ResearchPad - 0305 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[International Consensus on Risk Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Treated With Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter (SGLT) Inhibitors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14410 Sodium–glucose cotransporter (SGLT) inhibitors are new oral antidiabetes medications shown to effectively reduce glycated hemoglobin (A1C) and glycemic variability, blood pressure, and body weight without intrinsic properties to cause hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes. However, recent studies, particularly in individuals with type 1 diabetes, have demonstrated increases in the absolute risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Some cases presented with near-normal blood glucose levels or mild hyperglycemia, complicating the recognition/diagnosis of DKA and potentially delaying treatment. Several SGLT inhibitors are currently under review by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European regulatory agencies as adjuncts to insulin therapy in people with type 1 diabetes. Strategies must be developed and disseminated to the medical community to mitigate the associated DKA risk. This Consensus Report reviews current data regarding SGLT inhibitor use and provides recommendations to enhance the safety of SGLT inhibitors in people with type 1 diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Sodium–Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors: A Case Study in Translational Research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14398 Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are the most recently approved class of diabetes drugs. Unlike other agents, SGLT2 inhibitors act on the kidney to promote urinary glucose excretion. SGLT2 inhibitors provide multiple benefits, including decreased HbA1c, body weight, and blood pressure. These drugs have received special attention because they decrease the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and slow progression of diabetic kidney disease (13). Balanced against these impressive benefits, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration–approved prescribing information describes a long list of side effects: genitourinary infections, ketoacidosis, bone fractures, amputations, acute kidney injury, perineal necrotizing fasciitis, and hyperkalemia. This review provides a physiological perspective to understanding the multiple actions of these drugs complemented by a clinical perspective toward balancing benefits and risks.

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<![CDATA[Dalcetrapib Reduces Risk of New-Onset Diabetes in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32959076-708b-4063-8edf-816fe24890d1

OBJECTIVE

Incident type 2 diabetes is common among patients with recent acute coronary syndrome and is associated with an adverse prognosis. Some data suggest that cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors reduce incident type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of treatment with the CETP inhibitor dalcetrapib or placebo on incident diabetes in patients with recent acute coronary syndrome.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

In the dal-OUTCOMES trial, 15,871 patients were randomly assigned to treatment with dalcetrapib 600 mg daily or placebo, beginning 4–12 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome. Absence of diabetes at baseline was based on medical history, no use of antihyperglycemic medication, and hemoglobin A1c and serum glucose levels below diagnostic thresholds. Among these patients, incident diabetes after randomization was defined by any diabetes-related adverse event, new use of antihyperglycemic medication, hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%, or a combination of at least two measurements of serum glucose ≥7.0 mmol/L (fasting) or ≥11.1 mmol/L (random).

RESULTS

At baseline, 10,645 patients (67% of the trial cohort) did not have diabetes. During a median follow-up of 30 months, incident diabetes was identified in 403 of 5,326 patients (7.6%) assigned to dalcetrapib and in 516 of 5,319 (9.7%) assigned to placebo, corresponding to absolute risk reduction of 2.1%, hazard ratio of 0.77 (95% CI 0.68–0.88; P < 0.001), and a need to treat 40 patients for 3 years to prevent 1 incident case of diabetes. Considering only those with prediabetes at baseline, the number needed to treat for 3 years to prevent 1 incident case of diabetes was 25. Dalcetrapib also decreased the number of patients who progressed from normoglycemia to prediabetes and increased the number who regressed from diabetes to no diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome, incident diabetes is common and is reduced substantially by treatment with dalcetrapib.

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<![CDATA[Long-term Effects of Metformin on Diabetes Prevention: Identification of Subgroups That Benefited Most in the Diabetes Prevention Program and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb46db52e-da26-4dec-a3b2-37d26be3fa10

OBJECTIVE

We examined the effects of metformin on diabetes prevention and the subgroups that benefited most over 15 years in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and its follow-up, the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

During the DPP (1996–2001), adults at high risk of developing diabetes were randomly assigned to masked placebo (n = 1,082) or metformin 850 mg twice daily (n = 1,073). Participants originally assigned to metformin continued to receive metformin, unmasked, in the DPPOS (2002–present). Ascertainment of diabetes development was based on fasting or 2-h glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test or on HbA1c. Reduction in diabetes incidence with metformin was compared with placebo in subgroups by hazard ratio (HR) and rate differences (RDs).

RESULTS

During 15 years of postrandomization follow-up, metformin reduced the incidence (by HR) of diabetes compared to placebo by 17% or 36% based on glucose or HbA1c levels, respectively. Metformin’s effect on the development of glucose-defined diabetes was greater for women with a history of prior gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) (HR 0.59, RD −4.57 cases/100 person-years) compared with parous women without GDM (HR 0.94, RD −0.38 cases/100 person-years [interaction P = 0.03 for HR, P = 0.01 for RD]). Metformin also had greater effects, by HR and RD, at higher baseline fasting glucose levels. With diabetes development based on HbA1c, metformin was more effective in subjects with higher baseline HbA1c by RD, with metformin RD −1.03 cases/100 person-years with baseline HbA1c <6.0% (42 mmol/mol) and −3.88 cases/100 person-years with 6.0–6.4% (P = 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Metformin reduces the development of diabetes over 15 years. The subsets that benefitted the most include subjects with higher baseline fasting glucose or HbA1c and women with a history of GDM.

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