ResearchPad - 1698 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Examining and adapting the information–motivation–behavioural skills model of medication adherence among community-dwelling older patients with multimorbidity: protocol for a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9116 Multimorbidity is highly prevalent among older patients and has been shown to be associated with poor health outcomes and lower quality of life. Adherence to medication treatments is essential in order to maximise the efficacy of treatments and improve health outcomes. However, nearly half of the older patients with multimorbidity fail to adhere to their medications, which can result in an increased risk of adverse health events, lower quality of life and higher healthcare cost. Only a few studies have explored the underlying mechanism and influencing factors of medication adherence among older patients with multimorbidity, which are inadequate to provide robust evidence for the development and evaluation of the medication adherence interventions. This study aims to examine and adapt the information–motivation–behavioural skills (IMB) model, a widely used social behaviour theory, to explain the medication adherence behaviour among community-dwelling older patients with multimorbidity.Methods and analysisA cross-sectional study will be conducted in community settings in China. Around 309 older patients with multimorbidity will be recruited to complete questionnaires on adherence knowledge, adherence motivation, adherence self-efficacy, medication adherence, medication treatment satisfaction, depressive symptoms, treatment burden, disease burden and basic demographic information. Structural equation modelling will be used to analyse and validate the relationships among variables in the IMB model.Ethics and disseminationThis study has been approved by the Survey and Behavioral Research Ethics Committee of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (reference number SBRE-18-675). The study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented in academic conferences and workshops.Trial registration numberChiCTR1900024804. ]]> <![CDATA[Influence of combined vitamin D<sub>3</sub> supplementation and resistance exercise training on musculoskeletal health in older men and women (EXVITD): protocol for a randomised controlled trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9087 Sarcopenia is a progressive loss in muscle mass, strength and function, the adverse consequences of which are severe, affecting quality of life and placing an increasing burden on social and healthcare systems. Vitamin D status is known to be associated with markers of sarcopenia, namely muscle mass, strength and function. Also, resistance exercise training (RET) is currently the only proven intervention to treat sarcopenia. However, very little data exist on the influence of combining the two interventions of vitamin D supplementation and resistance exercise training, although a recent systematic review provides tentative support for the current study’s hypothesis that the combined intervention may further improve musculoskeletal function above exercise training alone. The aim of the present study is to determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation is any more effective in improving musculoskeletal function when combined with RET compared with exercise training alone in older adults.Methods and analysisThis double-blinded randomised placebo-controlled trial will recruit a target of 127 eligible men and women aged ≥65 years living independently or in sheltered housing within the Birmingham area to two groups: (1) 6 months RET and placebo or (2) 6 months RET and 800 IU/d vitamin D3. Measures of muscle power (Nottingham Power Rig), body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), muscle function (short physical performance battery, timed up and go), falls and fractures as events will be assessed. Assessments will take place at baseline and postintervention, with intermittent monitoring of bone turnover, calcium and vitamin D. The primary outcome will be lower limb extensor power output. Analyses of within-group changes and between-group differences in outcome measures are planned.Ethics and disseminationThe EXVITD study has ethical approval granted by the Black Country National Health Service Research Ethics Committee (14/WM/1220). Results of this trial will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and presented at conferences. The study is being conducted according to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. Trial registration number NCT02467153; Post-results. ]]> <![CDATA[Korean frailty and aging cohort study (KFACS): cohort profile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N02f2b70e-d249-4227-97eb-c53626052b67 The purpose of the Korean Frailty and Aging Cohort Study (KFACS) is to initiate a nationwide, population-based prospective cohort study of older adults living in the community to assess their frailty status and explore transitions between frailty states over time in Korea.ParticipantsThe KFACS is a multicentre longitudinal study with the baseline survey conducted from May 2016 to November 2017. Each centre recruited participants using quota sampling stratified by age and sex. The number of participants recruited through 2 years of baseline study from 10 centres was 3014, with each site accounting for approximately 300 participants. The inclusion criteria were: having an age of 70–84 years, currently living in the community, having no plans to move out in the next 2 years, having no problems with communication and no prior dementia diagnosis.Findings to dateTo define physical frailty, the KFACS used a modified version of the Fried Frailty Phenotype (FFP) consisting of five components of frailty: unintended weight loss, weakness, self-reported exhaustion, slowness and low physical activity. In the baseline study of 2016–2017, 2907 of 3014 individuals fulfilled all five components of FFP. The results indicated that 7.8% of the participants (n=228) were frail, 47.0% (n=1366) were prefrail and 45.2% (n=1313) were robust. The prevalence of frailty increased with age in both sexes; in the group aged 70–74 years, 1.8% of men and 3.7% of women were frail, whereas in the 80–84 years age group, 14.9% of men and 16.7% of women were frail. Women tended to exhibit a higher prevalence of frailty than men in all age groups.Future plansThe KFACS plans to identify outcomes and risk factors associated with frailty by conducting a 10-year cohort study, with a follow-up every 2 years, using 3014 baseline participants. ]]> <![CDATA[Reducing medicine-induced deterioration and adverse reactions (ReMInDAR) trial: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in residential aged-care facilities assessing frailty as the primary outcome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4ec1d7d9-d1cf-4281-a840-e0ea65cf8190 Many medicines have adverse effects which are difficult to detect and frequently go unrecognised. Pharmacist monitoring of changes in signs and symptoms of these adverse effects, which we describe as medicine-induced deterioration, may reduce the risk of developing frailty. The aim of this trial is to determine the effectiveness of a 12-month pharmacist service compared with usual care in reducing medicine-induced deterioration, frailty and adverse reactions in older people living in aged-care facilities in Australia.Methods and analysisThe reducing medicine-induced deterioration and adverse reactions trial is a multicentre, open-label randomised controlled trial. Participants will be recruited from 39 facilities in South Australia and Tasmania. Residents will be included if they are using four or more medicines at the time of recruitment, or taking more than one medicine with anticholinergic or sedative properties. The intervention group will receive a pharmacist assessment which occurs every 8 weeks. The pharmacists will liaise with the participants’ general practitioners when medicine-induced deterioration is evident or adverse events are considered serious. The primary outcome is a reduction in medicine-induced deterioration from baseline to 6 and 12 months, as measured by change in frailty index. The secondary outcomes are changes in cognition scores, 24-hour movement behaviour, grip strength, weight, percentage robust, pre-frail and frail classification, rate of adverse medicine events, health-related quality of life and health resource use. The statistical analysis will use mixed-models adjusted for baseline to account for repeated outcome measures. A health economic evaluation will be conducted following trial completion using data collected during the trial.Ethics and disseminationEthics approvals have been obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee of University of South Australia (ID:0000036440) and University of Tasmania (ID:H0017022). A copy of the final report will be provided to the Australian Government Department of Health.Trial registration numberAustralian and New Zealand Trials Registry ACTRN12618000766213. ]]> <![CDATA[Systematic review of qualitative studies on participants in the decision-making process about the location of care of the elderly]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf9932b19-5766-4a04-b43a-945b09924b9d

Objectives

To understand who are the participants in the decision-making process about the location of care of the elderly.

Design

Systematic review of qualitative studies.

Data sources

The following databases were consulted: Web of Science, MEDLINE, Scopus, CINAHL, PsycINFO and SciELO (from the beginning until 29 November 2017). The bibliographical references in the studies that were finally included in the review were also searched.

Study selection

The studies had to deal with the decision-making process (already experienced by the participants) on the location of care of the elderly (adults who are 65 or older), had to use a qualitative methodology and had to be written in English or Spanish.

Data extraction and synthesis

A data extraction tool was used. Data analysis was conducted through the constant comparative method from Glaser and Strauss’ grounded theory.

Results

46 studies were included in this review. Most of them were carried out in the USA, and in 21 of them the study population focused exclusively on the elderly. This review has found that there are many participants, with different roles and degrees of involvement, who may act jointly, separately or sequentially. These participants may be: the elders, family members, professionals and other relevant.

Conclusions

The main result of this review has been the variability found on how this decision is made, even varying the way of acting/perceiving the situation of the involved persons on certain occasions, simply due to the influence of some of the other groups of participants studied. Besides, this review has focused its results on the main participant in this process, the elders and how their family members interact with them when it comes to making this decision. This has allowed relevant results to be obtained about roles and degrees of involvement.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018084826.

]]>
<![CDATA[Aspirin and fracture risk: a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6e8ab63a-98cc-4992-9d2d-1a28cdf3b5cc

Objectives

This review provides insights into the potential for aspirin to preserve bone mineral density (BMD) and reduce fracture risk, building knowledge of the risk-benefit profile of aspirin.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review and exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies. Electronic searches of MEDLINE and Embase, and a manual search of bibliographies was undertaken for studies published to 28 March 2018. Studies were included if: participants were men or women aged ≥18 years; the exposure of interest was aspirin; and relative risks, ORs and 95% CIs for the risk of fracture or difference (percentage or absolute) in BMD (measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) between aspirin users and non-users were presented. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Checklists for observational studies. Pooled ORs for any fracture and standardised mean differences (SMDs) for BMD outcomes were calculated using random-effects models.

Results

Twelve studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Aspirin use was associated with a 17% lower odds for any fracture (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99; I2=71%; six studies; n=511 390). Aspirin was associated with a higher total hip BMD for women (SMD 0.03, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.07; I2=0%; three studies; n=9686) and men (SMD 0.06, 95% CI −0.02 to 0.13, I2=0%; two studies; n=4137) although these associations were not significant. Similar results were observed for lumbar spine BMD in women (SMD 0.03, 95% CI −0.03 to 0.09; I2=34%; four studies; n=11 330) and men (SMD 0.08; 95% CI −0.01 to 0.18; one study; n=432).

Conclusions

While the benefits of reduced fracture risk and higher BMD from aspirin use may be modest for individuals, if confirmed in prospective controlled trials, they may confer a large population benefit given the common use of aspirin in older people.

]]>
<![CDATA[Enablers and barriers to the implementation of socially assistive humanoid robots in health and social care: a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc85314ab-3398-4b2e-b65d-e3b688796a23

Objectives

Socially assistive humanoid robots are considered a promising technology to tackle the challenges in health and social care posed by the growth of the ageing population. The purpose of our study was to explore the current evidence on barriers and enablers for the implementation of humanoid robots in health and social care.

Design

Systematic review of studies entailing hands-on interactions with a humanoid robot.

Setting

From April 2018 to June 2018, databases were searched using a combination of the same search terms for articles published during the last decade. Data collection was conducted by using the Rayyan software, a standardised predefined grid, and a risk of bias and a quality assessment tool.

Participants

Post-experimental data were collected and analysed for a total of 420 participants. Participants comprised: older adults (n=307) aged ≥60 years, with no or some degree of age-related cognitive impairment, residing either in residential care facilities or at their home; care home staff (n=106); and informal caregivers (n=7).

Primary outcomes

Identification of enablers and barriers to the implementation of socially assistive humanoid robots in health and social care, and consequent insights and impact. Future developments to inform further research.

Results

Twelve studies met the eligibility criteria and were included. None of the selected studies had an experimental design; hence overall quality was low, with high risks of biases. Several studies had no comparator, no baseline, small samples, and self-reported measures only. Within this limited evidence base, the enablers found were enjoyment, usability, personalisation and familiarisation. Barriers were related to technical problems, to the robots’ limited capabilities and the negative preconceptions towards the use of robots in healthcare. Factors which produced mixed results were the robot’s human-like attributes, previous experience with technology and views of formal and informal carers.

Conclusions

The available evidence related to implementation factors of socially assistive humanoid robots for older adults is limited, mainly focusing on aspects at individual level, and exploring acceptance of this technology. Investigation of elements linked to the environment, organisation, societal and cultural milieu, policy and legal framework is necessary.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018092866.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between potentially inappropriate medications at discharge and unplanned readmissions among hospitalised elderly patients at a single centre in Japan: a prospective observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N09e184ca-0ca3-4e0e-b8fe-cb4a10077417

Objective

To determine the prevalence of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) use at admission and discharge among hospitalised elderly patients and evaluate the association between PIMs at discharge and unplanned readmission in Japan.

Design

A prospective observational study conducted by using electronic medical records.

Participants

All consecutive patients aged 65 years or older who were admitted to the internal medicine ward were included. Patients who were electively admitted for diagnostic procedures were excluded.

Main outcome measures

The primary outcome was 30-day unplanned readmissions. The secondary outcome was the prevalence of any PIM use at admission and discharge. PIMs were defined based on the Beers Criteria. The association between any PIM use at discharge and the primary outcome was evaluated by using logistic regression.

Results

Seven hundred thirty-nine eligible patients were included in this study. The median patient age was 82 years (IQR 74–88); 389 (52.6%) were women, and the median Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2 (IQR 0–3). The proportions of patients taking any PIMs at admission and discharge were 47.2% and 32.2%, respectively. Of all the patients, 39 (5.3%) were readmitted within 30 days after discharge for the index hospitalisation. The use of PIMs at discharge was not associated with an increased risk of 30-day readmission (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.87). This result did not change after adjusting for patient age, sex, number of medications, duration of hospital stay and comorbidities (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.36 to 1.66).

Conclusion

The prevalence of any PIM use at discharge was high among hospitalised elderly patients in a Japanese hospital. Although the use of PIMs at discharge was not associated with an increased risk of unplanned readmission, given a lack of power of this study due to a low event rate, further studies investigating this association are needed.

Trial registration number

UMIN000027189.

]]>
<![CDATA[Occupational therapy for people with dementia and their family carers provided at home: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf91d6425-3f56-46ad-a6d5-4d3e0c3bff09

Objective

To determine the effect of occupational therapy provided at home on activities of daily living, behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and quality of life (QOL) for people with dementia, and the effect on family carer burden, depression and QOL.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods

Eight databases were searched to February 2018. Randomised controlled trials of occupational therapy delivered at home for people with dementia and their family carers that measured ADL, and/or BPSD were included. Two independent reviewers determined eligibility, risk of bias and extracted data.

Results

Fifteen trials were included (n=2063). Occupational therapy comprised multiple components (median=8 sessions). Compared with usual care or attention control occupational therapy resulted in improvements in the following outcomes for people with dementia: overall ADL after intervention (standardised means difference (SMD) 0.61, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.05); instrumental ADL alone (SMD 0.22, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.37; moderate quality); number of behavioural and psychological symptoms (SMD −0.32, 95% CI −0.57 to −0.08; moderate quality); and QOL (SMD 0.76, 95% CI 0.28 to 1.24) after the intervention and at follow-up (SMD 1.07, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.55). Carers reported less hours assisting the person with dementia (SMD −0.33, 95% CI −0.58 to −0.07); had less distress with behaviours (SMD −0.23, 95% CI −0.42 to −0.05; moderate quality) and improved QOL (SMD 0.99, 95% CI 0.66 to 1.33; moderate quality). Two studies compared occupational therapy with a comparison intervention and found no statistically significant results. GRADE ratings indicated evidence was very low to moderate quality.

Conclusions

Findings suggest that occupational therapy provided at home may improve a range of important outcomes for people with dementia and their family carers. Health professionals could consider referring them for occupational therapy.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42011001166.

]]>
<![CDATA[Using frailty and quality of life measures in clinical care of the elderly in Canada to predict death, nursing home transfer and hospitalisation - the frailty and ageing cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8f771bc5-3192-4feb-abbb-fe07c483b86f

Objective

To assess the value of using frailty measures in primary care for predicting death, nursing home transfer (NHT) and hospital admission.

Design

Cohort study.

Setting and participants

All 380 people, mean age 88.4, living in the community and receiving home-based primary geriatric care from one practice in Victoria, Canada.

Interventions/measurements

A 60 min baseline assessment which included: Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS), EuroQol EQ-5D-5L (EQ-5D), EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS) and Gait Speed (Gaitspeed).

Outcomes

Death, NHT and hospital admission.

Results

During 18 months of follow-up, there were 39 (10.3%) deaths, 48 (12.6%) NHTs and 93 (24.5%) individuals admitted to hospital. All three outcomes were predicted by: CFS Level 6+7/4+5 (HR death 5.92, 95% CI 3.12 to 11.22, NHT 6.00, 95% CI 3.37 to 10.66 and hospital admission 2.92, 95% CI 1.93 to 4.40); EQ-5D Quintile 1/Quintile 5 (death 6.26, 95% CI 2.11 to 18.62; NHT 3.18, 95% CI 1.29 to 7.82 and hospital admission 2.94, 95% CI 1.47 to 5.87); EQ-VAS Q1/Q5 (death 7.0, 95% CI 2.34 to 20.93; NHT 3.38, 95% CI 1.22 to 9.35 and hospital admission 6.69, 95% CI 3.20 to 13.99) and Gaitspeed (death 5.87, 95% CI 1.78 to 19.34; NHT 8.51, 95% CI 3.18 to 22.79 and hospital admission 11.05, 95% CI 5.45 to 22.40). Medical diagnoses, multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy were weaker predictors of these outcomes. Cox regression analyses showed CFS (adjusted HR 2.88, 95% CI 1.23 to 6.68), EQ-VAS (0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.98), estimated glomerular filtration rate (0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.00) and haemoglobin (0.97, 95% CI 0.94 to 0.99) were independently associated with death. Gaitspeed (0.13, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.57), Geriatric Depression Scale (1.39, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.82) and dementia diagnosis (4.61, 95% CI 1.86 to 11.44) were associated with NHT. Only CFS (1.75, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.51) and EQ-VAS (0.98, 95% CI 0.96 to 0.99) were associated with hospital admission. No other diagnoses, polypharmacy nor multiple comorbidities predicted these outcomes.

Conclusions

For elderly people, standardised simple measures of frailty and health status were stronger predictors of death, NHT and hospital admission than medical diagnoses. Consideration should be given to adding these measures into usual medical care for this age group.

]]>
<![CDATA[Validation of prescribing appropriateness criteria for older Australians using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac661f4463d7e3464992e12

Objective

To further develop and validate previously published national prescribing appropriateness criteria to assist in identifying drug-related problems (DRPs) for commonly occurring medications and medical conditions in older (≥65 years old) Australians.

Design

RAND/UCLA appropriateness method.

Participants

A panel of medication management experts were identified consisting of geriatricians/pharmacologists, clinical pharmacists and disease management advisors to organisations that produce Australian evidence-based therapeutic publications. This resulted in a round-one panel of 15 members, and a round-two panel of 12 members.

Main outcome measure

Agreement on all criteria.

Results

Forty-eight prescribing criteria were rated. In the first rating round via email, there was disagreement regarding 17 of the criteria according to median panel ratings. During a face-to-face second round meeting, discussion resulted in retention of 25 criteria after amendments, agreement for 14 criteria with no changes required and deletion of 9 criteria. Two new criteria were added, resulting in a final validated list of 41 prescribing appropriateness criteria. Agreement after round two was reached for all 41 criteria, measured by median panel ratings and the amount of dispersion of panel ratings, based on the interpercentile range.

Conclusions

A set of 41 Australian prescribing appropriateness criteria were validated by an expert panel. Use of these criteria, together with clinical judgement and other medication review processes such as patient interview, is intended to assist in improving patient care by efficiently detecting potential DRPs related to commonly occurring medicines and medical conditions in older Australians. These criteria may also contribute to the medication management education of healthcare professionals.

]]>
<![CDATA[Validation of the hospital frailty risk score in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland: results of a prospective, observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6446b0d5eed0c484c2c32e

Objectives

Recently, the Hospital Frailty Risk Score based on a derivation and validation study in the UK has been proposed as a low-cost, systematic screening tool to identify older, frail patients who are at a greater risk of adverse outcomes and for whom a frailty-attuned approach might be useful. We aimed to validate this Score in an independent cohort in Switzerland.

Design

Secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study (TRIAGE study).

Setting

One 600-bed tertiary care hospital in Aarau, Switzerland.

Participants

Consecutive medical inpatients aged ≥75 years that presented to the emergency department or were electively admitted between October 2015 and April 2018.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The primary endpoint was all-cause 30-day mortality. Secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, hospital readmission, functional impairment and quality of life measures. We used multivariate regression analyses.

Results

Of 4957 included patients, 3150 (63.5%) were classified as low risk, 1663 (33.5%) intermediate risk, and 144 (2.9%) high risk for frailty. Compared with the low-risk group, patients in the moderate risk and high-risk groups had increased risk for 30-day mortality (OR (OR) 2.53, 95% CI 2.09 to 3.06, p<0.001 and OR 4.40, 95% CI 2.94 to 6.57, p<0.001) with overall moderate discrimination (area under the ROC curve 0.66). The results remained robust after adjustment for important confounders. Similarly, we found longer length of hospital stay, more severe functional impairment and a lower quality of life in higher risk group patients.

Conclusion

Our data confirm the prognostic value of the Hospital Frailty Risk Score to identify older, frail people at risk for mortality and adverse outcomes in an independent patient population.

Trial registration number

NCT01768494; Post-results.

]]>
<![CDATA[Treatment goal setting for complex patients: protocol for a scoping review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5afe1407463d7e0eeca07ebd

Introduction

An increasing number of people are living longer with multiple health and social care needs, and may rely heavily on health system resources. When dealing with multiple conditions, patients, caregivers and healthcare providers (HCPs) often experience high treatment burden due to unclear care trajectories, a myriad of treatment decisions and few guidelines on how to manage care needs. By understanding patient and caregiver priorities, and setting treatment goals, HCPs may help improve patient outcomes and experiences. This study aims to examine the extent and nature of the literature on treatment goal setting in complex patients, identify gaps in evidence and areas for further inquiry and guide a research programme to develop definitions, measures and recommendations for treatment goal setting.

Methods and analysis

This study protocol outlines a scoping review of the peer reviewed and the grey literature, using established scoping review methodology. Literature will be identified using a multidatabase and grey literature search strategy developed by two librarians. Papers and reports on the topic of goal setting that address complexity or complex patients will be included. Results of the search will be screened independently by two reviewers and included studies will be abstracted and charted in duplicate.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval is not required for this scoping review. Working with the knowledge users on the team, we will prepare educational materials and presentations to disseminate study findings to HCPs, caregivers and patients, and at relevant national and international conferences. Results will also be published in a peer-reviewed journal.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b15ed5eed0c484c4cc48

Objectives

This study aims to review the evidence of sarcopenia as a predictor of all-cause mortality among nursing home residents.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis of observational cohort studies.

Data sources

PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles.

Participants

Nursing home residents.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

All-cause mortality.

Data analysis

Summary-adjusted HRs or risk ratios (RRs) were calculated by fixed-effects model. The risk of bias was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.

Results

Of 2292 studies identified through the systematic review, six studies (1494 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with a higher risk for all-cause mortality among nursing home residents (pooled HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.42 to 2.45, p<0.001, I2=0). In addition, the subgroup analysis demonstrated that sarcopenia was associated with all-cause mortality (pooled HR 1.87,95% CI 1.38 to 2.52, p<0.001) when studies with a follow-up period of 1 year or more were analysed; however, this was not found for studies with the follow-up period less than 1 year. Furthermore, sarcopenia was significantly associated with the risk of mortality among older nursing home residents when using bioelectrical impedance analysis to diagnosis muscle mass (pooled HR 1.88, 95% CI 1.39 to 2.53, p<0.001); whereas, it was not found when anthropometric measures were used to diagnosis muscle mass.

Conclusion

Sarcopenia is a significant predictor of all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents. Therefore, it is important to diagnose and treat sarcopenia to reduce mortality rates among nursing home residents.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018081668

]]>
<![CDATA[Systematic scoping review of frameworks used to develop rehabilitation interventions for older adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e5669d5eed0c48423dece

Objectives

Rehabilitation interventions for older adults are complex as they involve a number of interacting components, have multiple outcomes of interest and are influenced by a number of contextual factors. The importance of rigorous intervention development prior to formal evaluation has been acknowledged and a number of frameworks have been developed. This review explored which frameworks have been used to guide the development of rehabilitation interventions for older adults.

Design

Systematic scoping review.

Setting

Studies were not limited for inclusion based on setting.

Participants

Studies were included that featured older adults (>65 years of age).

Interventions

Studies were included that reported the development of a rehabilitation intervention.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Data were extracted on study population, setting, type of intervention developed and frameworks used. The primary outcome of interest was the type of intervention development framework.

Results

Thirty-five studies were included. There was a range of underlying medical conditions including mild cognitive impairment and dementia (n=5), cardiac (n=4), stroke (n=3), falls (n=3), hip fracture (n=2), diabetes (n=2), breast cancer (n=1), Parkinson’s disease (n=1), depression (n=1), chronic health problems (n=1), osteoarthritis (n=1), leg ulcer (n=1), neck pain (n=1) and foot problems (n=1). The intervention types being developed included multicomponent, support based, cognitive, physical activities, nursing led, falls prevention and occupational therapy led. Twelve studies (34%) did not report using a framework. Five frameworks were reported with the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for developing and evaluating complex interventions being the most frequently cited (77%, n=17).

Conclusion

At present, the MRC framework is the most popular for developing rehabilitation interventions for older adults. Many studies do not report using a framework. Further, specific guidance to assist this complex field of rehabilitation research is required.

]]>
<![CDATA[Do cognitive interventions improve general cognition in dementia? A meta-analysis and meta-regression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ae5b739463d7e36691e2931

Objectives

To review the efficacy of cognitive interventions on improving general cognition in dementia.

Method

Online literature databases and trial registers, previous systematic reviews and leading journals were searched for relevant randomised controlled trials. A systematic review, random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regression were conducted. Cognitive interventions were categorised as: cognitive stimulation (CS), involving a range of social and cognitive activities to stimulate multiple cognitive domains; cognitive training (CT), involving repeated practice of standardised tasks targeting a specific cognitive function; cognitive rehabilitation (CR), which takes a person-centred approach to target impaired function; or mixed  CT and stimulation (MCTS). Separate analyses were conducted for general cognitive outcome measures and for studies using ‘active’ (designed to control for non-specific therapeutic effects) and non-active (minimal or no intervention) control groups.

Results

33 studies were included. Significant positive effect sizes (Hedges’ g) were found for CS with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) (g=0.51, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.69; p<0.001) compared to non-active controls and (g=0.35, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.65; p=0.019) compared to active controls. Significant benefit was also seen with the Alzheimer's disease Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog) (g=−0.26, 95% CI −0.445 to −0.08; p=0.005). There was no evidence that CT or MCTS produced significant improvements on general cognition outcomes and not enough CR studies for meta-analysis. The lowest accepted minimum clinically important difference was reached in 11/17 CS studies for the MMSE, but only 2/9 studies for the ADAS-Cog. Additionally, 95% prediction intervals suggested that although statistically significant, CS may not lead to benefits on the ADAS-Cog in all clinical settings.

Conclusions

CS improves scores on MMSE and ADAS-Cog in dementia, but benefits on the ADAS-Cog are generally not clinically significant and difficulties with blinding of patients and use of adequate placebo controls make comparison with the results of dementia drug treatments problematic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Age and sex differences in hospitalisation of nursing home residents: a systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b2279fd463d7e5b98b43a21

Objectives

Nursing home residents (NHRs) are frequently suffering from multimorbidity, functional and cognitive impairment, often leading to hospital admissions. Studies have found that male NHRs are more often hospitalised. The influence of age is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate the epidemiology of hospitalisations in NHRs, particularly focusing on age-specific and sex-specific differences.

Design

A systematic review was performed in PubMed, CINAHL and Scopus. Quality of studies was assessed.

Setting

Studies conducted in nursing homes were included.

Participants

Nursing home residents.

Primary and secondary outcomes

Outcome measures were the prevalence, incidence or duration of all-cause hospitalisation by age or sex.

Results

We identified 21 studies, 13 were conducted in the USA. The proportion of residents being hospitalised ranged across studies from 6.8% to 45.7% for various time periods of follow-up. A total of 20 studies assessed the influence of sex and found that hospitalisations are more often in male NHRs. A total of 16 studies conducted multivariate analyses and the OR of hospitalisation for males was between 1.22 and 1.67. Overall, 18 studies assessed the influence of age. Some studies showed an increasing proportion of admissions with increasing age, but several studies also found decreasing hospitalisations above the age of about 80–85 years. 8 of 13 studies conducting multivariate analyses included age as a continuous variable. Only 1 study reported stratified analyses by age and sex. 2 studies investigating primary causes of hospitalisation stratified by sex found some differences in main diagnoses.

Discussion

Male NHRs are more often hospitalised than females, but reasons for that are not well investigated. The influence of age is less clear, but there seems to be no clear linear relationship between age and the proportion being hospitalised. Further studies should investigate age and sex differences in frequencies and reasons for hospitalisation in NHRs.

]]>
<![CDATA[Correlates and aetiological factors associated with hedonic well-being among an ageing population of US men and women: secondary data analysis of a national survey]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b139d5eed0c484c4c463

Objective

To understand the gender-specific factors that uniquely contribute to successful ageing in a US population of men and women, 57–85 years of age. This was achieved through the examination of the correlates of subjective well-being defined by health-related quality of life (HRQoL), across several biological and psychosocial determinants of health.

Design

Cross-sectional study.

Setting

The National Social Life, Health and Ageing Project (NSHAP), 2010–2011 a representative sample of the US population.

Participants

3377 adults aged 57–85 (1538 men, 1839 women) from the NSHAP.

Main outcome measures

The biopsychosocial factors of biological/physiological function, symptom status, functional status, general health perceptions and HRQoL happiness.

Method

HRQoL was measured using the NSHAP wave 2 multistage, stratified area probability sample of US households (n=3377). Variable selection was guided by the Wilson and Cleary model (WCM) that classifies health outcomes at five main levels and characteristics.

Results

Our findings indicate differences in biopsychosocial factors comprised in the WCM and their relative importance and unique impact on HRQoL by gender. Women reported significantly lower HRQoL than men (t=3.5, df=3366). The most significant contributors to HRQoL in women were mental health (B=0.31; 0.22, 0.39), loneliness (B=−0.26; −0.35, –0.17), urinary incontinence (B=−0.22; −0.40, –0.05) and support from spouse/partner (B=0.27; 0.10, 0.43) and family B=0.12; 0.03, 0.20). Men indicated mental health (B=0.21; 0.14, 0.29), physical health (B=0.17; 0.10, 0.23), functional difficulties (B=0.38; 0.10, 0.65), loneliness (B=−0.20; −0.26, –0.12), depression (B=−0.36; −0.58, –0.15) and support from friends (B=0.06; 0.10, 0.11) as significant contributors. Those with greater social support had better HRQoL (F=4.22, df=4). Lack of companionship and reliance on spouse/partner were significant HRQoL contributors in both groups.

Conclusion

Our findings offer insight into ageing, gender and subjective well-being. The results provide an opportunity to identify biopsychosocial factors to inform interventions to support successful ageing.

]]>
<![CDATA[Can delirium research activity impact on routine delirium recognition? A prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b104d5eed0c484c4b9aa

Objective

To assess if ongoing delirium research activity within an acute admissions unit impacts on prevalent delirium recognition.

Design

Prospective cohort study.

Setting

Single-site tertiary university teaching hospital.

Participants

125 patients with delirium, as diagnosed by an expert using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition reference criteria, were recruited to a prospective cohort study investigating use of informant tools to detect unrecognised dementia. This study evaluated recognition of delirium and documentation of delirium by medical staff.

Interventions

The main study followed an observational design; the intervention discussed was the implementation of this study itself.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The primary outcome was recognition of delirium by the admitting medical team prior to study diagnosis. Secondary outcomes included recording of or description of delirium in discharge summaries, and factors which may be associated with unrecognised delirium.

Results

Delirium recognition improved between the first half (48%) and second half (71%) of recruitment (p=0.01). There was no difference in recording of delirium or description of delirium in the text of discharge summaries.

Conclusion

Delirium research activity can improve recognition of delirium. This has the potential to improve patient outcomes.

]]>
<![CDATA[Can paramedics use FRAX (the WHO Fracture Risk Assessment Tool) to help GPs improve future fracture risk in patients who fall? Protocol for a randomised controlled feasibility study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba6ea6140307c4ae697c75a

Introduction

Currently identification, and therefore, management of patients at risk of osteoporotic fracture in the UK is suboptimal. As the majority of patients who fracture have fallen, it follows that people who fall can usefully be targeted in any programme that aims to reduce osteoporotic fracture. Targeting vulnerable patients who are likely to benefit from intervention may help shift the management of fracture prevention into primary care, away from emergency departments. Paramedics who attend to patients who have fallen may be well placed to assess future fracture risk, using the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX) and communicate that information directly to general practitioners (GPs).

Methods and analysis

This feasibility study takes the form of a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial aimed at exploring and refining issues of study design, recruitment, retention, sample size and acceptability preceding a large-scale study with fracture as the end point. Patients (aged >50) who fall, call an ambulance, are attended by a study paramedic and give verbal consent will be asked FRAX and fall questions. Patients who subsequently formally consent to participation will be randomised to control (usual care) or intervention groups. Intervention will constitute transmission of calculated future fracture risk to the patients’ GP with suitable, evidence-based recommendations for investigation or treatment. 3 months after the index fall, data (proportion of patients in each group undergoing investigation or starting new treatment, quality of life and health economic) will be collected and analysed using descriptive statistics. A nested qualitative study will explore issues of acceptability and study design with patients, paramedics and GPs.

Ethics and dissemination

This protocol was approved by NRES Committee South Central Oxford C in October 2012. Research Ethics Committee ref.12/SC/0604. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations and local public events. A publication plan and authorship criteria have been preagreed.

Trial registration number

ISRCTN: 36245726.

]]>