ResearchPad - 1736 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Family-based habit intervention to promote parent support for child physical activity in Canada: protocol for a randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf8f2cd45-53f8-402f-a5cd-daf81095f95a Regular physical activity (PA) participation has many important physical and psychological health benefits, managing and preventing over 25 chronic conditions. Being more physically active as a child is associated with being more active as an adult, but less than 10% of Canadian children are achieving the recommended PA guidelines of 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA. Parental support is a predictor of child PA, but parent intention to support child PA does not always predict enacted support. Targeting factors that assist in the sustainability of parent support behaviour of child PA may have an impact on child PA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention designed to promote habit formation of parental support (HABIT, independent variable) on child PA (dependant variable) compared with a planning and education group (PLANNING) and an education only group (EDUCATION).Methods and analysisThe three conditions will be compared using a 6-month longitudinal randomised trial. Eligible families have at least one child aged 6–12 years who is not meeting the 2011 Canadian PA Guidelines. Intervention materials are delivered at baseline, with check-in sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months. Child’s moderate-to-vigorous PA, measured by accelerometry, is assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months as the primary outcome. At baseline and 6 months, children perform fitness testing. Parents and children complete questionnaires at all timepoints. So far, 123 families have been recruited from the Greater Victoria and surrounding area. Recruitment will be continuing through 2020 with a target of 240 families.Ethics and disseminationThis protocol has been approved by the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board (Victoria, Canada). Results will be shared at conferences as presentations and as published manuscripts. Study findings will be made available to interested participants.Trial registration numberNCT03145688; Pre-results ]]> <![CDATA[Analysis of team-sport wheelchair falls during the Rio 2016 Summer Paralympic Games: a video-based cross-sectional observational study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbe9a95f1-7e71-4291-b688-43612e4252f6

Objectives

To present the fall characteristics of athletes playing wheelchair rugby (WR) and wheelchair basketball (WB) using official videos from the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games and compare the key fall characteristics among the team wheelchair sports event.

Methods

Eighteen WR and 10 WB game videos for men (MWB) and women (WWB), including 8 teams per sport, were obtained from the official International Paralympic Committee of the Rio 2016 Paralympic Games. The videos were analysed to assess the number of falls, playing time of fall, playing phase, contact with other athletes, the direction of the fall and the body part first in contact with the floor during the fall.

Results

In total, 359 falls (96 for WR, 172 for MWB and 91 for WWB) occurred with a mean of 5.3, 17.2 and 9.1 falls per match, respectively (p<0.05). Significant differences among the three sports were detected in the playing time (p=0.011), presence of contact (p=0.037), direction (p<0.001) and body part first in contact with the floor (p<0.001). For WR, the falls were primarily lateral and caused by contact, occurring in the second half of the match. WB falls tended to be in the first half for women and the second half for men. Most falls were contact falls in the forward direction.

Conclusion

By observing the situational details, we described that a number of falls due to contact occurred during these team sports events, especially MWB. In addition, each sport exhibited characteristics attributable to differences in gender, degree of impairment and game rules. The directions of the falls and characteristics of the affected body parts indicate differences in impairments depending on the sport. A fall to the side or back may indicate a risk of injury.

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<![CDATA[Guidelines about physical activity and exercise to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors: protocol for a systematic review and critical appraisal]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N32ab355f-f047-4944-9a79-808fc3bbfde4

Introduction

Physical activity can prevent a wide range of diseases, including highly prevalent conditions such as heart disease, diabetes and associated cardiometabolic disorders. Numerous guidelines for the prescription of physical activity and exercise to promote general health and prevent disease are released each year, but the quality of these guidelines is currently unknown. This systematic review and critical appraisal of physical activity and exercise guidelines aims to summarise the current status and quality of these guidelines to provide suggestions to improve the development of future guidelines in this area.

Methods and analysis

We will conduct a systematic review of guidelines in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, and Daily, Ovid EMBASE, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus databases published from database 2000 through 23 October 2019, written in English for the use of physical activity and exercise for the prevention of cardiometabolic disease and related risk factors in otherwise healthy individuals. We will also search the grey literature for additional eligible documents. We will use the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II tool to assess the quality of eligible recommendations from all included guidelines, as well as perform exploratory analyses on guideline development variables.

Ethics and dissemination

As a protocol for the review and critical appraisal of published documents, no potential ethical considerations are discussed. The protocol will guide the development of the review, which will be disseminated to relevant journals for publication.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42019126364

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<![CDATA[The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N82ea6df0-c131-4380-b121-e5a98276177a

Purpose

The North Texas Concussion Registry (ConTex) was established in 2015 as a multi-institutional collaboration intended to study risk factors, recovery patterns and clinical outcomes associated with concussion across the lifespan, with a particular emphasis on sport-related concussion.

Participants

Prospective enrolment of individuals who sustained a concussion within the past 6 months who were seen at one of four North Texas ConTex concussion clinics which employ common diagnostic criteria and assessment metrics to evaluate effects of a concussion as well as longitudinal tracking of recovery.

Findings to date

The ConTex database and multidisciplinary oversight team has been established, and over 1700 participants aged 5–88 years have been enrolled. A majority of concussions were sport-related (60%), with a mean age of 17.5 years and similar numbers of males and females. Three-month follow-up compliance has been excellent (86%), with a majority of subjects reporting good recovery by that time. ConTex has provided a rich data source for multiple research projects focused on concussion characteristics, risk factors and outcomes, and led to the development of a statewide youth concussion registry.

Future plans

ConTex data are being analysed to add to the body of knowledge regarding concussion mechanisms, factors related to recovery and improving outcomes for concussion patients. ConTex will serve as a platform for future treatment studies and may serve as a model for other concussion surveillance programmes.

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<![CDATA[Physical activity and health-related quality of life in former elite and recreational cricketers from the UK with upper extremity or lower extremity persistent joint pain: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ncf0985df-95ac-48e6-a1f1-3437bc582b1a

Objective

To evaluate and compare physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in former elite and recreational cricketers with upper extremity (UE), lower extremity (LE) or no joint pain.

Study design

Cross-sectional cohort.

Setting

Despite the high prevalence of joint pain in former athletes, the impact of UE pain and LE pain on PA and HRQoL and potential differences between former recreational and elite athletes are poorly understood.

Participants

703 former cricketers aged ≥18 years (mean age 58.7, SD 12.9, played an average of 30 (IQR 20–40) seasons, 72% of whom had played at a recreational level) were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (UE pain, LE pain or no joint pain (defined as pain on most days of the past month)).

Primary and secondary outcomes

The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form collected weekly metabolic equivalents (METS), while the Short-Form 8 collected physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component scores. Kruskal-Wallis tests with Dunn’s post-hoc and multivariable linear regressions were performed.

Results

Weekly METS were similar in former cricketers with UE pain (median (IQR) 2560 (722–4398)), LE pain (2215 (527–3903)) and no pain (2449 (695–4203), p=0.39). MCS were similar between groups (UE pain 56.0 (52.1–60.0); LE pain 55.2 (51.1–59.4); no pain 54.7 (50.7–58.7), p=0.38). PCS were more impaired in former cricketers with UE pain (49.8 (44.9–54.8)) or LE pain (46.7 (41.0–51.9)) compared with no pain (54.2 (51.5–56.9), p<0.0001). Former cricketers with LE pain reported worse PCS than those with UE pain (p=0.04). Similar relationships were observed in former elite and recreational cricketers.

Conclusion

Despite impaired physical components of HRQoL in former cricketers with UE pain or LE pain, pain was not related to PA levels or mental components of HRQoL. Physical components of HRQoL were most impaired in those with LE pain, and findings were similar among former elite and recreational cricketers.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being: scoping review protocol]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5945508f-d66b-455a-a510-fb39dc99bff6

Introduction

Cricket is a popular sport played by 2.5 billion people of all ages and abilities. However, cricket participation is decreasing in the UK, despite an increased focus of governments on increasing sport participation to enhance public health. Understanding the health benefits and mitigating the health risks of cricket participation may help cricket organisations promote cricket participation while optimising the long-term health of cricket participants. Currently, there is no literature review on the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being; thus, this relationship remains unclear. Therefore, the aims of this scoping review were (1) to investigate the relationship between cricket participation, health and well-being and (ii) to identify the research gaps related to cricket, health and well-being.

Methods and analysis

Due to the broad nature of our research question and the large number of health outcomes assessed within the cricket literature and to facilitate identification of research gaps, a scoping review methodology was used. The methodology of this paper was informed by previous scoping review protocols and best practice methodological frameworks. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane Library, EBSCO, Web of Science and PEDro and grey literature sources (Google Scholar, ClinicalTrials.gov, ISRCTN Registry and ProQuest) will be systematically searched. Studies that assess a construct related to health and/or well-being in current and/or former cricketers from all ages and standards of play will be eligible. Two reviewers will independently screen full texts of identified studies for eligibility and will perform data extraction. Results will be presented in tabular and graphical forms and will be reported descriptively.

Ethics and dissemination

This research is exempt from ethics approval due to the data being available through published and public available resources. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed sports and exercise medicine journal regardless of positive or negative findings. In addition, results will be disseminated through multiple platforms, including conference presentations and social media using multimedia resources (eg, infographics, animations, videos, podcasts and blogs), to engage stakeholder groups, including cricketers, cricket coaches, sporting bodies, sports medicine professionals and policy makers. There findings will inform clinical decision making, policy changes and future research agendas.

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<![CDATA[Exercise and adiposity in overweight and obese children and adolescents: a systematic review with network meta-analysis of randomised trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfbe50bfb-a4cf-4eb7-acbd-c8e6226f6554

Objectives

Determine both the effects and hierarchy of effectiveness for exercise interventions (aerobic, strength training or both) on selected measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI) in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat) in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

Design

Network meta-analysis of randomised exercise intervention trials.

Setting

Any setting where a randomised trial could be conducted.

Participants

Overweight and obese male and/or female children and adolescents 2–18 years of age.

Interventions

Randomised exercise intervention trials>4 weeks, published between 1 January 1973 and 22 August 2018, and which included direct and/or indirect evidence for aerobic, strength training or combined aerobic and strength training.

Primary outcomes

Changes in BMI in kg/m2, fat mass and per cent body fat.

Results

Fifty-seven studies representing 127 groups (73 exercise, 54 control) and 2792 participants (1667 exercise, 1125 control) met the criteria for inclusion. Length of training (X- ± SD) averaged 14.1±6.2 weeks, frequency, 3.3±1.1 days per week and duration 42.0±21.0 min per session. Significant and clinically important reductions in BMI, fat mass and per cent body fat were observed in aerobic versus control comparisons (BMI, mean, 95% CI -1.0, 1.4 to −0.6; fat mass -2.1, –3.3 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat -1.5, –2.2 to −0.9%) and combined aerobic and strength versus control comparisons (BMI -0.7, –1.4 to −0.1; fat mass -2.5, –4.1 to −1.0 kg; per cent fat, -2.2, –3.2 to −1.2%). A significant reduction in per cent fat was also found for strength vs control comparisons (-1.3,–2.5 to −0.1%). Combined aerobic and strength training was ranked first for improving both fat mass (kg) and per cent body fat while aerobic exercise was ranked first for improving BMI.

Conclusions

Aerobic and combined aerobic and strength training are associated with improvements in adiposity outcomes in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

PROSPERO registration number

CRD42017073103.

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<![CDATA[Establishment of trauma treatment teams within a regional severe trauma treatment system in China: study protocol for a national cluster-randomised trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2d419ed5eed0c484dffac0

Introduction

The implementation of first aid processes for patients with trauma in China faces significant challenges. These challenges include long response times of prehospital first aid services, lack of information exchange between prehospital first aid services and in-hospital emergency services, lack of a professional rescue team in the majority of hospitals, and lack of standardised training for prehospital and in-hospital emergency personnel. The purpose of the trial is to guide the establishment of an urban trauma treatment system in China, highlight the construction of a trauma treatment system tailored to the Chinese context and improve levels of medical treatment by selecting approximately 100 counties across China as pilots to establish a regional trauma treatment system.

Methods and analysis

A cluster-randomised controlled trial will be performed in 98 county-level research institutes. Included research institutes will be randomised into an experimental group and a control group. Patients in both experimental and control groups will receive basic treatments. A trauma treatment team will be established in the experimental group. The primary outcome measure is in-hospital mortality rate of patients. The secondary outcome measures include mortality rate of patients within 30 days after trauma attack and within 30 days after discharge, the time between arrival in the institution and receiving consultation, and the time from admission to the start of surgery. The effects of establishment of trauma treatment teams on the treatment of severe trauma will be evaluated in all counties.

Ethics and dissemination

The procedures have been approved by The Medical Ethics Committee of Peking University People’s Hospital (No.2017PHB098-01) and conform to the Declaration of Helsinki. Data will be collected and analysed in accordance with participant privacy laws and regulations. Results will be disseminated through policy briefs, workshops, peer-reviewed publications and conferences.

Trial registration number

NCT03363880; Pre-results.

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<![CDATA[Group Medical Visits (GMVs) in primary care: an RCT of group-based versus individual appointments to reduce HbA1c in older people]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5aebdb1b463d7e32979fb7a3

Introduction

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects more than 1.1 million Canadians aged ≥65 years. Group Medical Visits are an emerging health service delivery method. Recent systematic reviews show that they can significantly reduce glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, but Group Visits have not been evaluated within primary care. We intend to determine the clinical effectiveness, quality of life and economic implications of Group Medical Visits within a primary care setting for older people with T2DM.

Methods and analysis

A 2-year proof-of-concept, single-blinded (measurement team) randomised control trial to test the efficacy of Group Medical Visits in an urban Canadian primary care setting. Participants ≥65 years old with T2DM (N=128) will be equally randomised to either eight groups of eight patients each (Group Medical Visits; Intervention) or to Individual visits (Standard Care; Controls). Those administering cointerventions are not blinded to group assignment. Our sample size is based on estimates of variance (±1.4% for HbA1c) and effect size (0.9/1.4=0.6) from the literature and from our own preliminary data. Forty participants per group will provide a β likelihood of 0.80, assuming an α of 0.05. A conservative estimation of an effect size of 0.7/1.4 changes the N in the power calculation to 59 per group. Hence, we aim to enrol 64 participants in each study arm. We will use intention-to-treat analysis and compare mean HbA1c (% glycosylated HbA1c) (primary outcome) of Intervention/Control participants at 12 months, 24 months and 1 year postintervention on selected clinical, patient-rated and economic measures.

Trial registration number

NCT02002143.

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<![CDATA[Composition of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour participation across the school-day, influence of gender and weight status: cross-sectional analyses among disadvantaged Victorian school children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b02f406463d7e6147519d76

Background

The after-school period has been described as the ‘critical window’ for physical activity (PA) participation. However, little is known about the importance of this window compared with the before and during-school period among socioeconomically disadvantaged children, and influence of gender and weight status.

Methods

39 out of 156 (RR=25%) invited primary schools across 26 local government areas in Victoria, Australia, consented to participate with 856 children (RR=36%) participating in the wider study. The analysis sample included 298 Grade 4 and Grade 6 children (mean age: 11.2±1.1; 44% male) whom met minimum accelerometry wear-time criteria and had complete height, weight and health-behaviours questionnaire data. Accelerometry measured duration in daily light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time (ST) was calculated for before-school=8–8:59, during-school=9:00–15:29 and after-school=15:30–18:00. Bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses were conducted.

Results

During-school represented the greatest accumulation of LPA and MVPA compared with the before and after-school periods. Boys engaged in 102 min/day of LPA (95% CI 98.5 to 104.9) and 62 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 58.9 to 64.7) during-school; girls engaged in 103 min/day of LPA (95% CI 99.7 to 106.5) and 45 min/day of MVPA (95% CI 42.9 to 47.4). Linear regression models indicated that girls with overweight or obesity engaged in significantly less LPA, MVPA and more time in ST during-school.

Conclusions

This study highlights the importance of in-school PA compared with after-school PA among socioeconomically disadvantage children whom may have fewer resources to participate in after-school PA.

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<![CDATA[Factoring in weather variation to capture the influence of urban design and built environment on globally recommended levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in children]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af642fd463d7e3e9a499895

Objectives

In curbing physical inactivity, as behavioural interventions directed at individuals have not produced a population-level change, an ecological perspective called active living research has gained prominence. However, active living research consistently underexplores the role played by a perennial phenomenon encompassing all other environmental exposures—variation in weather. After factoring in weather variation, this study investigated the influence of diverse environmental exposures (including urban design and built environment) on the accumulation of globally recommended moderate to vigorous physical activity levels (MVPA) in children.

Design

This cross-sectional observational study is part of an active living initiative set in the Canadian prairie city of Saskatoon. As part of this study, Saskatoon's neighbourhoods were classified based on urban street design into grid-pattern, fractured grid-pattern and curvilinear types of neighbourhoods. Moreover, diverse environmental exposures were measured including, neighbourhood built environment, and neighbourhood and household socioeconomic environment. Actical accelerometers were deployed between April and June 2010 (spring-summer) to derive MVPA of 331 10–14-year-old children in 25 1-week cycles. Each cycle of accelerometry was conducted on a different cohort of children within the total sample and matched with weather data obtained from Environment Canada. Multilevel modelling using Hierarchical Linear and Non-linear Modelling software was conducted by factoring in weather variation to depict the influence of diverse environmental exposures on the accumulation of recommended MVPA.

Results

Urban design, including diversity of destinations within neighbourhoods played a significant role in the accumulation of MVPA. After factoring in weather variation, it was observed that children living in neighbourhoods closer to the city centre (with higher diversity of destinations) were more likely to accumulate recommended MVPA.

Conclusions

The findings indicate that after factoring in weather variation, certain types of urban design are more likely to be associated with MVPA accumulation.

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<![CDATA[Impact of anaemia on lung function and exercise capacity in patients with stable severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5af26659463d7e3ed4426e72

Objective

This study intended to search for potential correlations between anaemia in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; GOLD stage III) and pulmonary function at rest, exercise capacity as well as ventilatory efficiency, using pulmonary function test (PFT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).

Setting

The study was undertaken at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, a tertiary-level centre affiliated to Tongji University. It caters to a large population base within Shanghai and referrals from centres in other cities as well.

Participants

157 Chinese patients with stable severe COPD were divided into 2 groups: the anaemia group (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dL for males, and <11 g/dL for females (n=48)) and the non-anaemia group (n=109).

Primary and secondary outcome measures

Arterial blood gas, PFT and CPET were tested in all patients.

Results

(1) Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) corrected by Hb was significantly lower in the anaemia group ((15.3±1.9) mL/min/mm Hg) than in the non-anaemia group ((17.1±2.1) mL/min/mm Hg) (p<0.05). A significant difference did not exist in the level of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), FEV1%pred, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), inspiratory capacity (IC), residual volume (RV), total lung capacity (TLC) and RV/TLC (p>0.05). (2) Peak Load, Peak oxygen uptake (), Peak %pred, Peak , Peak pulse and the ratio of increase to WR increase () were significantly lower in the anaemia group (p<0.05); however, Peak minute ventilation (VE), Lowest /carbon dioxide output () and Peak dead space/tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) were similar between the 2 groups (p>0.05). (3) A strong positive correlation was found between Hb concentration and Peak in patients with anaemia (r=0.702, p<0.01).

Conclusions

Anaemia has a negative impact on gas exchange and exercise tolerance during exercise in patients with severe COPD. The decrease in amplitude of Hb levels is related to the quantity of oxygen uptake.

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<![CDATA[Values-based and acceptance-based intervention to promote adoption and maintenance of habitual physical activity among inactive adults with overweight/obesity: a study protocol for an open trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c644661d5eed0c484c2bbeb

Introduction

Despite the importance of regular moderate-intensity to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) for health benefits and long-term weight management, current comprehensive lifestyle interventions have focused on providing MVPA prescriptions and goals but with only minimal and intermittent focus on psychosocial theoretical constructs and novel strategies, perhaps explaining the often modest impact on adoption and maintenance of higher levels of MVPA. An intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) targeting the increase of values-based autonomous motivation could improve the adoption and maintenance of habitual MVPA among insufficiently active overweight or obese adults in a brief intervention format.

Methods and analysis

The overall aim of this study is to develop and test the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of an ACT-based brief workshop intervention for increasing bouted MVPA for inactive adults with overweight/obesity using a single-arm design. A total of 48 inactive adults with overweight/obesity will be recruited and attend a 4-hour, ACT-based workshop followed by weekly emails and monthly phone calls for 3 months. The workshop will teach values clarification and acceptance-based skills to increase values-based autonomous motivation and bouted MVPA. Participants will self-monitor minutes of MVPA and personal values and report on progress via weekly emails and monthly phone calls. Assessments will be conducted at baseline and at 3 and 6 months.

Ethics and dissemination

Study procedures have been approved by the Institutional Review Board. Consent is given in writing and in person. Data collection and storage separates study data from personally identifying information. Two safety officers who are not connected to the study monitor study progress and participant safety.

Trial registration number

NCT03565731; Pre-results.

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<![CDATA[Effects of new dock-less bicycle-sharing programs on cycling: a retrospective study in Shanghai]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e576bd5eed0c48423f98f

Objectives

To examine (1) the effect of new dock-less bicycle-sharing programmes on change in travel mode and (2) the correlates of change in travel mode.

Design

A retrospective natural experimental study.

Setting

12 neighbourhoods in Shanghai.

Participants

1265 respondents were recruited for a retrospective study in May 2017.

Main outcome measures

Prevalence of cycling before and after launch of dock-less bicycle-sharing programme.

Results

The proportion of participants cycling for transport increased from 33.3% prior to the launch of the bicycle-sharing programmes to 48.3% 1 year after the launch (p<0.001). Being in the age group of 30–49 years (OR 2.28; 95% CI 1.30 to 4.00), living within the inner ring of the city (OR 2.27; 95% CI 1.22 to 4.26), having dedicated bicycle lanes (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.68) and perceiving riding shared bicycles as fashionable (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.76) were positively associated with adopting cycling for transport. Access to a public transportation stop/station (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.99) was inversely correlated with adopting cycling for transport.

Conclusions

Dock-less bicycle sharing may promote bicycle use in a metropolitan setting. Findings from this study also highlight the importance of cycling-friendly built environments and cultural norms as facilitators of adopting cycling.

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<![CDATA[Can the Easter break induce a long-term break of exercise routines? An analysis of Danish gym data using a regression discontinuity design]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c9e566dd5eed0c48423df28

Objectives

Many sedentary individuals are aware of the health benefits of regular physical activity and start becoming more physically active. Yet, despite good intentions, many struggle to keep up initial exercise levels and experience a decline in exercise frequency. A possible explanation is that it is hard to establish habits or routines, and that such routines—once established—might be easy to break. In this paper, we analyse whether a break in habitual/routine behaviour—induced by the Easter holidays—results in individuals exercising less after the break.

Methods

The study included a sample of 1210 members of a Danish chain of fitness centres who were gym members at least since the preceding New Year’s Day. Participants granted access to gym attendance data, which were automatically recorded when entering the gym. We use a regression discontinuity design encompassing a time period of 10 weeks prior to and 10 weeks after Easter.

Results

We found a significant and relevant discretionary drop in exercise frequency right after the Easter holidays of 0.24 times per week (p=0.001) corresponding to a fall of 12.25% compared with the week prior to the Easter holidays. The effect was especially profound for individuals below retirement age and for individuals who had attended the gym with a higher frequency (twice a week or more) in the 6 weeks prior to the Easter break.

Discussion

This information is potentially relevant for helping individuals maintain an exercise habit. Motivational support should focus on the time period after normative breaks, such as Easter or other holidays.

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<![CDATA[Study of Concussion in Rugby Union through MicroRNAs (SCRUM): a study protocol of a prospective, observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b17ed5eed0c484c4d2e2

Introduction

The diagnosis of mild traumatic brain injury or sports-related concussion is a challenge for all clinicians, players, coaches and parents involved in contact sports. Currently, there is no validated objective biomarker available to assess the presence or severity of concussion in sport, and so it is necessary to rely on subjective measures like self-reporting of symptoms which depend on the cooperation of the athlete. There is a significant health risk associated with repetitive injury if the diagnosis is missed, and so there is great value in an objective biomarker to assist diagnostic and prognostic decisions.

Objective

To establish a panel of non-invasive MicroRNA biomarkers in urine and saliva for the rapid diagnosis of sports-related concussion and investigate the kinetics and clinical utility of these biomarkers in assisting diagnostic, prognostic and return-to-play decisions.

Methods and analysis

Observational, prospective, multicentre cohort study recruiting between the 2017–2018 and 2018–2019 Rugby Union seasons. Professional rugby players in the two highest tiers of senior professional domestic rugby competition in England will be recruited prospectively to the study. During the season, three groups will be identified: athletes entering the World Rugby Head Injury Assessment (HIA) protocol, uninjured control athletes and control athletes with musculoskeletal injuries. Saliva and urine will be collected from these athletes at multiple timepoints, coinciding with key times in the HIA protocol and return-to-play process.

Ethics and dissemination

Ethics approval has been obtained. The compiled and analysed results will be presented at national and international conferences concerning the care of patients with traumatic brain injury. Results will also be submitted for peer review and publication in the subject journals/literature.

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<![CDATA[Accidents and injuries related to powered paragliding: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5ba6e50940307c489cbf7a1d

Objectives

Powered paragliding (PPG) and paragliding are two totally different sports, mainly because of the use of an engine in powered paragliding. As a consequence, the pattern of injuries caused by each of these two sports may be different.

Setting

To test this hypothesis, we analysed 384 incident reports gathered by the US Powered Paragliding Association from 1995 to 2012. The majority of the incidents occurred in the USA, while 26 incidents occurred elsewhere: Canada (8), Mexico (5), Panama (1), China (1), Japan (1), Malaysia (1), Indonesia (Java) (1), Europe (8): of which Spain (1), Belgium (1), UK (3), Italy (1), Romania (1), unknown (1).

Outcome

To identify the most affected body area and the most common type of injury sustained in PPG, and to highlight any differences from paragliding.

Results

The most affected body areas in PPG were the upper limbs (44.5%), followed by the lower limbs (32%), the back (9.8%), the head (7%), the pelvis (3.1), the chest (2.7%) and the abdomen (0.7%) (p<0.001). The engine caused 43 accidents (11.2%) in our study and was responsible for the majority of injuries to the upper limbs. The number of fatal accidents in PPG is not lower than in paragliding and hang-gliding.

Conclusions

To help prevent the specific injuries of PPG, the most appropriate equipment should be identified. The results of this study also suggest that, in the future, this sport should be analysed separately from paragliding.

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<![CDATA[Leisure-time sport and overuse injuries of extremities in children age 6–13, a 2.5 years prospective cohort study: the CHAMPS-study DK]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b35dc7f463d7e4bdd7ced42

Objectives

It is not known which sports are most likely to cause overuse injuries of the extremities in children. In this study, we report on the incidence of overuse injuries of the upper and lower extremities in children who participate in various leisure-time sports and relate this to the frequency of sport sessions.

Design

Natural experiment including a prospective cohort study.

Setting

10 state schools in 1 Danish municipality: Svendborg.

Participants

1270 children aged 6–13 years participating in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark.

Outcomes measures

Over 2.5 years, parents answered weekly SMS-track messages (a) on type and frequency of leisure-time sports undertaken by their child, and (b) reporting if their child had experienced any musculoskeletal pain. Children with reported pain were examined by a clinician and diagnosed as having an overuse injury of an extremity or not. The incidence of diagnosed overuse injury was calculated for each of the 9 most common sports in relation to 5-week periods. Incidence by frequency of sessions was calculated, and multivariable analysis was performed taking into account age, sex and frequency of physical education classes at school.

Results

Incidence of overuse injuries of the lower extremity ranged from 0.2 to 3.3 for the 9 sports, but was near 0 for overuse injuries of the upper extremities. There was no obvious dose–response. The multivariate analysis showed soccer and handball to be the sports most likely to result in an overuse injury.

Conclusions

Among a general population of schoolchildren, overuse injuries of the lower extremities were not common and overuse injuries of the upper extremities were rare. Organised leisure-time sport, as practised in Denmark, can be considered a safe activity for children.

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