ResearchPad - 2312 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[GI symptoms as early signs of COVID-19 in hospitalised Italian patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10257 <![CDATA[Outcomes of COVID-19 in 79 patients with IBD in Italy: an IG-IBD study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_10120 COVID-19 has rapidly become a major health emergency worldwide. Patients with IBD are at increased risk of infection, especially when they have active disease and are taking immunosuppressive therapy. The characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with IBD remain unclear.DesignThis Italian prospective observational cohort study enrolled consecutive patients with an established IBD diagnosis and confirmed COVID-19. Data regarding age, sex, IBD (type, treatments and clinical activity), other comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)), signs and symptoms of COVID-19 and therapies were compared with COVID-19 outcomes (pneumonia, hospitalisation, respiratory therapy and death).ResultsBetween 11 and 29 March 2020, 79 patients with IBD with COVID-19 were enrolled at 24 IBD referral units. Thirty-six patients had COVID-19-related pneumonia (46%), 22 (28%) were hospitalised, 7 (9%) required non-mechanical ventilation, 9 (11%) required continuous positive airway pressure therapy, 2 (3%) had endotracheal intubation and 6 (8%) died. Four patients (6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19 while they were being hospitalised for a severe flare of IBD. Age over 65 years (p=0.03), UC diagnosis (p=0.03), IBD activity (p=0.003) and a CCI score >1 (p=0.04) were significantly associated with COVID-19 pneumonia, whereas concomitant IBD treatments were not. Age over 65 years (p=0.002), active IBD (p=0.02) and higher CCI score were significantly associated with COVID-19-related death.ConclusionsActive IBD, old age and comorbidities were associated with a negative COVID-19 outcome, whereas IBD treatments were not. Preventing acute IBD flares may avoid fatal COVID-19 in patients with IBD. Further research is needed. ]]> <![CDATA[Prevention of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 transmission in endoscopy: international recommendations and the need for a gold standard]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne4983589-6fcf-4357-a33c-325a5ea0bfda <![CDATA[COVID-19 and the gastrointestinal tract: more than meets the eye]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbc05aeb8-faa5-4754-af32-02a31d526403 <![CDATA[Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of 74 cases of coronavirus-infected disease 2019 (COVID-19) with gastrointestinal symptoms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na472ae66-0a7e-4fe8-a1ed-e145b0975731

Objective

The SARS-CoV-2-infected disease (COVID-19) outbreak is a major threat to human beings. Previous studies mainly focused on Wuhan and typical symptoms. We analysed 74 confirmed COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms in the Zhejiang province to determine epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics.

Design

COVID-19 hospital patients were admitted in the Zhejiang province from 17 January 2020 to 8 February 2020. Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, management and outcome data of patients with GI symptoms were analysed using multivariate analysis for risk of severe/critical type. Bioinformatics were used to analyse features of SARS-CoV-2 from Zhejiang province.

Results

Among enrolled 651 patients, 74 (11.4%) presented with at least one GI symptom (nausea, vomiting or diarrhoea), average age of 46.14 years, 4-day incubation period and 10.8% had pre-existing liver disease. Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 17 (22.97%) and 23 (31.08%) had severe/critical types and family clustering, respectively, significantly higher than those without GI symptoms, 47 (8.14%) and 118 (20.45%). Of patients with COVID-19 with GI symptoms, 29 (39.19%), 23 (31.08%), 8 (10.81%) and 16 (21.62%) had significantly higher rates of fever >38.5°C, fatigue, shortness of breath and headache, respectively. Low-dose glucocorticoids and antibiotics were administered to 14.86% and 41.89% of patients, respectively. Sputum production and increased lactate dehydrogenase/glucose levels were risk factors for severe/critical type. Bioinformatics showed sequence mutation of SARS-CoV-2 with m6A methylation and changed binding capacity with ACE2.

Conclusion

We report COVID-19 cases with GI symptoms with novel features outside Wuhan. Attention to patients with COVID-19 with non-classic symptoms should increase to protect health providers.

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<![CDATA[The hidden cost of colonoscopy including cost of reprocessing and infection rate: the implications for disposable colonoscopes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Na9b4ceae-678a-4c98-a3b8-a18e0c16e35c ]]> <![CDATA[Endoscopic duodenal mucosal resurfacing for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: one year results from the first international, open-label, prospective, multicentre study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N3fad57cf-60cf-492a-86b0-6094d9cb8b37

Background

The duodenum has become a metabolic treatment target through bariatric surgery learnings and the specific observation that bypassing, excluding or altering duodenal nutrient exposure elicits favourable metabolic changes. Duodenal mucosal resurfacing (DMR) is a novel endoscopic procedure that has been shown to improve glycaemic control in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) irrespective of body mass index (BMI) changes. DMR involves catheter-based circumferential mucosal lifting followed by hydrothermal ablation of duodenal mucosa. This multicentre study evaluates safety and feasibility of DMR and its effect on glycaemia at 24 weeks and 12 months.

Methods

International multicentre, open-label study. Patients (BMI 24–40) with T2D (HbA1c 59–86 mmol/mol (7.5%–10.0%)) on stable oral glucose-lowering medication underwent DMR. Glucose-lowering medication was kept stable for at least 24 weeks post DMR. During follow-up, HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, hepatic transaminases, Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), adverse events (AEs) and treatment satisfaction were determined and analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance with Bonferroni correction.

Results

Forty-six patients were included of whom 37 (80%) underwent complete DMR and 36 were finally analysed; in remaining patients, mainly technical issues were observed. Twenty-four patients had at least one AE (52%) related to DMR. Of these, 81% were mild. One SAE and no unanticipated AEs were reported. Twenty-four weeks post DMR (n=36), HbA1c (−10±2 mmol/mol (−0.9%±0.2%), p<0.001), FPG (−1.7±0.5 mmol/L, p<0.001) and HOMA-IR improved (−2.9±1.1, p<0.001), weight was modestly reduced (−2.5±0.6 kg, p<0.001) and hepatic transaminase levels decreased. Effects were sustained at 12 months. Change in HbA1c did not correlate with modest weight loss. Diabetes treatment satisfaction scores improved significantly.

Conclusions

In this multicentre study, DMR was found to be a feasible and safe endoscopic procedure that elicited durable glycaemic improvement in suboptimally controlled T2D patients using oral glucose-lowering medication irrespective of weight loss. Effects on the liver are examined further.

Trial registration number

NCT02413567

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<![CDATA[Polyploidy spectrum: a new marker in HCC classification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N726e8a10-a8d1-4404-861b-91f4685f379d

Objectives

Polyploidy is a fascinating characteristic of liver parenchyma. Hepatocyte polyploidy depends on the DNA content of each nucleus (nuclear ploidy) and the number of nuclei per cell (cellular ploidy). Which role can be assigned to polyploidy during human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development is still an open question. Here, we investigated whether a specific ploidy spectrum is associated with clinical and molecular features of HCC.

Design

Ploidy spectra were determined on surgically resected tissues from patients with HCC as well as healthy control tissues. To define ploidy profiles, a quantitative and qualitative in situ imaging approach was used on paraffin tissue liver sections.

Results

We first demonstrated that polyploid hepatocytes are the major components of human liver parenchyma, polyploidy being mainly cellular (binuclear hepatocytes). Across liver lobules, polyploid hepatocytes do not exhibit a specific zonation pattern. During liver tumorigenesis, cellular ploidy is drastically reduced; binuclear polyploid hepatocytes are barely present in HCC tumours. Remarkably, nuclear ploidy is specifically amplified in HCC tumours. In fact, nuclear ploidy is amplified in HCCs harbouring a low degree of differentiation and TP53 mutations. Finally, our results demonstrated that highly polyploid tumours are associated with a poor prognosis.

Conclusions

Our results underline the importance of quantification of cellular and nuclear ploidy spectra during HCC tumorigenesis.

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<![CDATA[Reduced efficacy of low FODMAPs diet in patients with IBS-D carrying sucrase-isomaltase (SI) hypomorphic variants]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N7c5ef31c-8bed-46c6-ab5c-e05f3497ce40 ]]> <![CDATA[British Society of Gastroenterology/Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland/Public Health England post-polypectomy and post-colorectal cancer resection surveillance guidelines]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ne56aea13-2e87-4c13-8bce-0bf03220f56e

These consensus guidelines were jointly commissioned by the British Society of Gastroenterology (BSG), the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland (ACPGBI) and Public Health England (PHE). They provide an evidence-based framework for the use of surveillance colonoscopy and non-colonoscopic colorectal imaging in people aged 18 years and over. They are the first guidelines that take into account the introduction of national bowel cancer screening. For the first time, they also incorporate surveillance of patients following resection of either adenomatous or serrated polyps and also post-colorectal cancer resection. They are primarily aimed at healthcare professionals, and aim to address:

  1. Which patients should commence surveillance post-polypectomy and post-cancer resection?

  2. What is the appropriate surveillance interval?

  3. When can surveillance be stopped?

  • two or more premalignant polyps including at least one advanced colorectal polyp (defined as a serrated polyp of at least 10 mm in size or containing any grade of dysplasia, or an adenoma of at least 10 mm in size or containing high-grade dysplasia); or

  • five or more premalignant polyps

The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument provided a methodological framework for the guidelines. The BSG’s guideline development process was used, which is National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) compliant.

  • two or more premalignant polyps including at least one advanced colorectal polyp (defined as a serrated polyp of at least 10 mm in size or containing any grade of dysplasia, or an adenoma of at least 10 mm in size or containing high-grade dysplasia); or

  • five or more premalignant polyps

The key recommendations are that the high-risk criteria for future colorectal cancer (CRC) following polypectomy comprise either:

  • two or more premalignant polyps including at least one advanced colorectal polyp (defined as a serrated polyp of at least 10 mm in size or containing any grade of dysplasia, or an adenoma of at least 10 mm in size or containing high-grade dysplasia); or

  • five or more premalignant polyps

This cohort should undergo a one-off surveillance colonoscopy at 3 years. Post-CRC resection patients should undergo a 1 year clearance colonoscopy, then a surveillance colonoscopy after 3 more years.

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<![CDATA[A unique B cell epitope-based particulate vaccine shows effective suppression of hepatitis B surface antigen in mice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd56cac5a-c460-460e-b371-f5e2ad7ae568

Objective

This study aimed to develop a novel therapeutic vaccine based on a unique B cell epitope and investigate its therapeutic potential against chronic hepatitis B (CHB) in animal models.

Methods

A series of peptides and carrier proteins were evaluated in HBV-tolerant mice to obtain an optimised therapeutic molecule. The immunogenicity, therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of the candidate were investigated systematically.

Results

Among the HBsAg-aa119-125-containing peptides evaluated in this study, HBsAg-aa113-135 (SEQ13) exhibited the most striking therapeutic effects. A novel immunoenhanced virus-like particle carrier (CR-T3) derived from the roundleaf bat HBV core antigen (RBHBcAg) was created and used to display SEQ13, forming candidate molecule CR-T3-SEQ13. Multiple copies of SEQ13 displayed on the surface of this particulate antigen promote the induction of a potent anti-HBs antibody response in mice, rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. Sera and purified polyclonal IgG from the immunised animals neutralised HBV infection in vitro and mediated efficient HBV/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance in the mice. CR-T3-SEQ13-based vaccination induced long-term suppression of HBsAg and HBV DNA in HBV transgenic mice and eradicated the virus completely in hydrodynamic-based HBV carrier mice. The suppressive effects on HBsAg were strongly correlated with the anti-HBs level after vaccination, suggesting that the main mechanism of CR-T3-SEQ13 vaccination therapy was the induction of a SEQ13-specific antibody response that mediated HBV/HBsAg clearance.

Conclusions

The novel particulate protein CR-T3-SEQ13 suppressed HBsAg effectively through induction of a humoural immune response in HBV-tolerant mice. This B cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine may provide a novel immunotherapeutic agent against chronic HBV infection in humans.

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<![CDATA[Introduction of anti-TNF therapy has not yielded expected declines in hospitalisation and intestinal resection rates in inflammatory bowel diseases: a population-based interrupted time series study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5bd7bce9-81b8-4185-b0d5-7229dd140c8d

Objectives

To better understand the real-world impact of biologic therapy in persons with Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), we evaluated the effect of marketplace introduction of infliximab on the population rates of hospitalisations and surgeries and public payer drug costs.

Design

We used health administrative data to study adult persons with CD and UC living in Ontario, Canada between 1995 and 2012. We used an interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis to evaluate the impact of infliximab introduction on the rates of IBD-related hospitalisations, intestinal resections and public payer drug costs over 10 years among patients with CD and 5 years among patients with UC, allowing for a 1-year transition.

Results

Relative to what would have been expected in the absence of infliximab, marketplace introduction of infliximab did not produce significant declines in the rates of CD-related hospitalisations (OR at the last observation quarter 1.06, 95% CI 0.811 to 1.39) or intestinal resections (OR 1.10, 95% CI 0.810 to 1.50), or in the rates of UC-related hospitalisations (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.39) or colectomies (OR 0.933, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.61). The findings were similar among infliximab users, except that hospitalisation rates declined substantially among UC patients following marketplace introduction of infliximab (OR 0.515, 95% CI 0.342 to 0.777). There was a threefold rise over expected trends in public payer drug cost among patients with CD following infliximab introduction (OR 2.98,95% CI 2.29 to 3.86), suggesting robust market penetration in this group, but no significant change among patients with UC (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.955 to 1.18).

Conclusions

Marketplace introduction of infliximab has not yielded anticipated reductions in the population rates of IBD-related hospitalisations or intestinal resections, despite robust market penetration among patients with CD. Misguided use of infliximab in CD patients and underuse of infliximab in UC patients may largely explain our study findings.

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<![CDATA[Phase III, randomised, double-blind, multicentre study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vonoprazan compared with lansoprazole in Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nc44e6926-43d0-4718-8978-31aa96404196

Objective

To establish the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in the treatment of Asian patients with erosive oesophagitis (EO).

Design

In this phase III, double-blind, multicentre study, patients with endoscopically confirmed EO were randomised 1:1 to receive vonoprazan 20 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg, once daily for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was EO healing rate at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints were EO healing rates at 2 and 4 weeks. Safety endpoints included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

Results

In the vonoprazan (n=238) and lansoprazole (n=230) arms, 8-week EO healing rates were 92.4% and 91.3%, respectively (difference 1.1% (95% CI –3.822% to 6.087%)). The respective 2-week EO healing rates were 75.0% and 67.8% (difference 7.2% (95% CI –1.054% to 15.371%)), and the respective 4-week EO healing rates were 85.3% and 83.5% (difference 1.8% (95% CI –4.763% to 8.395%)). In patients with baseline Los Angeles classification grade C/D, 2-week, 4-week and 8-week EO healing rates were higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole (2 weeks: 62.2% vs 51.5%, difference 10.6% (95% CI –5.708% to 27.002%); 4 weeks: 73.3% vs 67.2%, difference 6.2% (95% CI –8.884 to 21.223); and 8 weeks: 84.0% vs 80.6%, difference 3.4% (95% CI –9.187% to 15.993%)). Overall, EO healing rates appeared higher with vonoprazan versus lansoprazole. TEAE rates were 38.1% and 36.6% in the vonoprazan and lansoprazole group, respectively.

Conclusion

Our findings demonstrate the non-inferior efficacy of vonoprazan versus lansoprazole in terms of EO healing rate at 8 weeks in this population. Safety outcomes were similar in the two treatment arms.

Trial registration number

NCT02388724.

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<![CDATA[Increased levels of systemic LPS-positive bacterial extracellular vesicles in patients with intestinal barrier dysfunction]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5d968f14-da36-489b-9f13-4460d385f687 ]]> <![CDATA[Low plasma vitamin D is associated with adverse colorectal cancer survival after surgical resection, independent of systemic inflammatory response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1ba9cecc-9f94-492a-bcb8-ba64e640fdd4

Objective

We assessed the effect of surgical resection of colorectal cancer (CRC) on perioperative plasma vitamin D (25OHD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level. We investigated the relationship between circulating vitamin D level and CRC survival.

Design

We sequentially sampled 92 patients undergoing CRC resection, and measured plasma 25OHD and CRP. For survival analyses, we assayed 25OHD and CRP in two temporally distinct CRC patient cohorts (n=2006, n=2100) and investigated the association between survival outcome, circulating vitamin D and systemic inflammatory response.

Results

Serial sampling revealed a postoperative fall (mean 17.3 nmol/L; p=3.6e-9) in plasma 25OHD (nadir days 1–2). CRP peaked 3–5 days postoperatively (143.1 mg/L; p=1.4e-12), yet the postoperative fall in 25OHD was independent of CRP. In cohort analyses, 25OHD was lower in the 12 months following operation (mean=48.8 nmol/L) than preoperatively (54.8 nmol/L; p=1.2e-5) recovering after 24 months (52.2 nmol/L; p=0.002). Survival analysis in American Joint Committee on Cancer stages I–III demonstrated associations between 25OHD tertile and CRC mortality (HR=0.69; 95% CI 0.46 to 0.91) and all-cause mortality (HR=0.68; 95% CI 0.50 to 0.85), and was independent of CRP. We observed interaction effects between plasma 25OHD and rs11568820 genotype (functional VDR polymorphism) with a strong protective effect of higher 25OHD only in patients with GG genotype (HR=0.51; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81). We developed an online tool for predicted survival (https://apps.igmm.ed.ac.uk/mortalityCalculator/) that incorporates 25OHD with clinically useful predictive performance (area under the curve 0.77).

Conclusions

CRC surgery induces a fall in circulating 25OHD. Plasma 25OHD level is a prognostic biomarker with low 25OHD associated with poorer survival, particularly in those with rs11568820 GG genotype. A randomised trial of vitamin D supplementation after CRC surgery has compelling rationale.

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<![CDATA[Age independent survival benefit for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without metastases at diagnosis: a population-based study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N58e0e3e8-2fc1-498f-ad59-2bd6324729c1

Objective

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase globally. Aim of this study was to assess whether the implementation of screening policies and the improvement of treatment options translated into a real-world survival benefit in HCC patients.

Design

4078 patients diagnosed with HCC between 1998 and 2016 from the Munich Cancer Registry were analysed. Tumour characteristics and outcome were analysed by time period and according to age and presence of metastases at diagnosis. Overall survival (OS) was analysed using Kaplan-Meier method and relative survival (RS) was computed for cancer-specific survival. Cox proportional hazard models were conducted to control for prognostic variables.

Results

While incidence of HCC remained substantially stable, tumours were diagnosed at increasingly earlier stages, although the median age at diagnosis increased. The 3 years RS in HCC improved from 19.8% in 1998–2002, 22.4% in 2003–2007, 30.6% in 2008–2012 up to 31.0% in 2013–2016. Median OS increased from 6 months in 1998–2002 to 12 months in 2008–2016. However, analysis according to the metastatic status showed that survival improved only in patients without metastases at diagnosis whereas the prognosis of patients with metastatic disease remained unchanged.

Conclusion

These real-world data show that, in contrast to the current assumptions, the incidence of HCC did not increase in a representative German region. Earlier diagnosis, likely related to the implementation of screening programmes, translated into an increasing employment of effective therapeutic options and a clear survival benefit in patients without metastases at diagnosis, irrespective of age.

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<![CDATA[Multiplex profiling of peritoneal metastases from gastric adenocarcinoma identified novel targets and molecular subtypes that predict treatment response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nbf2cda20-5e7d-4bb3-a68f-de1ada5bca91

Objective

Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) occurs frequently in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) and confers a poor prognosis. Multiplex profiling of primary GACs has been insightful but the underpinnings of PC’s development/progression remain largely unknown. We characterised exome/transcriptome/immune landscapes of PC cells from patients with GAC aiming to identify novel therapeutic targets.

Design

We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) on 44 PC specimens (43 patients with PC) including an integrative analysis of WES, RNA-seq, immune profile, clinical and pathological phenotypes to dissect the molecular pathogenesis, identifying actionable targets and/or biomarkers and comparison with TCGA primary GACs.

Results

We identified distinct alterations in PC versus primary GACs, such as more frequent CDH1 and TAF1 mutations, 6q loss and chr19 gain. Alterations associated with aggressive PC phenotypes emerged with increased mutations in TP53, CDH1, TAF1 and KMT2C, higher level of ‘clock-like’ mutational signature, increase in whole-genome doublings, chromosomal instability (particularly, copy number losses), reprogrammed microenvironment, enriched cell cycle pathways, MYC activation and impaired immune response. Integrated analysis identified two main molecular subtypes: ‘mesenchymal-like’ and ‘epithelial-like’ with discriminating response to chemotherapy (31% vs 71%). Patients with the less responsive ‘mesenchymal-like’ subtype had high expression of immune checkpoint T-Cell Immunoglobulin And Mucin Domain-Containing Protein 3 (TIM-3), its ligand galectin-9, V-domain Ig suppressor of T cell activation (VISTA) and transforming growth factor-β as potential therapeutic immune targets.

Conclusions

We have uncovered the unique mutational landscape, copy number alteration and gene expression profile of PC cells and defined PC molecular subtypes, which correlated with PC therapy resistance/response. Novel targets and immune checkpoint proteins have been identified with a potential to be translated into clinics.

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<![CDATA[Fragile X mental retardation protein protects against tumour necrosis factor-mediated cell death and liver injury]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N09c357a0-491a-425f-9329-6b1cb3ea69ea

Objective

The Fragile X mental retardation (FMR) syndrome is a frequently inherited intellectual disability caused by decreased or absent expression of the FMR protein (FMRP). Lack of FMRP is associated with neuronal degradation and cognitive dysfunction but its role outside the central nervous system is insufficiently studied. Here, we identify a role of FMRP in liver disease.

Design

Mice lacking Fmr1 gene expression were used to study the role of FMRP during tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-induced liver damage in disease model systems. Liver damage and mechanistic studies were performed using real-time PCR, Western Blot, staining of tissue sections and clinical chemistry.

Results

Fmr1null mice exhibited increased liver damage during virus-mediated hepatitis following infection with the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus. Exposure to TNF resulted in severe liver damage due to increased hepatocyte cell death. Consistently, we found increased caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation following TNF stimulation. Furthermore, we demonstrate FMRP to be critically important for regulating key molecules in TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1)-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis including CYLD, c-FLIPS and JNK, which contribute to prolonged RIPK1 expression. Accordingly, the RIPK1 inhibitor Necrostatin-1s could reduce liver cell death and alleviate liver damage in Fmr1null mice following TNF exposure. Consistently, FMRP-deficient mice developed increased pathology during acute cholestasis following bile duct ligation, which coincided with increased hepatic expression of RIPK1, RIPK3 and phosphorylation of MLKL.

Conclusions

We show that FMRP plays a central role in the inhibition of TNF-mediated cell death during infection and liver disease.

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<![CDATA[Scientific frontiers in faecal microbiota transplantation: joint document of Asia-Pacific Association of Gastroenterology (APAGE) and Asia-Pacific Society for Digestive Endoscopy (APSDE)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N2c9451ed-d918-4d8e-961b-68e40d3e3b79

Objective

The underlying microbial basis, predictors of therapeutic outcome and active constituent(s) of faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) mediating benefit remain unknown. An international panel of experts presented key elements that will shape forthcoming FMT research and practice.

Design

Systematic search was performed, FMT literature was critically appraised and a 1-day round-table discussion was conducted to derive expert consensus on key issues in FMT research.

Results

16 experts convened and discussed five questions regarding (1) the role of donor and recipient microbial (bacteria, viruses, fungi) parameters in FMT; (2) methods to assess microbiota alterations; (3) concept of keystone species and microbial predictors of FMT, (4) influence of recipient profile and antibiotics pretreatment on FMT engraftment and maintenance and (5) new developments in FMT formulations and delivery. The panel considered that variable outcomes of FMT relate to compositional and functional differences in recipient’s microbiota, and likely donor-associated and recipient-associated physiological and genetic factors. Taxonomic composition of donor intestinal microbiota may influence the efficacy of FMT in recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections and UC. FMT not only alters bacteria composition but also establishes trans-kingdom equilibrium between gut fungi, viruses and bacteria to promote the recovery of microbial homeostasis. FMT is not a one size fits all and studies are required to identify microbial components that have specific effects in patients with different diseases.

Conclusion

FMT requires optimisation before their therapeutic promise can be evaluated for different diseases. This summary will guide future directions and priorities in advancement of the science and practice of FMT.

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<![CDATA[Integrating next-generation sequencing to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)-obtained biliary specimens improves the detection and management of patients with malignant bile duct strictures]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N1391b38c-f728-4525-b482-9d8abea9ddd6

Objective

Despite improvements in imaging, serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation, differentiating between benign and malignant bile duct strictures remains a diagnostic conundrum. Recent developments in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have opened new opportunities for early detection and management of cancers but, to date, have not been rigorously applied to biliary specimens.

Design

We prospectively evaluated a 28-gene NGS panel (BiliSeq) using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography-obtained biliary specimens from patients with bile duct strictures. The diagnostic performance of serum CA19-9, pathological evaluation and BiliSeq was assessed on 252 patients (57 trainings and 195 validations) with 346 biliary specimens.

Results

The sensitivity and specificity of BiliSeq for malignant strictures was 73% and 100%, respectively. In comparison, an elevated serum CA19-9 and pathological evaluation had sensitivities of 76% and 48%, and specificities of 69% and 99%, respectively. The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation increased the sensitivity to 83% and maintained a specificity of 99%. BiliSeq improved the sensitivity of pathological evaluation for malignancy from 35% to 77% for biliary brushings and from 52% to 83% for biliary biopsies. Among patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), BiliSeq had an 83% sensitivity as compared with pathological evaluation with an 8% sensitivity. Therapeutically relevant genomic alterations were identified in 20 (8%) patients. Two patients with ERBB2-amplified cholangiocarcinoma received a trastuzumab-based regimen and had measurable clinicoradiographic response.

Conclusions

The combination of BiliSeq and pathological evaluation of biliary specimens increased the detection of malignant strictures, particularly in patients with PSC. Additionally, BiliSeq identified alterations that may stratify patients for specific anticancer therapies.

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