ResearchPad - 0707 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Hepatocyte-Specific Ablation or Whole-Body Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Mice Corrects Obesity-Induced Systemic Hyperuricemia Without Improving Metabolic Abnormalities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14401 Systemic hyperuricemia (HyUA) in obesity/type 2 diabetes facilitated by elevated activity of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), which is the sole source of uric acid (UA) in mammals, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance/dyslipidemia in obesity. Here, the effects of hepatocyte-specific ablation of Xdh, the gene encoding XOR (HXO), and whole-body pharmacologic inhibition of XOR (febuxostat) on obesity-induced insulin resistance/dyslipidemia were assessed. Deletion of hepatocyte Xdh substantially lowered liver and plasma UA concentration. When exposed to an obesogenic diet, HXO and control floxed (FLX) mice became equally obese, but systemic HyUA was absent in HXO mice. Despite this, obese HXO mice became as insulin resistant and dyslipidemic as obese FLX mice. Similarly, febuxostat dramatically lowered plasma and tissue UA and XOR activity in obese wild-type mice without altering obesity-associated insulin resistance/dyslipidemia. These data demonstrate that hepatocyte XOR activity is a critical determinant of systemic UA homeostasis, that deletion of hepatocyte Xdh is sufficient to prevent systemic HyUA of obesity, and that neither prevention nor correction of HyUA improves insulin resistance/dyslipidemia in obesity. Thus, systemic HyUA, although clearly a biomarker of the metabolic abnormalities of obesity, does not appear to be causative.

]]>
<![CDATA[The cGAS-cGAMP-STING Pathway: A Molecular Link Between Immunity and Metabolism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_14399 It has been appreciated for many years that there is a strong association between metabolism and immunity in advanced metazoan organisms. Distinct immune signatures and signaling pathways have been found not only in immune but also in metabolic cells. The newly discovered DNA-sensing cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway mediates type I interferon inflammatory responses in immune cells to defend against viral and bacterial infections. Recent studies show that this pathway is also activated by host DNA aberrantly localized in the cytosol, contributing to increased sterile inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Potential interactions of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway with mTORC1 signaling, autophagy, and apoptosis have been reported, suggesting an important role of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING pathway in the networking and coordination of these important biological processes. However, the regulation, mechanism of action, and tissue-specific role of the cGAS-cGAMP-STING signaling pathway in metabolic disorders remain largely elusive. It is also unclear whether targeting this signaling pathway is effective for the prevention and treatment of obesity-induced metabolic diseases. Answers to these questions would provide new insights for developing effective therapeutic interventions for metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, NAFLD, and type 2 diabetes.

]]>
<![CDATA[A New Activator of Hepatocyte CaMKII in Fasting and Type 2 Diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N0de8bf84-da63-4aab-bbe4-74d2a5e22994 ]]> <![CDATA[Sucrose Nonfermenting-Related Kinase Regulates Both Adipose Inflammation and Energy Homeostasis in Mice and Humans]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c8eeb12d5eed0c484ef8eba

Sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase (SNRK) is a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, and its physiological role in adipose energy homeostasis and inflammation remains unknown. We previously reported that SNRK is ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but SNRK expression diminishes in adipose tissue in obesity. In this study we report novel experimental findings from both animal models and human genetics. SNRK is essential for survival; SNRK globally deficient pups die within 24 h after birth. Heterozygous mice are characterized by inflamed WAT and less BAT. Adipocyte-specific ablation of SNRK causes inflammation in WAT, ectopic lipid deposition in liver and muscle, and impaired adaptive thermogenesis in BAT. These metabolic disorders subsequently lead to decreased energy expenditure, higher body weight, and insulin resistance. We further confirm the significant association of common variants of the SNRK gene with obesity risk in humans. Through applying a phosphoproteomic approach, we identified eukaryotic elongation factor 1δ and histone deacetylase 1/2 as potential SNRK substrates. Taking these data together, we conclude that SNRK represses WAT inflammation and is essential to maintain BAT thermogenesis, making it a novel therapeutic target for treating obesity and associated metabolic disorders.

]]>
<![CDATA[Adipocyte Liver Kinase b1 Suppresses Beige Adipocyte Renaissance Through Class IIa Histone Deacetylase 4]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c163757d5eed0c48439d7c4

Uncoupling protein 1+ beige adipocytes are dynamically regulated by environment in rodents and humans; cold induces formation of beige adipocytes, whereas warm temperature and nutrient excess lead to their disappearance. Beige adipocytes can form through de novo adipogenesis; however, how “beiging” characteristics are maintained afterward is largely unknown. In this study, we show that beige adipocytes formed postnatally in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue lost thermogenic gene expression and multilocular morphology at the adult stage, but cold restored their beiging characteristics, a phenomenon termed beige adipocyte renaissance. Ablation of these postnatal beige adipocytes inhibited cold-induced beige adipocyte formation in adult mice. Furthermore, we demonstrated that beige adipocyte renaissance was governed by liver kinase b1 and histone deacetylase 4 in white adipocytes. Although neither presence nor thermogenic function of uncoupling protein 1+ beige adipocytes contributed to metabolic fitness in adipocyte liver kinase b1–deficient mice, our results reveal an unexpected role of white adipocytes in maintaining properties of preexisting beige adipocytes.

]]>