ResearchPad - 20 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Taking the Longer View of COVID‐19]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_16668 What are the prospects for dealing with COVID‐19 more effectively in the future? This editorial addresses the question from the perspective of long‐term control of coronavirus infection.

]]>
<![CDATA[A novel NGS library preparation method to characterize native termini of fragmented DNA]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1775440d-da06-4afe-95a5-bd1acb30829e Biological and chemical DNA fragmentation generates DNA molecules with a variety of termini, including blunt ends and single-stranded overhangs. We have developed a Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) assay, XACTLY, to interrogate the termini of fragmented DNA, information traditionally lost in standard NGS library preparation methods. Here we describe the XACTLY method, showcase its sensitivity and specificity, and demonstrate its utility in in vitro experiments. The XACTLY assay is able to report relative abundances of all lengths and types (5′ and 3′) of single-stranded overhangs, if present, on each DNA fragment with an overall accuracy between 80–90%. In addition, XACTLY retains the sequence of each native DNA molecule after fragmentation and can capture the genomic landscape of cleavage events at single nucleotide resolution. The XACTLY assay can be applied as a novel research and discovery tool for fragmentation analyses and in cell-free DNA.

]]>
<![CDATA[Cytomegalovirus reactivation in ICU patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N430afdab-6192-45d4-b739-fbe00c4c3dfc

Introduction

Approximately 20 years have passed since we reported our results of histologically proven cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia in non-immunocompromised ICU patients. Even if there are more recent reports suggesting that CMV may worsen the outcomes for ICU patients, there is no definite answer to this question: is CMV a potential pathogen for ICU patients or is it simply a bystander?

Methods

We will describe the pathophysiology of active CMV infection and the most recent insights concerning the epidemiological aspects of these reactivations.

Major findings

Cytomegalovirus can be pathogenic by a direct organ insult (such as for the lung), by decreasing host defences against other microorganisms and/or by enhancing the body’s inflammatory response (as in acute respiratory distress syndrome). The incidence of active CMV infection is dependent on the diagnostic method used. Using the most sophisticated available biological tools, the incidence can reach 15–20 % of ICU patients (20–40 % in ICU patients with positive CMV serology). In adequately powered cohorts of patients, active CMV infection appears to be associated with worse outcomes for mechanically ventilated ICU patients.

Discussion

There is no absolute direct proof of a negative impact of active CMV infection on the health outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients. Prospective randomized trials are lacking. Future trials should examine the potential benefits for health outcomes of using antiviral treatments. Such treatments could be prophylactic, pre-emptive or used only when there is an end-organ disease.

Conclusion

Cytomegalovirus infection may affect health outcomes for ICU patients. Additional prospective trials are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

]]>
<![CDATA[THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Enzymes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N250c81a9-e95b-46b7-82a4-aed50a85005e

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20 is the fourth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide represents approximately 400 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point‐in‐time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.14752. Enzymes are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein‐coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid‐2019, and supersedes data presented in the 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC‐IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.

]]>
<![CDATA[The McCAVE Trial: Vanucizumab plus mFOLFOX‐6 Versus Bevacizumab plus mFOLFOX‐6 in Patients with Previously Untreated Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma (mCRC)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nea8b4647-34da-4b60-815c-303ebbb07b55

Abstract

Background

Bevacizumab, a VEGF‐A inhibitor, in combination with chemotherapy, has proven to increase progression‐free survival (PFS) and overall survival in multiple lines of therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The angiogenic factor angiopoetin‐2 (Ang‐2) is associated with poor prognosis in many cancers, including mCRC. Preclinical models demonstrate improved activity when inhibiting both VEGF‐A and Ang‐2, suggesting that the dual VEGF‐A and Ang‐2 blocker vanucizumab (RO5520985 or RG‐7221) may improve clinical outcomes. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of vanucizumab plus modified (m)FOLFOX‐6 (folinic acid (leucovorin), fluorouracil (5‐FU) and oxaliplatin) versus bevacizumab/mFOLFOX‐6 for first‐line mCRC.

Patients and Methods

All patients received mFOLFOX‐6 and were randomized 1:1 to also receive vanucizumab 2,000 mg or bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every other week. Oxaliplatin was given for eight cycles; other agents were continued until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity for a maximum of 24 months. The primary endpoint was investigator‐assessed PFS.

Results

One hundred eighty‐nine patients were randomized (vanucizumab, n = 94; bevacizumab, n = 95). The number of PFS events was comparable (vanucizumab, n = 39; bevacizumab, n = 43). The hazard ratio was 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.64–1.58; p = .98) in a stratified analysis based on number of metastatic sites and region. Objective response rate was 52.1% and 57.9% in the vanucizumab and bevacizumab arm, respectively. Baseline plasma Ang‐2 levels were prognostic in both arms but not predictive for treatment effects on PFS of vanucizumab. The incidence of adverse events of grade ≥3 was similar between treatment arms (83.9% vs. 82.1%); gastrointestinal perforations (10.8% vs. 8.4%) exceeded previously reported rates in this setting. Hypertension and peripheral edema were more frequent in the vanucizumab arm.

Conclusion

Vanucizumab/mFOLFOX‐6 did not improve PFS and was associated with increased rates of antiangiogenic toxicity compared with bevacizumab/mFOLFOX‐6. Our results suggest that Ang‐2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in first‐line mCRC.

Implications for Practice

This randomized phase II study demonstrates that additional angiopoietin‐2 (Ang‐2) inhibition does not result in superior benefit over anti–VEGF‐A blockade alone when each added to standard chemotherapy. Moreover, the performed pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that vanucizumab was bioavailable and affected its intended target, thereby strongly suggesting that Ang‐2 is not a relevant therapeutic target in the clinical setting of treatment‐naïve metastatic colorectal cancer. As a result, the further clinical development of the dual VEGF‐A and Ang‐2 inhibitor vanucizumab was discontinued.

]]>
<![CDATA[Challenges and Opportunities to Updating Prescribing Information for Longstanding Oncology Drugs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd33e5ed6-68bf-4ee4-85e7-ef8662ba5a4b

Abstract

A number of important drugs used to treat cancer—many of which serve as the backbone of modern chemotherapy regimens—have outdated prescribing information in their drug labeling. The Food and Drug Administration is undertaking a pilot project to develop a process and criteria for updating prescribing information for longstanding oncology drugs, based on the breadth of knowledge the cancer community has accumulated with the use of these drugs over time. This article highlights a number of considerations for labeling updates, including selecting priorities for updating; data sources and evidentiary criteria; as well as the risks, challenges, and opportunities for iterative review to ensure prescribing information for oncology drugs remains relevant to current clinical practice.

]]>
<![CDATA[NurOwn, phase 2, randomized, clinical trial in patients with ALS]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N12792c5c-e2fb-4784-8c3a-5d610844b852

Objective

To determine the safety and efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-neurotrophic factor (NTF) cells (NurOwn®, autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs, induced to secrete NTFs) delivered by combined intrathecal and intramuscular administration to participants with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in a phase 2 randomized controlled trial.

Methods

The study enrolled 48 participants randomized 3:1 (treatment: placebo). After a 3-month pretransplant period, participants received 1 dose of MSC-NTF cells (n = 36) or placebo (n = 12) and were followed for 6 months. CSF was collected before and 2 weeks after transplantation.

Results

The study met its primary safety endpoint. The rate of disease progression (Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale [ALSFRS-R] slope change) in the overall study population was similar in treated and placebo participants. In a prespecified rapid progressor subgroup (n = 21), rate of disease progression was improved at early time points (p < 0.05). To address heterogeneity, a responder analysis showed that a higher proportion of treated participants experienced ≥1.5 points/month ALSFRS-R slope improvement compared to placebo at all time points, and was significant in rapid progressors at 4 and 12 weeks (p = 0.004 and 0.046, respectively). CSF neurotrophic factors increased and CSF inflammatory biomarkers decreased in treated participants (p < 0.05) post-transplantation. CSF monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 levels correlated with ALSFRS-R slope improvement up to 24 weeks (p < 0.05).

Conclusion

A single-dose transplantation of MSC-NTF cells is safe and demonstrated early promising signs of efficacy. This establishes a clear path forward for a multidose randomized clinical trial of intrathecal autologous MSC-NTF cell transplantation in ALS.

Classification of evidence

This phase II study provides Class I evidence.

]]>
<![CDATA[Randomized, controlled crossover study of IVIg for demyelinating polyneuropathy and diabetes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N04420b12-3ec3-4d82-b302-25c059c1508a

Objective

To determine whether IV immunoglobulin (IVIg) is more effective than placebo at reducing disability in patients with diabetes and demyelinating polyneuropathy features.

Methods

This is a double-blinded, single-center, randomized, controlled crossover trial of IVIg treatment vs placebo. The primary outcome measure was the mean change in Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale (ONLS) scores during the IVIg phasecompared with the placebo phase. Secondary outcomes include changes in the Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale, Medical Research Council sum scores, grip strength, electrophysiologic measurements, quality of life, and adverse effects.

Results

Twenty-five subjects were recruited between March 2015 and April 2017. The mean change in ONLS scores was −0.2 points during the IVIg phase and 0.0 points during the placebo phase (p = 0.23). Secondary outcomes did not show significant differences between IVIg and placebo.

Conclusions

IVIg did not reduce disability, improve strength, or quality of life in patients with demyelinating polyneuropathy features and diabetes after 3 months of treatment in comparison with placebo. Therefore, careful consideration of the primary diagnosis is required before immunomodulatory therapy.

Classification of evidence

This study provides Class I evidence that for patients with diabetes and demyelinating polyneuropathy features, IVIg did not significantly reduce disability.

]]>
<![CDATA[Randomized trial of daily high-dose vitamin D3 in patients with RRMS receiving subcutaneous interferon β-1a]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N237478a7-aa72-4037-a4e6-c554009e1821

Objective

In the phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Supplementation of Vigantol Oil versus Placebo Add-on in Patients with Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) Receiving Rebif Treatment (SOLAR) study (NCT01285401), we assessed the efficacy and safety of add-on vitamin D3 in patients with RRMS.

Methods

Eligible patients with RRMS treated with SC interferon-β-1a (IFN-β-1a) 44 μg 3 times weekly and serum 25(OH)D levels <150 nmol/L were included. From February 15, 2011, to May 11, 2015, 229 patients were included and randomized 1:1 to receive SC IFN-β-1a plus placebo (n = 116) or SC IFN-β-1a plus oral high-dose vitamin D3 14,007 IU/d (n = 113). The revised primary outcome was the proportion of patients with no evidence of disease activity (NEDA-3) at week 48.

Results

At 48 weeks, 36.3% of patients who received high-dose vitamin D3 had NEDA-3, without a statistically significant difference in NEDA-3 status between groups (placebo 35.3%; odds ratio 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–1.63; p = 0.80). Compared with placebo, the high-dose vitamin D3 group had better MRI outcomes for combined unique active lesions (incidence rate ratio 0.68; 95% CI 0.52–0.89; p = 0.0045) and change from baseline in total volume of T2 lesions (difference in mean ranks: −0.074; p = 0.035).

Conclusions

SOLAR did not establish a benefit for high-dose vitamin D3 as add-on to IFN-β-1a, based on the primary outcome of NEDA-3, but findings from exploratory outcomes suggest protective effects on development of new MRI lesions in patients with RRMS.

Clinicaltrials.gov identifier

NCT01285401.

Classification of evidence

This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with RRMS treated with SC IFN-β-1a, 48 weeks of cholecalciferol supplementation did not promote NEDA-3 status.

]]>
<![CDATA[SGEF forms a complex with Scribble and Dlg1 and regulates epithelial junctions and contractility]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nafa1aa93-c090-4a21-b5c1-05b1bdb45d04

Awadia et al. show that SGEF, a RhoG-specific GEF, forms a ternary complex with two members of the Scribble polarity complex, Scribble and Dlg1, and regulates junction formation, apical contractility, E-cadherin stability, and lumen formation in epithelial cells.

]]>
<![CDATA[Synaptic neurexin-1 assembles into dynamically regulated active zone nanoclusters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2375b59c-7988-4c48-9a30-d168163c3153

Using super-resolution microscopy, Trotter et al. illuminate an unexpected nanoscale organization of excitatory synapses in which neurexins are assembled in the presynaptic active zone into dynamic nanoclusters that are regulated by ADAM10-mediated ectodomain cleavage.

]]>
<![CDATA[Modelling of open photoacoustic resonators]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nb6fa1f07-ef3b-40fd-80c9-5d982443d43c

Photoacoustic spectroscopy employs acoustic resonators for signal amplification. Resonators are usually closed, however, in some applications, open resonators are preferred. The opening deteriorates the photoacoustic signal hence reducing the sensitivity of the photoacoustic measurement. We present two new approaches for simulating the photoacoustic signal in open resonators using finite element modelling. The approaches are based on the amplitude mode expansion model and the viscothermal model with the opening modelled using perfectly matched layers and the boundary element method respectively. Additionally, the performance of the viscothermal model using perfectly matched layers for simulating open resonators is extended to the ultrasound region. The simulation results are verified by comparing them to photoacoustic measurements. The approaches provide an accurate basis for designing and optimizing open resonators with high sensitivity.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Pilot Study of Vinorelbine Safety and Pharmacokinetics in Patients with Varying Degrees of Liver Dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2d6d3e87-e8cf-463d-ab0f-d044bbdf4099

Vinorelbine tartrate is a semi‐synthetic vinca alkaloid and an inhibitor of microtubule polymerization with demonstrated antitumor properties across a spectrum of cancers. The pharmacokinetics of vinorelbine may be altered in individuals with liver dysfunction, considering that hepatic metabolism serves as the predominant route of drug elimination. This article reports the pharmacokinetics and safety of vinorelbine in patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment, including dosing recommendations in this population.

]]>
<![CDATA[Phase Ib Study of Combination Therapy with MEK Inhibitor Binimetinib and Phosphatidylinositol 3‐Kinase Inhibitor Buparlisib in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumors with RAS/RAF Alterations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfb5ba1d1-f532-4978-897f-832070bb4d34

Abstract

Background

This multicenter, open‐label, phase Ib study investigated the safety and efficacy of binimetinib (MEK inhibitor) in combination with buparlisib (phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) in patients with advanced solid tumors with RAS/RAF alterations.

Materials and Methods

Eighty‐nine patients were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients had advanced solid tumors with disease progression after standard therapy and/or for which no standard therapy existed. Evaluable disease was mandatory, per RECIST version 1.1 and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0‐2. Binimetinib and buparlisib combinations were explored in patients with KRAS‐, NRAS‐, or BRAF‐mutant advanced solid tumors until the maximum tolerated dose and recommended phase II dose (RP2D) were defined. The expansion phase comprised patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‐mutant, advanced non‐small cell lung cancer, after progression on an EGFR inhibitor; advanced RAS‐ or BRAF‐mutant ovarian cancer; or advanced non‐small cell lung cancer with KRAS mutation.

Results

At data cutoff, 32/89 patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events. RP2D for continuous dosing was buparlisib 80 mg once daily/binimetinib 45 mg twice daily. The toxicity profile of the combination resulted in a lower dose intensity than anticipated. Six (12.0%) patients with RAS/BRAF‐mutant ovarian cancer achieved a partial response. Pharmacokinetics of binimetinib were not altered by buparlisib. Pharmacodynamic analyses revealed downregulation of pERK and pS6 in tumor biopsies.

Conclusion

Although dual inhibition of MEK and the PI3K pathways showed promising activity in RAS/BRAF ovarian cancer, continuous dosing resulted in intolerable toxicities beyond the dose‐limiting toxicity monitoring period. Alternative schedules such as pulsatile dosing may be advantageous when combining therapies.

Implications for Practice

Because dysregulation of the mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the phosphatidylinositol 3‐kinase (PI3K) pathways are both frequently involved in resistance to current targeted therapies, dual inhibition of both pathways may be required to overcome resistance mechanisms to single‐agent tyrosine kinase inhibitors or to treat cancers with driver mutations that cannot be directly targeted. A study investigating the safety and efficacy of combination binimetinib (MEK inhibitor) and buparlisib (PI3K inhibitor) in patients harboring alterations in the RAS/RAF pathway was conducted. The results may inform the design of future combination therapy trials in patients with tumors harboring mutations in the PI3K and MAPK pathways.

]]>
<![CDATA[Photoacoustic and photothermal methods in spectroscopy and characterization of soils and soil organic matter]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N15454dd1-99a6-43ab-ad06-50511e79c442

Review sums up the application of photoacoustic and photothermal spectroscopies for the analysis and characterization of soils and soil organic matter and discusses the outlooks in this area.

]]>
<![CDATA[Toroidally focused sensor array for real-time laser-ultrasonic imaging: The first experimental study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N06a6723a-bca1-412f-b487-50e2bd2b91df

In this paper we report on the first toroidally focused 2D real-time laser-ultrasonic imaging system and a modified filtered back projection algorithm that can be used in the region near the waist of the astigmatic laser-ultrasonic probe beam. The system is capable of visualizing an acupuncture needle 0.2 mm in diameter located at ∼4 cm depth in water. The lateral spatial resolution is better than ∼0.32 mm and axial spatial resolution is ∼30 μm. The achieved frame rate is up to 30 Hz. The depth dependency of the sensitivity region width and lateral resolution are experimentally measured and discussed. The array is intended to be used as a part of combined real-time photoacoustic and laser-ultrasonic imaging system.

]]>
<![CDATA[Lymphocyte pharmacodynamics are not associated with autoimmunity or efficacy after alemtuzumab]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N51ed4511-2943-462a-b897-b9f37a2aa73d

Objective

To examine the association between peripheral blood lymphocyte pharmacodynamics and autoimmune adverse events (AEs) or return of disease activity in alemtuzumab-treated patients with relapsing-remitting MS.

Methods

Patients received 2 alemtuzumab courses (12 mg/d IV; 5 days at baseline, 3 days 12 months later) in the 2-year Comparison of Alemtuzumab and Rebif Efficacy in Multiple Sclerosis studies (NCT00530348 and NCT00548405) and could then receive as-needed alemtuzumab or other disease-modifying therapy in a 4-year extension (NCT00930553). Lymphocytes were phenotyped quarterly over 2 years using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Pharmacodynamic assessments included counts of total lymphocytes, CD3+ T cells, CD4+/CD8+ T cells (total/naive/memory/regulatory [Treg]), and CD19+ B cells (total/immature/mature/memory) and ratios of CD19+ (total/immature/mature/memory) to Treg (CD4+/CD8+) counts. Assessed autoimmune AEs included immune thrombocytopenia, nephropathies, and thyroid events. Efficacy assessments included relapses, 6-month confirmed disability worsening (CDW), and MRI disease activity.

Results

Lymphocyte repopulation patterns, including ratios between distinct lymphocyte subsets (e.g., CD19+ to Treg cell count ratios), showed no significant differences over 2 years in patients developing/not developing autoimmune AEs, relapses, CDW, or MRI activity through 6 years following alemtuzumab. Lymphocyte kinetics were also unrelated to multiple autoimmune AEs or extreme clinical phenotypes.

Conclusions

Repopulation kinetics of the evaluated peripheral lymphocyte subsets did not predict autoimmune AE occurrence or disease activity, including return of disease activity after 2 alemtuzumab courses. Further study is needed to investigate potential antigen-level markers of treatment response.

]]>
<![CDATA[THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: G protein‐coupled receptors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc3ca3185-f4c7-485c-a075-0b68e6175c1e

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20 is the fourth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide represents approximately 400 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point‐in‐time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.14748. G protein‐coupled receptors are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid‐2019, and supersedes data presented in the 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC‐IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.

]]>
<![CDATA[THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Ion channels]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N6494375e-83ba-4048-8f1b-e673ccdbe854

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20 is the fourth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org/), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide represents approximately 400 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point‐in‐time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.14749. Ion channels are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein‐coupled receptors, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors, enzymes and transporters. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid‐2019, and supersedes data presented in the 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC‐IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.

]]>
<![CDATA[THE CONCISE GUIDE TO PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20: Transporters]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2ea5031b-05ae-4b76-8c87-846eed4f2327

The Concise Guide to PHARMACOLOGY 2019/20 is the fourth in this series of biennial publications. The Concise Guide provides concise overviews of the key properties of nearly 1800 human drug targets with an emphasis on selective pharmacology (where available), plus links to the open access knowledgebase source of drug targets and their ligands (http://www.guidetopharmacology.org), which provides more detailed views of target and ligand properties. Although the Concise Guide represents approximately 400 pages, the material presented is substantially reduced compared to information and links presented on the website. It provides a permanent, citable, point‐in‐time record that will survive database updates. The full contents of this section can be found at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.14753. Transporters are one of the six major pharmacological targets into which the Guide is divided, with the others being: G protein‐coupled receptors, ion channels, nuclear hormone receptors, catalytic receptors and enzymes. These are presented with nomenclature guidance and summary information on the best available pharmacological tools, alongside key references and suggestions for further reading. The landscape format of the Concise Guide is designed to facilitate comparison of related targets from material contemporary to mid‐2019, and supersedes data presented in the 2017/18, 2015/16 and 2013/14 Concise Guides and previous Guides to Receptors and Channels. It is produced in close conjunction with the International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology Committee on Receptor Nomenclature and Drug Classification (NC‐IUPHAR), therefore, providing official IUPHAR classification and nomenclature for human drug targets, where appropriate.

]]>