ResearchPad - 0404 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Assessing the Association Between Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitor Use and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Through Drug Adverse Event Reporting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14418 <![CDATA[The Familiality of Rapid Renal Decline in Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne9c8499d-e9b5-4857-a810-a5580237c6ca

Sustained and rapid loss of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the predominant clinical feature of diabetic kidney disease and a requisite for the development of end-stage renal disease. Although GFR trajectories have been studied in several cohorts with diabetes and without diabetes, whether rapid renal decline clusters in families with diabetes has not been examined. To determine this, we estimated GFR (eGFR) from serum creatinine measurements obtained from 15,612 patients with diabetes at the University of Utah Health Sciences Center and established their renal function trajectories. Patients with rapid renal decline (eGFR slope < −5 mL/min/1.73 m2/year) were then mapped to pedigrees using extensive genealogical records from the Utah Population Database to identify high-risk rapid renal decline pedigrees. We identified 2,127 (13.6%) rapid decliners with a median eGFR slope of −8.0 mL/min/1.73 m2/year and 51 high-risk pedigrees (ranging in size from 1,450 to 24,501 members) with excess clustering of rapid renal decline. Familial analysis showed that rapid renal decline aggregates in these families and is associated with its increased risk among first-degree relatives. Further study of these families is necessary to understand the magnitude of the influence of shared familial factors, including environmental and genetic factors, on rapid renal decline in diabetes.

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<![CDATA[Cumulative Kidney Complication Risk by 50 Years of Type 1 Diabetes: The Effects of Sex, Age, and Calendar Year at Onset]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eeb19d5eed0c484ef8f78

OBJECTIVE

A common belief is that only a minority of patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) develop advanced kidney disease and that incidence is higher among men and lower in those diagnosed at a younger age. However, because few patients with T1D survived to older ages until recently, long-term risks have been unclear.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We examined the 50-year cumulative kidney complication risk in a childhood-onset T1D cohort diagnosed during 1950–80 (n = 932; mean baseline age 29 years, duration 19 years). Participants comprised 144 who died prior to baseline, 130 followed with periodic surveys, and 658 followed with biennial surveys and a maximum of nine examinations for 25 years. Micro- and macroalbuminuria were defined as an albumin excretion rate of 20–199 and ≥200 μg/min, respectively, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was defined as dialysis or kidney transplantation. Cumulative incidence was estimated at 10-year intervals between 20 and 50 years, duration and compared by calendar year of diabetes onset.

RESULTS

By 50 years, T1D duration, ESRD affected 60% of the cohort; macroalbuminuria, 72%; and microalbuminuria, 88%. Little evidence existed for declines in cumulative incidence in recent cohorts, except for ESRD (microalbuminuria 3% increase, macroalbuminuria no change; ESRD 45% decrease by 40 years of T1D duration). Onset before age 6 years was associated with the lowest risk; incidence generally did not differ by sex.

CONCLUSIONS

Some degree of kidney disease in T1D is virtually universal at long durations and not declining, which has major implications for formulating health care and research strategies. ESRD has declined, but continues to affect >25% of the population by 40 years, duration.

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<![CDATA[Validation of Risk Equations for Complications of Type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) Using Individual Participant Data From Diverse Longitudinal Cohorts in the U.S.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eeb27d5eed0c484ef9101

OBJECTIVE

We sought to validate Risk Equations for Complications of Type 2 Diabetes (RECODe) among diverse populations.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

We compared risk predictions from RECODe equations and from two alternative risk models (UK Prospective Diabetes Study Outcomes Model 2 [UKPDS OM2] and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Pooled Cohort Equations) to observed outcomes in two studies: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, n = 1,555 adults with type 2 diabetes, median follow-up 9.1 years) and the Jackson Heart Study (JHS, n = 1,746 adults with type 2 diabetes, median follow-up 8.0 years). Outcomes included nephropathy by multiple measures (microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, renal failure, end-stage renal disease, and reduction in glomerular filtration rate), moderate to severe diabetic retinopathy by Airlie House classification, fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal or nonfatal stroke, congestive heart failure, and all-cause mortality.

RESULTS

RECODe equations for microvascular and cardiovascular outcomes had C-statistics for discrimination ranging from 0.71 to 0.85 in MESA and 0.64 to 0.91 in JHS for alternative outcomes. Calibration slopes in MESA ranged from 0.62 for a composite nephropathy outcome, 0.83–1.04 for individual nephropathy outcomes, 1.07 for retinopathy, 1.00–1.05 for cardiovascular outcomes, and 1.03 for all-cause mortality. Slopes in JHS ranged from 0.47 for retinopathy, 0.97–1.16 for nephropathy, 0.72–1.05 for cardiovascular outcomes, and 1.01 for all-cause mortality. The alternative models had C-statistics 0.50–0.72 and calibration slopes 0.07–0.60.

CONCLUSIONS

RECODe equations improved risk estimation for diverse patients with type 2 diabetes, as compared with two commonly used alternatives.

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<![CDATA[Pioglitazone Improves Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Subjects With Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11bebfd5eed0c48477e12c

OBJECTIVE

To examine the effect of pioglitazone on myocardial insulin sensitivity and left ventricular (LV) function in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Twelve subjects with T2D and 12 with normal glucose tolerance received a euglycemic insulin clamp. Myocardial glucose uptake (MGU) and myocardial perfusion were measured with [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography before and after 24 weeks of pioglitazone treatment. Myocardial function and transmitral early diastolic relation/atrial contraction (E/A) flow ratio were measured with magnetic resonance imaging.

RESULTS

Pioglitazone reduced HbA1c by 0.9%; decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 7 ± 2 and 7 ± 2 mmHg, respectively (P < 0.05); and increased whole-body insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by 71% (3.4 ± 1.3 to 5.8 ± 2.1 mg/kg · min; P < 0.01) in subjects with T2D. Pioglitazone enhanced MGU by 75% (0.24 ± 0.14 to 0.42 ± 0.13 μmol/min · g; P < 0.01) and myocardial perfusion by 16% (0.95 ± 0.16 to 1.10 ± 0.25 mL/min · g; P < 0.05). Measures of diastolic function, E/A ratio (1.04 ± 0.3 to 1.25 ± 0.4) and peak LV filling rate (349 ± 107 to 433 ± 99 mL/min), both increased (P < 0.01). End-systolic volume, end-diastolic volume, peak LV ejection rate, and cardiac output trended to increase (P not significant), whereas the ejection fraction (61 ± 6 to 66 ± 7%) and stroke volume increased significantly (71 ± 20 to 80 ± 20 L/min; both P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Pioglitazone improves whole-body and myocardial insulin sensitivity, LV diastolic function, and systolic function in T2D. Improved myocardial insulin sensitivity and diastolic function are strongly correlated.

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<![CDATA[The Relationship of Serum Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (sRAGE) and Carboxymethyl Lysine (CML) to the Incidence of Diabetic Nephropathy in Persons With Type 1 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c0d81ecd5eed0c484c06ca4 ]]> <![CDATA[Glucose Peaks and the Risk of Dementia and 20-Year Cognitive Decline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c047ef7d5eed0c484728fd2

OBJECTIVE

Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), a measure of average blood glucose level, is associated with the risk of dementia and cognitive impairment. However, the role of glycemic variability or glucose excursions in this association is unclear. We examined the association of glucose peaks in midlife, as determined by the measurement of 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) level, with the risk of dementia and 20-year cognitive decline.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Nearly 13,000 participants from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study were examined. Dementia was ascertained from surveillance, neuropsychological testing, telephone calls with participants or their proxies, or death certificate dementia codes. Cognitive function was assessed using three neuropsychological tests at three visits over 20 years and was summarized as z scores. We used Cox and linear mixed-effects models. 1,5-AG level was dichotomized at 10 μg/mL and examined within clinical categories of HbA1c.

RESULTS

Over a median time of 21 years, dementia developed in 1,105 participants. Among persons with diabetes, each 5 μg/mL decrease in 1,5-AG increased the estimated risk of dementia by 16% (hazard ratio 1.16, P = 0.032). For cognitive decline among participants with diabetes and HbA1c <7% (53 mmol/mol), those with glucose peaks had a 0.19 greater z score decline over 20 years (P = 0.162) compared with those without peaks. Among participants with diabetes and HbA1c ≥7% (53 mmol/mol), those with glucose peaks had a 0.38 greater z score decline compared with persons without glucose peaks (P < 0.001). We found no significant associations in persons without diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS

Among participants with diabetes, glucose peaks are a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia. Targeting glucose peaks, in addition to average glycemia, may be an important avenue for prevention.

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<![CDATA[Cardiovascular Disease and Type 2 Diabetes: Has the Dawn of a New Era Arrived?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c047f04d5eed0c48472911e

Hyperglycemia is the major risk factor for microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principal cause of death, and lowering HbA1c has only a modest effect on reducing CVD risk and mortality. The recently published LEADER and SUSTAIN-6 trials demonstrate that, in T2D patients with high CVD risk, the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists liraglutide and semaglutide reduce the primary major adverse cardiac events (MACE) end point (cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke) by 13% and 24%, respectively. The EMPA-REG OUTCOME, IRIS (subjects without diabetes), and PROactive (second principal end point) studies also demonstrated a significant reduction in cardiovascular events in T2D patients treated with empagliflozin and pioglitazone. However, the benefit of these four antidiabetes agents (liraglutide, semaglutide, empagliflozin, and pioglitazone) on the three individual MACE end points differed, suggesting that different underlying mechanisms were responsible for the reduction in cardiovascular events. Since liraglutide, semaglutide, pioglitazone, and empagliflozin similarly lower the plasma glucose concentration but appear to reduce CVD risk by different mechanisms, there emerges the intriguing possibility that, if used in combination, the effects of these antidiabetes agents may be additive or even multiplicative with regard to cardiovascular benefit.

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<![CDATA[Metformin, Lifestyle Intervention, and Cognition in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c047f08d5eed0c484729189

OBJECTIVE

We examined the association of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) intervention arms (lifestyle intervention, metformin, and placebo) with cognition in the Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). We also examined metformin use, incident type 2 diabetes, and glycemia as exposures.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

The DPP lasted 2.8 years, followed by a 13-month bridge to DPPOS. Cognition was assessed in DPPOS years 8 and 10 (12 and 14 years after randomization) with the Spanish English Verbal Learning Test (SEVLT), letter fluency and animal fluency tests, Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), and a composite cognitive score.

RESULTS

A total of 2,280 participants (749 lifestyle, 776 metformin, and 755 placebo) aged 63.1 ± 10.7 years underwent cognitive assessments; 67.7% women, 54.6% non-Hispanic white, 20.7% non-Hispanic black, 14.6% Hispanic, 5.5% American Indian, and 4.6% Asian; 26.6% were homozygous or heterozygous for APOE-ε4. At the time of cognitive assessment, type 2 diabetes was higher in the placebo group (57.9%; P < 0.001) compared with lifestyle (47.0%) and metformin (50.4%). Metformin exposure was higher in the metformin group (8.72 years; P < 0.001) compared with placebo (1.43 years) and lifestyle (0.96 years). There were no differences in cognition across intervention arms. Type 2 diabetes was not related to cognition, but higher glycated hemoglobin at year 8 was related to worse cognition after confounder adjustment. Cumulative metformin exposure was not related to cognition.

CONCLUSIONS

Exposure to intensive lifestyle intervention or metformin was not related to cognition among DPPOS participants. Higher glycemia was related to worse cognitive performance. Metformin seemed cognitively safe among DPPOS participants.

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