-CT. Primary bone marrow cells were isolated from each group to evaluate their potentials in osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. The mechanisms were tested in vitro. Histological evaluation showed SAON lesions in steroid treated groups. Mg and VC supplementation synergistically reduced the apoptosis of osteocytes and osteoclast number, and increased osteoblast surface. VC supplementation significantly increased the bone formation marker PINP, and the combination significantly decreased the bone resorption marker CTX. TNFα expression and oxidative injury were decreased in bone marrow in Mg/VC/combination group. Mg significantly increased the blood perfusion in proximal tibia and decreased the leakage particles in distal tibia 2 weeks after SAON induction. VC significantly elevated the osteoblast differentiation potential of marrow cells and improved the trabecular architecture. The combination supplementation significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation potential of marrow cells. In vitro study showed promoting osteoblast differentiation effect of VC, and anti-inflammation and promoting angiogenesis effect of Mg with underlying mechanisms. Mg and VC supplementation could synergistically alleviate SAON in rats, indicating great translational potentials of metallic minerals for preventing SAON.

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<![CDATA[Catching a DUB in the act: novel ubiquitin-based active site directed probes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N29da5331-39e9-487a-8fd5-2cb9616ea983 Protein ubiquitylation is an important regulator of protein function, localization and half-life. It plays a key role in most cellular processes including immune signaling. Deregulation of this process is a major causative factor for many diseases. A major advancement in the identification and characterization of the enzymes that remove ubiquitin, deubiquitylases (DUBs) was made by the development of activity-based probes (ABPs). Recent advances in chemical protein synthesis and ligation methodology has yielded novel reagents for use in ubiquitylation research. We describe recent advances and discuss future directions in reagent development for studying DUBs.

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<![CDATA[Source identification of total petroleum hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM<sub>10</sub> and street dust of a hot spot for petrochemical production: Asaluyeh County, Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne8180041-eb13-4694-b3f3-0ef0b9cccac6 Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important pollutants that affect public health in urban areas, especially in developing and oil-rich countries such as Iran. This assesses the relationship between TPH and PAHs in street dust and suspended dust, and investigates toxicity level in the urban environment of the most important petrochemical center in Iran. For this purpose, 21 and 48 street dust samples were collected for TPH analysis and PAH analysis, respectively, in Asaluyeh County. Moreover, seven air dust samples were taken for PAH analysis. TPH concentrations ranged between 240 and 4400 mg kg−1, with a mean of 1371.43 mg kg−1. The maximum ∑PAH concentration (6016.3 mg kg−1) was detected in a petrochemical complex while the minimum ∑PAHs content (16.93 mg kg−1) was measured in an urban area. The mean concentrations of total PAHs in street dust particles were 491.35 mg kg−1 in summer and 304.04 mg kg−1 in winter. The results indicated that PAH concentration in summer was higher. PAH sources were identified using both PAHs ratios and robust statistical methods such as Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE), backward GEE, logistic regression, principal components analysis (PCA) in conjunction with multiple linear regression (MLR) and positive matrix factorization (PMF). The results showed that PAH species generally originate from pyrogenic sources and about 0.08% of TPH was typically PAHs. However, petrogenic sources of PAHs in the industrial areas were 11.2 times more abundant than in urban areas. Also, backward GEE model demonstrated that TPH is more influenced by HMW PAHs, particularly indene. Estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) was higher than 10-4, showing that Asaluyeh inhabitants (especially children and indoor workers) are probably exposed to cancer risk, particularly through dermal contact and dust ingestion.

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<![CDATA[Novel integrated approach of adsorption and photo-oxidation using Ag–TiO<sub>2</sub>/PU for bioaerosol removal under visible light]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N143a5c1f-e588-4383-b6f2-e4b6484eab13 We investigated a novel approach by synthesizing an integrated material, which could act as both adsorbent and photocatalytic material, for bioaerosol purification under visible light conditions. Ag was used as a dopant agent to enhance photocatalytic activity of TiO2, leading to high photocatalytic activity of the doped TiO2 even under visible light. Under visible light, the doped TiO2 photocatalyst could produce oxy radicals, oxidative agents, that participate in oxidation reactions to decompose important organic components of bacteria, leading to death or removal of bacteria from an aerosol. Adsorption property was integrated into the enhanced TiO2 photocatalyst by using polyurethane (PU), a honeycomb structure material, as a substrate for coating process of the doped TiO2. Three materials including pristine PU, TiO2 coating on PU (TiO2/PU), and Ag-doped TiO2 coating on PU (Ag–TiO2/PU) were used to remove Escherichia coli in an aerosol under visible light. Under dark conditions, the removal capacities of E. coli in the aerosol by PU, TiO2/PU, and Ag–TiO2/PU were 1.2 × 105, 2.7 × 105, and 6.2 × 105 (CFU/cm3), respectively. Under visible light irradiation, the removal capacities of E. coli in an aerosol by PU, TiO2/PU, and Ag–TiO2/PU were 1.2 × 105, 2.7 × 105, and 1.8 × 106 (CFU/cm3), respectively. The improvement of the removal capacity by TiO2/PU and Ag–TiO2/PU, versus PU, is due to adsorption alone and the combination of adsorption plus photocatalytic activity, respectively.

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<![CDATA[Isotope-edited IR spectroscopy for the study of membrane proteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N673bd44f-5061-4ded-bf1b-9fda6ad0937b Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has long been a powerful tool for structural analysis of membrane proteins. However, because of difficulties in resolving contributions from individual residues, most of the derived measurements tend to yield average properties for the system under study. Isotope editing, through its ability to resolve individual vibrations, establishes FTIR as a method that is capable of yielding accurate structural data on individual sites in a protein.

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<![CDATA[Co-stimulation: novel methods for preventing viral-induced lung inflammation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N919737c1-7f14-4828-a6e0-165ac4fe994e Respiratory infections cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Although an immune response is required to eliminate respiratory pathogens, if unchecked, it can damage surrounding tissues and block primary lung function. Based on our knowledge of immune T-cell activation, there are several pathways to which immune intervention could be applied. However, relatively few interventions target only those immune cells that are responding to antigens. OX40 and 4-1BB are members of the tumour necrosis factor receptor family and are expressed on the surface of T cells in several inflammatory conditions. Recently, the inhibition of OX40 has proved beneficial during influenza virus infection. This review highlights the recent advances in the manipulation of such molecules and how they have been applied to inflammatory conditions that are caused by viruses in the lung.

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<![CDATA[Estudio clínico-epidemiológico de la infección por <i>Bordetella pertussis</i> en la isla de Gran Canaria en el período 2008-2016<sup><a href="#d32e1095">☆</a></sup>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N812de660-5301-4261-b231-ebe053583633 Describir el patrón epidemiológico y clínico de la infección por Bordetella pertussis (tosferina) en niños menores de un año hospitalizados en un hospital pediátrico de Gran Canaria.Pacientes y métodosSe revisaron retrospectivamente las historias clínicas de los pacientes con diagnóstico microbiológico de infección por B. pertussis mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa, de enero de 2008 a diciembre de 2016.ResultadosSe identificaron 110 pacientes, de los cuales 105 (95,4%) fueron menores de 6 meses y el 59,1% eran varones. La incidencia anual de hospitalización se estimó entre 13,7 y 425,0 casos por cada 100.000 lactantes menores de 12 meses, con 2 picos en 2011 y 2015. Los familiares cercanos fueron las principales fuentes de contagio potenciales. Las principales manifestaciones fueron la tos pertusoide asociada con signos catarrales, cianosis y linfocitosis. El 15,4% de los pacientes presentaron complicaciones (principalmente neumonía), pero la evolución fue favorable en todos los casos. La menor edad y la no vacunación se asociaron con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar complicaciones (p < 0,05). La coinfección viral ocurrió en el 31,6% de los pacientes diagnosticados de infección por B. pertussis.ConclusionesLa incidencia de infección por B. pertussis ha aumentado en los últimos años en nuestra área, con un menor desarrollo de complicaciones y con tasas de mortalidad inferiores al período anterior. La menor edad y la no vacunación previa se consideran factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de complicaciones. La vacunación en mujeres embarazadas probablemente disminuirá la incidencia en el futuro, sobre todo en niños menores de 6 meses. ]]> <![CDATA[Full-length genome analysis of two genetically distinct variants of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in Thailand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N22d9731c-7a6a-43ed-aa5e-54b73993a7f3 •We investigated two outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Thailand occurred of each other.•Two genetically distinct PEDV isolated from the two outbreaks, also different from those reported previously from Thailand.•The two PEDV isolates, CBR1/2014 and EAS1/2014, were grouped with pandemic and classical variants respectively.•The two viruses shared 96.3% and 91.8% nucleotide and amino acid similarities respectively.

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<![CDATA[Pacific collaboration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf3a4011b-721e-4fff-a7ff-6cbe6b2651d2 A regional programme to combat lymphatic filariasis in the Pacific islands is showing great promise as it reaches its halfway point. The Pacific Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PacELF), established in 1999, aims to eliminate the disease from the Pacific by 2010 – ten years ahead of the global target. Set up with support from Australia, and now funded primarily by Japan and underpinned by the Word Health Organization, PacELF is providing evidence that Pacific nations can work cooperatively to rid the region of one of its worst scourges, in addition to discovering techniques and new tools that should be of use in other regions.

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<![CDATA[A review on HCV inhibitors: Significance of non-structural polyproteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6ad1f5a9-0812-45a3-9e2f-dffee0b94ad0 •Hepatitis C infection causes severe liver cirrhosis and carcinoma.•The new acute HCV infections are raising every year and mortality rate become serious concern.•The plausible list of anti-HCV drugs and clinical agents were listed in this review.•The divergent medicinal scaffolds as anti-HCV agents were presented as per their targets.

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<![CDATA[Modeling particle dispersion and deposition in indoor environments]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc4a4b422-1ec2-4d48-aee2-49f89a9fbe13 Particle dispersion and deposition in man-made enclosed environments are closely related to the well-being of occupants. The present study developed a three-dimensional drift-flux model for particle movements in turbulent indoor airflows, and combined it into Eulerian approaches. To account for the process of particle deposition at solid boundaries, a semi-empirical deposition model was adopted in which the size-dependent deposition characteristics were well resolved. After validation against the experimental data in a scaled isothermal chamber and in a full-scale non-isothermal environmental chamber, the drift-flux model was used to investigate the deposition rates and human exposures to particles from two different sources with three typical ventilation systems: mixing ventilation (MV), displacement ventilation (DV), and under-floor air distribution (UFAD). For particles originating from the supply air, a V-shaped curve of the deposition velocity variation as a function of particle size was observed. The minimum deposition appeared at 0.1–0.5μm. For supermicron particles, the ventilation type and air exchange rate had an ignorable effect on the deposition rate. The movements of submicron particles were like tracer gases while the gravitational settling effect should be taken into account for particles larger than 2.5μm. The temporal increment of human exposure to a step-up particle release in the supply air was determined, among many factors, by the distance between the occupant and air outlet. The larger the particle size, the lower the human exposure. For particles released from an internal heat source, the concentration stratification of small particles (diameter <10μm) in the vertical direction appeared with DV and UFAD, and it was found the advantageous principle for gaseous pollutants that a relatively less-polluted occupied zone existed in DV and UFAD was also applicable to small particles.

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<![CDATA[An overview on molecular chaperones enhancing solubility of expressed recombinant proteins with correct folding]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N96df22ef-215f-4b54-b664-a4085ac1b5c4 The majority of research topics declared that most of the recombinant proteins have been expressed by Escherichia coli in basic investigations. But the majority of high expressed proteins formed as inactive recombinant proteins that are called inclusion body. To overcome this problem, several methods have been used including suitable promoter, environmental factors, ladder tag to secretion of proteins into the periplasm, gene protein optimization, chemical chaperones and molecular chaperones sets. Co-expression of the interest protein with molecular chaperones is one of the common methods The chaperones are a group of proteins, which are involved in making correct folding of recombinant proteins. Chaperones are divided two groups including; cytoplasmic and periplasmic chaperones. Moreover, periplasmic chaperones and proteases can be manipulated to increase the yields of secreted proteins. In this article, we attempted to review cytoplasmic chaperones such as Hsp families and periplasmic chaperones including; generic chaperones, specialized chaperones, PPIases, and proteins involved in disulfide bond formation.

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