ResearchPad - 1706 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Linking administrative data sets of inpatient infectious diseases diagnoses in far North Queensland: a cohort profile]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9097 To design a linked hospital database using administrative and clinical information to describe associations that predict infectious diseases outcomes, including long-term mortality.ParticipantsA retrospective cohort of Townsville Hospital inpatients discharged with an International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision Australian Modification code for an infectious disease between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2016 was assembled. This used linked anonymised data from: hospital administrative sources, diagnostic pathology, pharmacy dispensing, public health and the National Death Registry. A Created Study ID was used as the central identifier to provide associations between the cohort patients and the subsets of granular data which were processed into a relational database. A web-based interface was constructed to allow data extraction and evaluation to be performed using editable Structured Query Language.Findings to dateThe database has linked information on 41 367 patients with 378 487 admissions and 1 869 239 diagnostic/procedure codes. Scripts used to create the database contents generated over 24 000 000 database rows from the supplied data. Nearly 15% of the cohort was identified as Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islanders. Invasive staphylococcal, pneumococcal and Group A streptococcal infections and influenza were common in this cohort. The most common comorbidities were smoking (43.95%), diabetes (24.73%), chronic renal disease (17.93%), cancer (16.45%) and chronic pulmonary disease (12.42%). Mortality over the 11-year period was 20%.Future plansThis complex relational database reutilising hospital information describes a cohort from a single tropical Australian hospital of inpatients with infectious diseases. In future analyses, we plan to explore analyses of risks, clinical outcomes, healthcare costs and antimicrobial side effects in site and organism specific infections. ]]> <![CDATA[Prospective observational study on the pharmacokinetic properties of the Irrua ribavirin regimen used in routine clinical practice in patients with Lassa fever in Nigeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6aeae1d-7691-4367-9d6f-f4480c1fa542 Lassa fever (LF) is a severe and often fatal systemic disease in humans and affects a large number of countries in West Africa. Treatment options are limited to supportive care and the broad-spectrum antiviral agent ribavirin. However, evidence for ribavirin efficacy in patients with LF is poor and pharmacokinetic (PK) data are not available.Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) developed an intravenous ribavirin regimen different to the WHO recommendation. Apart from a lower total daily dose the drug is usually administered once per day which reduces the exposure of personnel to patients with LF. The aim of this study is to characterise the PK of the Irrua ribavirin regimen.Methods and analysisThis prospective, observational clinical study will assess PK properties of the Irrua ribavirin regimen on routinely ribavirin-treated patients with LF at ISTH, a referral hospital serving 19 local governmental areas in a LF endemic zone in Nigeria. Participants will be adults with PCR-confirmed LF. The primary objective is to describe classical PK parameters for ribavirin (maximum plasma drug concentration, time to maximum plasma drug concentration, area under the plasma drug concentration vs time curve, half-life time T1/2, volume of distribution). Blood samples will be collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 24 hours after doses on day 1, day 4 and day 10 of ribavirin treatment. Ribavirin plasma concentrations will be determined using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.Ethics and disseminationThe study will be conducted in compliance with the protocol, the Declaration of Helsinki, Good Clinical Practice (GCP) and the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics. The protocol has received approval by the Health Research Ethics Committee of ISTH. Results will be made available to LF survivors, their caregivers, the funders, LF research society and other researchers.Registration detailsISRCTN11104750 ]]> <![CDATA[Prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis in men having sex with men in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N34eba857-b6e6-4744-ac67-571173991536

Objectives

Over the last 15 years, the prevalence of HIV in Haiti has stabilised to around 2.0%. However, key populations remain at higher risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The prevalence of HIV is 12.9% among men having sex with men (MSM). There is limited information about the prevalence of other STI in the Haitian population in general and even less among key populations. We assessed the burden of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and risk factors for infections among MSM in Haiti.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was conducted. MSM were recruited from seven health facilities in Port-au-Prince. All samples were tested by nucleic acid amplification test, using GeneXpert. A survey was administered to the participants to collect socio-demographic, clinical and risk behaviour data.

Results

A total of 216 MSM were recruited in the study. The prevalence rates of CT and NG were 11.1% and 16.2%, respectively. CT NG co-infections were found in 10/216 (4.6%) of the participants. There were 39 MSM with rectal STI compared with 17 with genital infections. Participants between 18–24 and 30–34 years old were significantly more likely to be infected with NG than those aged 35 years or older (OR: 22.96, 95% CI: 2.79 to 188.5; OR: 15.1, 95% CI: 1.68 to 135.4, respectively). Participants who never attended school or had some primary education were significantly more likely to be infected with NG than those with secondary education or higher (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.26 to 9.07). People tested negative for HIV were significantly more likely to be infected with CT than people living with HIV/AIDS (OR: 3.91, 95% CI: 1.37 to 11.2).

Conclusions

Periodic risk assessment and testing for STI should be offered in Haiti as part of a comprehensive strategy to improve the sexual health of key populations.

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<![CDATA[Influence of trust on two different risk perceptions as an affective and cognitive dimension during Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea: serial cross-sectional surveys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na66c7a8c-5a6e-4f07-8375-f0bd836be1f2

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the affective and cognitive risk perceptions in the general population of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) during the 2015 MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak in South Korea and the influencing factors.

Design

Serial cross-sectional design with four consecutive surveys.

Setting

Nationwide general population in South Korea.

Participants

Overall 4010 respondents (aged 19 years and over) from the general population during the MERS-CoV epidemic were included.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

The main outcome measures were (1) affective risk perception, (2) cognitive risk perception, and (3) trust in the government. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify factors (demographic, socioeconomic, area and political orientation) associated with risk perceptions.

Results

Both affective and cognitive risk perceptions decreased as the MERS-CoV epidemic progressed. Proportions of affective risk perception were higher in all surveys and slowly decreased compared with cognitive risk perception over time. Females (adjusted OR (aOR) 1.72–2.00; 95% CI 1.14 to 2.86) and lower self-reported household economic status respondents were more likely to perceive the affective risk. The older the adults, the higher the affective risk perception, but the lower the cognitive risk perception compared with younger adults. The respondents who had low trust in the government had higher affective (aOR 2.19–3.11; 95 CI 1.44 to 4.67) and cognitive (aOR 3.55–5.41; 95 CI 1.44 to 9.01) risk perceptions.

Conclusions

This study suggests that even if cognitive risk perception is dissolved, affective risk perception can continue during MERS-CoV epidemic. Risk perception associating factors (ie, gender, age and self-reported household economic status) appear to be noticeably different between affective and cognitive dimensions. It also indicates that trust in the government influences affective risk perception and cognitive risk perception. There is a need for further efforts to understand the mechanism regarding the general public’s risk perception for effective risk communication.

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<![CDATA[Timeliness of signal detection for adverse events following influenza vaccination in young children: a simulation case study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf208997-fafb-4d19-a053-5f95022e6806

Objectives

To determine how soon after commencement of the seasonal influenza vaccination programme, the AusVaxSafety active vaccine safety surveillance system, currently in use across Australia, would have detected a safety signal had it been operating in 2010 when there was an unprecedented number of febrile seizures in young children associated with one specific influenza vaccine brand, Fluvax (CSL Biotherapies).

Design

Simulation study.

Setting

Western Australian vaccine influenza coverage and adverse event surveillance data.

Outcome measures

Simulated solicited responses from caregivers who would have received an SMS survey about adverse events experienced following seasonal influenza vaccination of their children aged 6 months to <5 years.

Participants

None.

Results

We estimated a >90% probability of a safety signal being detected by AusVaxSafety based on solicited reports for either fever or medical attendance at or before the week ending 28 March 2010, 3 weeks after the start of vaccine distribution. Suspension of the national paediatric influenza vaccination programme as a result of the passive adverse events surveillance operating at the time did not occur until 23 April 2010.

Conclusions

Active vaccine safety surveillance leading to rapid detection of a safety signal would likely have resulted in earlier suspension of Fluvax from the vaccination programme, prevention of many febrile convulsions and maintenance of public confidence in influenza vaccination for young children.

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<![CDATA[Variation of effect estimates in the analysis of mortality and length of hospital stay in patients with infections caused by bacteria-producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd32cb96d-e1d4-4de7-9b0a-42b8bebd83f0

Objective

To assess the variation of effect estimates in the analysis of mortality and length of stay (LOS) in patients with infections caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

Design

Systematic review and meta-analysis

Methods

Literature search for clinical studies from 1 January 1960 to 1 October 2018 was conducted in PubMed. Primary outcomes were risk ratios (RRs) of all-cause and attributable mortality and weighted mean differences (WMDs) in LOS in patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) and non-invasive infections. Any change in the effect estimates was assessed by grouping studies according to design, setting, economy-based country classification, reporting period, microbiological aetiology, infection type and adjustment for appropriateness of empirical treatment. The impact of ESBL production was calculated using random-effect meta-analysis and heterogeneity was evaluated by I2 statistics and metaregression.

Results

Eighty-four studies including 22 030 patients and 149 outcome measures were included in the meta-analysis. Most studies were retrospective cohorts from high-income countries, providing unadjusted estimates. ESBL production in patients with BSIs (56 studies) increased the RR for all-cause mortality by a factor of 1.70 (95% CI 1.52 to 1.90; p<0.001), attributable mortality (16 studies) by 1.75 (95% CI 1.448 to 2.108; p<0.001) and WMD in the intensive care unit by 3.07 days (95% CI 1.61 to 4.54; p<0.001). WMD in hospital LOS was significantly higher in BSIs (4.41 days; 95% CI 3.37 to 5.46; p<0.001) and non-invasive (2.19 days; 95% CI 1.56 to 2.81; p<0.001). Subgroup analyses showed variation of estimates by study design, population, strain and assessment of appropriateness of empiric treatment. High heterogeneity was observed in all analyses.

Conclusions

Current evidence of the clinical burden of infections caused by ESBL-producing bacteria is highly heterogeneous and based mainly on unadjusted estimates derived from retrospective studies. Despite these limitations, ESBL production in strains causing BSIs seems associated with higher all-cause and attributable mortality and longer hospitalisation.

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<![CDATA[Association between H. pylori infection and health Outcomes: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N24a33026-6a53-4b28-b388-0802e0fef36a

Objective

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have revealed the associations between H. pylori infection and various health outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the strength and breadth of evidence on the associations.

Design

Umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

Setting

No settings.

Participants

No patients involved.

Data sources

Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Databases, CNKI, VIP database and Wangfang database from inception to February 1, 2019.

Outcomes measures

Diverse diseases (such as cancer and ischaemic heart disease).

Results

Sixty articles reporting 88 unique outcomes met the eligible criteria. 74 unique outcomes had nominal significance (p<0.05). Of the outcomes with significance, 61 had harmful associations and 13 had beneficial associations. Furthermore, 73% (64) of the outcomes exhibited significant heterogeneity . Of the these meta-analyses, 32 had moderate to high heterogeneity (I2=50%–75%) and 24 had high heterogeneity (I2>75%). Moreover, 20% exhibited publication bias (p<0.1). In addition, 97% of the methodological qualities were rated ‘critically low’. 36% of the evidence qualities of outcomes were rated ‘low’, 56% of the evidence qualities were rated ‘very low’ and 8% of the evidence qualities were rated ‘moderate’. H. pylori infection may be associated with an increased risk of five diseases and a decreased risk of irritable bowel syndrome.

Conclusion

Although 60 meta-analyses explored 88 unique outcomes, moderate quality evidence only existed for six outcomes with statistical significance. H. pylori infection may be associated with a decreased risk of irritable bowel syndrome and an increased risk of hypertriglyceridemia, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, gestational diabetes mellitus, gastric cancer and systemic sclerosis.

Trial registration

CRD42019124680.

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<![CDATA[Epidemiology of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5dd5827b-185e-4e0c-a5d4-0e18ed9471b7

Introduction

Podoconiosis is a non-filarial swelling of the lower extremity endemic in tropical regions, North America and India. The aetiology and pathophysiology of the disease remain unknown. We propose conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the burden and risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia reported in studies from 2009 to 2019.

Methods and analysis

We will search the following electronic databases: PubMed (MEDLINE), EMBASE, Hinari, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, ISI (Web of Science) and Google Scholar. Medical subject headings will be used to extensively search relevant literature on electronic databases using related keywords such as epidemiology or prevalence, magnitude or burden, podoconiosis, and Ethiopia. Grey literature and manual search will also be performed to retrieve unindexed research articles. Two reviewers will screen all retrieved articles, conduct data extraction and then critically appraise all identified studies. We will analyse data using STATA V.14 statistical software. We will demonstrate pooled estimates of podoconiosis and associated factors with effect size and 95% CI. The presence of heterogeneity among studies will be examined by forest plot as well as the I2 heterogeneity test. Potential causes of heterogeneity will be explored by carrying out sensitivity and subgroup analyses. The presence of publication bias will also be examined by observing funnel plots and objectively by Egger’s regression test. If the funnel plot is asymmetric and/or Egger’s test was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05), the trim and fill (Duval and Tweedie’s) analysis will be performed.

Ethics and dissemination

The study will use publicly available data and will not identify the authors of the publication by name. In light of these and as has been indicated, research ethics clearance is not required for evidence syntheses in such reviews. The results of this study will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019127459.

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<![CDATA[Recent trends in seroprevalence of rubella in Korean women of childbearing age: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc52df97a-7799-480f-bb07-299f31a1a355

Objectives

The aim of this study was to investigate the immunity against rubella using the serological status of rubella-specific IgG antibodies (antirubella IgG) in Korean women of childbearing age (15–49 years).

Design

Retrospective cross-sectional study.

Setting

Population-based cross-sectional study in South Korea.

Participants

Between January 2010 and December 2017, test results from Korean women aged 15–49 years who had visited an obstetric private clinic (nationwide institutions) and had requested rubella-specific IgG antibody tests from Green Cross Laboratories were obtained from the laboratory information system.

Results

Between 2010 and 2017, antirubella IgG test results from 328 426 Korean women aged 15–49 years who had visited private obstetric clinics (1438 institutions nationwide) were retrospectively analysed by tested year, age, cohort and geographic regions. Over the 8-year study period, the rate of unimmunised women ranged from 7.8% to 9.7%. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models showed that the odds of being immune to rubella (positive and equivocal results of antirubella IgG test) were lower in 2017 compared with 2010, in women in their 40s, in a pre-catch-up cohort and in women living in Incheon, Busan, South Gyeongsang, North and South Jeolla and Jeju provinces (p<0.0001).

Conclusions

In consideration of the factors associated with prevalence of women unimmunised to rubella, future public health efforts should be focused on catch-up activities. The results of this study could be used to strengthen disease control and prevent rubella, including a nationwide immunisation programme.

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<![CDATA[Multicentre randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of combination vancomycin and cefazolin surgical antibiotic prophylaxis: the Australian surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (ASAP) trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N046b8b0e-fb54-4539-9bf1-41a505ba21a8

Introduction

Resistant Gram-positive organisms, such as methicillin-resistant staphylococci, account for a significant proportion of infections following joint replacement surgery. Current surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines recommend the use of first-generation or second-generation cephalosporin antibiotics, such as cefazolin. Cefazolin, however, does not prevent infections due to these resistant organisms; therefore, new prevention strategies need to be examined. One proposed strategy is to combine a glycopeptide antibiotic with cefazolin for prophylaxis. The clinical benefit and cost-effectiveness of this combination therapy compared with usual therapy, however, have not been established.

Methods and analysis

This randomised, double-blind, parallel, superiority, placebo-controlled, phase 4 trial will compare the incidence of all surgical site infections (SSIs) including superficial, deep and organ/space (prosthetic joint) infections, safety and cost-effectiveness of surgical prophylaxis with cefazolin plus vancomycin to that with cefazolin plus placebo. The study will be performed in patients undergoing joint replacement surgery. In the microbiological sub-studies, we will examine the incidence of SSIs in participants with preoperative staphylococci colonisation (Sub-Study 1) and incidence of VRE acquisition (Sub-Study 2). The trial will recruit 4450 participants over a 4-year period across 13 orthopaedic centres in Australia. The primary outcome is the incidence of SSI at 90 days post index surgery. Secondary outcomes include the incidence of SSI according to joint and microorganism and other healthcare associated infections. Safety endpoints include the incidence of acute kidney injury, hypersensitivity reactions and all-cause mortality. The primary and secondary analysis will be a modified intention-to-treat analysis consisting of all randomised participants who undergo eligible surgery. We will also perform a per-protocol analysis.

Ethics and dissemination

The study protocol was reviewed and approved by The Alfred Hospital Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/18/Alfred/102) on 9 July 2018. Study findings will be disseminated in the printed media, and learnt forums.

Trial registration number

ACTRN12618000642280

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<![CDATA[Comparing the efficacy and safety of faecal microbiota transplantation with bezlotoxumab in reducing the risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections: a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N56ed57ee-c910-4c5a-9d7d-d4ae37f9cf23

Objectives

The risk of recurrent Clostridium difficile infections (RCDIs) is high when treated with standard antibiotics therapy (SAT) alone. It is suggested that the addition of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) or bezlotoxumab after SAT reduces the risk of RCDI. In the absence of head-to-head randomised controlled trials (RCTs), this review attempts to compare the efficacy and safety of bezlotoxumab with FMT in reducing the risk of RCDI in hospitalised patients.

Design

A systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis.

Data source

A comprehensive search from inception to 30 February 2019 was conducted in four databases (Medline/PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov).

Eligibility criteria

RCTs reporting the resolution of diarrhoea associated with RCDI without relapse for at least 60 days after the end of treatments as the primary outcome.

Data extraction and synthesis

We extracted author, year of publication, study design and binomial data that represented the resolution of diarrhoea or adverse events of monoclonal antibodies and FMT infusion. Random-effects models were used for resolution rate of RCDI and adverse events. The Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used to assess the quality of included RCTs.

Results

Out of 1003 articles identified, seven RCTs involving 3043 patients contributed to the review. No difference was reported between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab in resolving RCDI, (OR 1.53, 95% credible interval (CrI) 0.39 to 5.16) and (OR 2.86, 95% CrI 1.29 to 6.57), respectively. Patients treated with SAT alone or bezlotoxumab with SAT showed significantly lower rates of diarrhoea than FMT (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.09) and (OR 0, 95% CrI 0 to 0.19), respectively. There was no difference in terms of other adverse events.

Conclusions

This is the first network meta-analysis that has compared the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved monoclonal antibody bezlotoxumab with FMT for resolving RCDI. The quality of the included RCTs was variable. The findings of this study suggested no difference between single or multiple infusions of FMT and bezlotoxumab. However, FMT was associated with a higher rate of non-serious diarrhoea as opposed to SAT used alone or in combination with bezlotoxumab.

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<![CDATA[Evolving rifampicin and isoniazid mono-resistance in a high multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis region: a retrospective data analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1d8e3f4f-8fe7-4998-b46c-6193a6176f61

Objectives

South Africa ranks among the highest drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) burdened countries in the world. This study assessed the changes in resistance levels in culture confirmed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in the highest burdened province of South Africa during a period where major changes in diagnostic algorithm were implemented.

Setting

This study was conducted at the central academic laboratory of the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.

Participants

We analysed data for all MTB cultures performed in the KwaZulu-Natal province between 2011 and 2014. The data were collected from the laboratory information system.

Results

Out of 88 559 drug susceptibility results analysed, 18 352 (20.7%) were resistant to rifampicin (RIF) and 19 190 (21.7%) showed resistance to isoniazid (INH). The proportion of rifampicin resistant cases that were mono-resistant increased from 15.3% in 2011 to 21.4% in 2014 while INH mono-resistance (IMR) showed a range between 13.8% and 21.1%. The multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) rates increased from 18.8% to 23.9% and the proportion of MDR-TB cases that had extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis remained between 10.2% and 11.1%. Most drug resistance was found in females between the ages of 15 and 44 years and the northern districts bordering high MDR-TB regions had the highest MDR-TB rates.

Conclusion

Our findings show increasing RIF mono-resistance (RMR) and a substantial amount of IMR. This highlights a need for an initial test that detects resistance to both these drugs so as to avoid using RIF monotherapy during continuous phase of treatment in patients with IMR. Furthermore, addition of INH will benefit patients with RMR. Although DR-TB is widespread, HIV and migration influence its distribution; therefore, TB control strategies should include interventions that target these aspects.

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<![CDATA[Health outcomes associated with Zika virus infection in humans: a systematic review of systematic reviews]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5d7abe94-e57d-400d-8d26-a31857f926fc

Objective

With the emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease in Central and South America in the mid-2010s and recognition of the teratogenic effects of congenital exposure to ZIKV, there has been a substantial increase in new research published on ZIKV. Our objective is to synthesise the literature on health outcomes associated with ZIKV infection in humans.

Methods

We conducted a systematic review (SR) of SRs following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane and LILACS (Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) databases from inception to 22 July 2019, and included SRs that reported ZIKV-associated health outcomes. Three independent reviewers selected eligible studies, extracted data and assessed the quality of included SRs using the AMSTAR 2 (A MeaSurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews 2) tool. Conflicts were resolved by consensus or consultation with a third reviewer.

Results

The search yielded 1382 unique articles, of which 21 SRs met our inclusion criteria. The 21 SRs ranged from descriptive to quantitative data synthesis, including four meta-analyses. The most commonly reported ZIKV-associated manifestations and health outcomes were microcephaly, congenital abnormalities, brain abnormalities, neonatal death and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The included reviews were highly heterogeneous. The overall quality of the SRs was critically low with all studies having more than one critical weakness.

Conclusion

The evolving nature of the literature on ZIKV-associated health outcomes, together with the critically low quality of existing SRs, demonstrates the need for high-quality SRs to guide patient care and inform policy decision making.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42018091087.

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<![CDATA[Rapid increase of gonorrhoea cases in Guangdong Province, China, 2014–2017: a review of surveillance data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N20da7b6e-a8bb-4780-9b2e-affb53bc153c

Objectives

An increased trend in the number of reported gonorrhoea cases has been observed between 2014 and 2017 in China. This study aims to describe the reported epidemic of gonorrhoea and potential driving forces in Guangdong Province, China.

Design

A review of surveillance data.

Participants

Three different sources of data from Guangdong Province were analysed: gonorrhoea cases reported to the Chinese sexually transmitted infections (STI) case report system (CRS); a clinic-based retrospective study conducted to collect information on annual gonorrhoea screening coverage and data from the Guangdong governmental sentinel surveillance network (SSN) to examine the gonorrhoea prevalence among males attending STI clinics.

Outcome measures

Reported incidence of gonorrhoea, number of reported gonorrhoea cases, number of screening tests for gonorrhoea and gonorrhoea prevalence.

Results

The STI CRS data showed that the reported incidence of gonorrhoea has increased rapidly from 15.7 cases per 100 000 population in 2014 to 27.3 cases per 100 000 in 2017 in Guangdong (p<0.001). Regions with a reported incidence of gonorrhoea cases of more than 10 cases per 100 000 expanded from 7 cities in 2014 to 13 cities in 2017. The SSN data showed that the gonorrhoea prevalence among males attending STI clinics increased from 2.7% in 2015 to 3.6% in 2017 (p=0.14). The retrospective study showed that the increased rate of screening for gonorrhoea between 2014 and 2017 was 35.0%, which was much lower than the increased rate of the number of reported gonorrhoea cases (123.3%).

Conclusions

The number of gonococcal infections is rapidly rising in Guangdong, China. Expanded screening coverage, use of more sensitive diagnostics and increase of gonorrhoea prevalence are three potential contributors to the epidemic. Additional targeted intervention strategies are necessary in the future to control the epidemic.

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<![CDATA[Pneumococcal pneumonia and carriage in Africa before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, 2000–2019: protocol for systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc9ac39f2-1c48-4992-8fd1-e1ac1f106106

Introduction

Africa harbours a high burden of pneumococcal disease, with associated high mortality rates. Despite 34 countries introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, which reduces the risk of pneumococcal carriage (a prerequisite for disease) of some of the most pathogenic pneumococcal serotypes, it remains uncertain whether they will achieve the sustained direct or indirect protection necessary to reduce pneumococcal carriage to levels sufficient to interrupt transmission and disease. We will therefore summarise the available data on the impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in reducing vaccine serotype carriage and pneumococcal pneumonia in Africa between 2000 and 2019.

Methods and analysis

Using a predetermined search strategy, we will conduct a comprehensive search of PubMed, MEDLINE database, the Excerpta Medica Database, the ISI Web of Science (Science Citation Index), Scopus and the African Index Medicus to identify published studies reporting the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage (vaccine type and non-vaccine type), incidence rates of pneumococcal pneumonia and mortality among children, adults and HIV-infected (all-ages) pre-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and post-PCV introduction (published between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2019) in African countries that have introduced PCVs (PCV7/PCV10/PCV13) in their routine national immunisation programme. The studies retained and data extracted will be assessed for bias using prevalidated tools and checklists. Heterogeneity across studies will be assessed using the χ2 test on Cochrane Q statistic. A random effect meta-analysis will be used to estimate the overall prevalence of pneumococcal carriage and incidence of pneumococcal pneumonia across studies with similar characteristics. Results will be reported in compliance with the Meta-Analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines. The protocol has been prepared in accordance to the 2015 guidelines on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses.

Ethics and dissemination

This systematic review will not require ethical approval as we will be using already published data. The final manuscript will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at conferences.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019130976.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of postoutbreak management by management and healthcare workers of a Middle East respiratory syndrome outbreak in a tertiary care hospital: a qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N67f9bd8b-786a-4ad2-bcc5-6de3d176a3f6

Objectives

This study examines perceptions of the operational and organisational management of a major outbreak of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) caused by a novel coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Perspectives were sought from key decision-makers and clinical staff about the factors perceived to promote and inhibit effective and rapid control of the outbreak.

Setting

A large teaching tertiary healthcare centre in KSA; the outbreak lasted 6 weeks from June 2015.

Participants

Data were collected via individual and focus group interviews with 28 key informant participants (9 management decision-makers and 19 frontline healthcare workers).

Design

We used qualitative methods of process evaluation to examine perceptions of the outbreak and the factors contributing to, or detracting from successful management. Data were analysed using qualitative thematic content analysis.

Results

Five themes and 15 subthemes were found. The themes were related to: (1) the high stress of the outbreak, (2) factors perceived to contribute to outbreak occurrence, (3) factors perceived to contribute to success of outbreak control, (4) factors inhibiting outbreak control and (5) long-term institutional gains in response to the outbreak management.

Conclusion

Management of the MERS-CoV outbreak at King Abdulaziz Medical City-Riyadh was widely recognised by staff as a serious outbreak of local and national significance. While the outbreak was controlled successfully in 6 weeks, progress in management was inhibited by a lack of institutional readiness to implement infection control (IC) measures and reduce patient flow, low staff morale and high anxiety. Effective management was promoted by greater involvement of all staff in sharing learning and knowledge of the outbreak, developing trust and teamwork and harnessing collective leadership. Future major IC crises could be improved via measures to strengthen these areas, better coordination of media management and proactive staff counselling and support.

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<![CDATA[Understanding the delayed prescribing of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection in primary care: a qualitative analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b29dc43463d7e28b15c8c76

Objective

To identify general practitioner (GP) views and understanding on the use of delayed prescribing in primary care.

Design

Qualitative semistructured telephone interview study.

Setting

Primary care general practices in England.

Participants

32 GPs from identified high-prescribing and low-prescribing general practices in England.

Method

Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with GPs identified from practices within clinical commissioning groups with the highest and lowest prescribing rates in England. A thematic analysis of the data was conducted to generate themes.

Results

All GPs had a good understanding of respiratory tract infection (RTI) management and how the delayed prescribing approach could be used in primary care. However, GPs highlighted factors that were influential as to whether delayed prescribing was successfully carried out during the consultation. These included the increase in evidence of antimicrobial resistance, and GPs' prior experiences of using delayed prescribing during the consultation. The patient–practitioner relationship could also influence treatment outcomes for RTI, and a lack of an agreed prescribing strategy within and between practices was considered to be of significance to GPs. Participants expressed that a lack of feedback on prescribing data at an individual and practice level made it difficult to know if delayed prescribing strategies were successful in reducing unnecessary consumption. GPs agreed that coherent and uniform training and guidelines would be of some benefit to ensure consistent prescribing throughout the UK.

Conclusions

Delayed prescribing is encouraged in primary care, but is not always implemented successfully. Greater uniformity within and between practices in the UK is needed to operationalise delayed prescribing, as well as providing feedback on the uptake of antibiotics. Finally, GPs may need further guidance on how to answer the concerns of patients without interpreting these questions as a demand for antibiotics, as well as educating the patient about antimicrobial resistance and supporting a good patient–practitioner relationship.

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<![CDATA[Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years: a case series study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ac59d3b463d7e1e9a6f5747

Objective

To evaluate Candida parapsilosis candidaemia in a neonatal unit over 7 years.

Design

Case series study.

Setting

A 2000-bed tertiary-care university hospital at São Paulo, Brazil.

Participants

Neonates hospitalised in a 63-bed neonatal unit.

Primary and secondary outcome measures

We evaluated the incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit from 2002 through 2008 and the main microbiological, clinical and epidemiological aspects of this disease in neonates. During the study period an outbreak occurred, an infection control programme was implemented, and isolates from blood and hand healthcare workers (HCWs) were submitted to molecular typing.

Results

During 7 years, there were 36 cases of C parapsilosis fungaemia and annual incidence varied from 0 to 19.7 per 1000 admissions. Evaluating 31 neonates with fungemia, the mean age at diagnosis was 19 days. All children except for one were premature; all had received total parenteral nutrition and all but one had used central venous catheter. Three neonates had received antifungal treatment previously to the diagnosis. Thirty-day mortality was 45%. Only lower birthweight was associated with mortality. C parapsilosis species complex was isolated from hand cultures in eight (11%) of the HCWs (one isolate was identified as C orthopsilosis). By molecular typing no HCW isolate was similar to any of the blood isolates.

Conclusions

The incidence of C parapsilosis fungemia in a neonatal unit varied widely over 7 years. We observed in our series a higher death rate than that reported in European countries and the USA.

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<![CDATA[Association between hepatitis C virus infection and osteoporotic fracture risk among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional investigation in Taiwan]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6446c0d5eed0c484c2c3fd

Purpose

Early low bone mass is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures associated with multiple factors, including menopause and chronic liver diseases. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) also plays a major role in chronic liver disease and has many extrahepatic consequences, such as decreased bone mineral density (BMD). This study aimed to examine the hypothesis that HCV seropositivity is independently associated with menopausal BMD loss.

Methods

This community-based, cross-sectional study was based in two rural townships in Yunlin County, Taiwan. A total of 636 menopausal women aged 45–80 years who underwent annual health checks were included. Viral markers of HCV, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and fracture risk assessment tool (FRAX) scores were measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between various predictors and the presence of low BMD.

Results

The participants (median age: 65 years) had a HCV seropositivity rate of 32.2%. BMD was significantly lower in the HCV-seropositive participants in different anatomic locations than in the seronegative individuals (lumbar spine: −1.5 vs −1.1; total hip: −0.9 vs −0.6; femoral neck: −1.2 vs −1.0; p<0.05). HCV-seropositive subjects had higher rates of major osteoporotic fractures (11.3%±7.6%vs 9.0±6.8%; p<0.001) and hip fractures (3.4%±4.7%vs 2.3±4.9%; p=0.006) and a higher risk of lower BMD (osteopenia and osteoporosis) based on a multivariable regression analysis (adjusted OR: 1.8; 95% CI 1.16 to 2.81; p=0.009).

Conclusions

HCV infection may be an independent risk factor for menopausal BMD loss and fractures predicted by FRAX.

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<![CDATA[Quality of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) care from the patient’s perspective: a qualitative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b111d5eed0c484c4bcbb

Objectives

Current outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) guidelines recommend delivering patient-centred care. However, little is known about what patients define as good quality of OPAT care and what their needs and preferences are.

The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the patients’ perspective on high-quality care, and to explore what patient-centred care means to adult OPAT patients.

Design and setting

This is an explorative, descriptive study using qualitative methods. We conducted focus group interviews with 16 adult patients (5 female, 11 male) from 3 different hospitals, who received OPAT and 2 individual semistructured interviews with their informal caregivers in the Netherlands. We used purposive sampling to ensure diversity of participants. We used the eight Picker principles of patient-centredness to guide data collection and analysis.

Results

Participants reported several elements considered as important for patient-centred OPAT care, like patient involvement in the decision-making process, a responsible OPAT lead, intensive collaboration between all disciplines involved, information provision and adherence to hygiene guidelines. Two central dimensions emerged as essential constituents of patient-centred OPAT care: freedom and safety. Both are heavily influenced by the behaviours of healthcare professionals and by organisational aspects beyond the direct influence of these professionals.

Conclusion

This study provides insights into the needs and preferences of adult patients who receive OPAT care. Future interventions directed at the improvement of patient-centredness of OPAT care should focus on elements that enhance patients’ feelings of freedom and safety.

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