ResearchPad - 2434 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Conversion of ATP to adenosine by CD39 and CD73 in multiple myeloma can be successfully targeted together with adenosine receptor A2A blockade]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12564 PD1/PDL1-directed therapies have been unsuccessful for multiple myeloma (MM), an incurable cancer of plasma cells in the bone marrow (BM). Therefore, other immune checkpoints such as extracellular adenosine and its immunosuppressive receptor should be considered. CD39 and CD73 convert extracellular ATP to adenosine, which inhibits T-cell effector functions via the adenosine receptor A2A (A2AR). We set out to investigate whether blocking the adenosine pathway could be a therapy for MM.MethodsExpression of CD39 and CD73 on BM cells from patients and T-cell proliferation were determined by flow cytometry and adenosine production by Liquid chromatograpy-mass spectrometry (HPCL/MS). ENTPD1 (CD39) mRNA expression was determined on myeloma cells from patients enrolled in the publicly available CoMMpass study. Transplantable 5T33MM myeloma cells were used to determine the effect of inhibiting CD39, CD73 and A2AR in mice in vivo.ResultsElevated level of adenosine was found in BM plasma of MM patients. Myeloma cells from patients expressed CD39, and high gene expression indicated reduced survival. CD73 was found on leukocytes and stromal cells in the BM. A CD39 inhibitor, POM-1, and an anti-CD73 antibody inhibited adenosine production and reduced T-cell suppression in vitro in coculture of myeloma and stromal cells. Blocking the adenosine pathway in vivo with a combination of Sodium polyoxotungstate (POM-1), anti-CD73, and the A2AR antagonist AZD4635 activated immune cells, increased interferon gamma production, and reduced the tumor load in a murine model of MM.ConclusionsOur data suggest that the adenosine pathway can be successfully targeted in MM and blocking this pathway could be an alternative to PD1/PDL1 inhibition for MM and other hematological cancers. Inhibitors of the adenosine pathway are available. Some are in clinical trials and they could thus reach MM patients fairly rapidly. ]]> <![CDATA[EpCAM-high liver cancer stem cells resist natural killer cell–mediated cytotoxicity by upregulating CEACAM1]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N50daf376-c53c-466d-be71-50a0b71d69ca Natural killer (NK) cells can recognize and kill cancer cells directly, but their activity can be attenuated by various inhibitory molecules expressed on the surface. The expression of epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), a potential marker for cancer stem cells (CSCs), is known to be strongly associated with poor clinical outcomes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). NK cells targeting CSCs may be a promising strategy for anti-tumor therapy, but little is known about how they respond to EpCAMhigh CSCs in HCC.MethodsEpCAM expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in 280 human HCC tissues obtained from curative surgery. To investigate the functional activity of NK cells against liver CSCs, EpCAMhigh and EpCAMlow Huh-7 cells were sorted by flow cytometry. The functional role of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), which is related to NK cells, was determined by in vitro co-culture of NK cells and hepatoma cells using Hepa1–6 mouse hepatoma cells, as well as in vivo experiments using C57/BL6 mice.ResultsThe frequency of recurrence after curative surgery was higher in patients with positive EpCAM expression than in those with negative EpCAM expression. In subsequent analysis based on the anatomical location of EpCAM expression, patients with peritumoral EpCAM expression showed worse prognosis than those with pantumoral EpCAM expression. Co-culture experiments demonstrated that CEACAM1 was upregulated on the surface of EpCAMhigh HCC cells, resulting in resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Inversely, silencing CEACAM1 restored cytotoxicity of NK cells against EpCAMhigh Huh-7 cells. Moreover, neutralizing CEACAM1 on the NK cell surface enhanced killing of Huh-7 cells, suggesting that homophilic interaction of CEACAM1 is responsible for attenuated NK cell–mediated killing of CEACAM1high cells. In mouse experiments with Hepa1–6 cells, EpCAMhigh Hepa1–6 cells formed larger tumors and showed higher CEACAM1 expression after NK cell depletion. NK-mediated cytotoxicity was enhanced after blocking CEACAM1 expression using the anti-CEACAM1 antibody, thereby facilitating tumor regression. Moreover, CEACAM1 expression positively correlated with EpCAM expression in human HCC tissues, and serum CEACAM1 levels were also significantly higher in patients with EpCAM+ HCC.ConclusionOur data demonstrated that EpCAMhigh liver CSCs resist NK cell–mediated cytotoxicity by upregulation of CEACAM1 expression. ]]> <![CDATA[Autophagy induction by thiostrepton improves the efficacy of immunogenic chemotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd3157f93-7f20-4924-9250-988c22469c2f Immunogenic cell death (ICD) is a peculiar modality of cellular demise that elicits adaptive immune responses and triggers T cell-dependent immunity.MethodsFluorescent biosensors were employed for an unbiased drug screen approach aiming at the identification of ICD enhancers.ResultsHere, we discovered thiostrepton as an enhancer of ICD able to boost chemotherapy-induced ATP release, calreticulin exposure and high-mobility group box 1 exodus. Moreover, thiostrepton enhanced anticancer immune responses of oxaliplatin (OXA) in vivo in immunocompetent mice, yet failed to do so in immunodeficient animals. Consistently, thiostrepton combined with OXA altered the ratio of cytotoxic T lymphocytes to regulatory T cells, thus overcoming immunosuppression and reinstating anticancer immunosurveillance.ConclusionAltogether, these results indicate that thiostrepton can be advantageously combined with chemotherapy to enhance anticancer immunogenicity. ]]> <![CDATA[Cellular cytotoxicity is a form of immunogenic cell death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd6e481f2-86c2-4196-ab10-7aac2ad848d8 The immune response to cancer is often conceptualized with the cancer immunity cycle. An essential step in this interpretation is that antigens released by dying tumors are presented by dendritic cells to naive or memory T cells in the tumor-draining lymph nodes. Whether tumor cell death resulting from cytotoxicity, as mediated by T cells or natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, is actually immunogenic currently remains unknown.MethodsIn this study, tumor cells were killed by antigen-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD8 T cells or activated NK cells. Immunogenic cell death was studied analyzing the membrane exposure of calreticulin and the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) by the dying tumor cells. Furthermore, the potential immunogenicity of the tumor cell debris was evaluated in immunocompetent mice challenged with an unrelated tumor sharing only one tumor-associated antigen and by class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-multimer stainings. Mice deficient in Batf3, Ifnar1 and Sting1 were used to study mechanistic requirements.ResultsWe observe in cocultures of tumor cells and effector cytotoxic cells, the presence of markers of immunogenic cell death such as calreticulin exposure and soluble HMGB1 protein. Ovalbumin (OVA)-transfected MC38 colon cancer cells, exogenously pulsed to present the gp100 epitope are killed in culture by mouse gp100-specific TCR transgenic CD8 T cells. Immunization of mice with the resulting destroyed cells induces epitope spreading as observed by detection of OVA-specific T cells by MHC multimer staining and rejection of OVA+ EG7 lymphoma cells. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with cell debris generated by NK-cell mediated cytotoxicity. Mice deficient in Batf3-dependent dendritic cells (conventional dendritic cells type 1, cDC1) fail to develop an anti-OVA response when immunized with tumor cells killed by cytotoxic lymphocytes. In line with this, cultured cDC1 dendritic cells uptake and can readily cross-present antigen from cytotoxicity-killed tumor cells to cognate CD8+ T lymphocytes.ConclusionThese results support that an ongoing cytotoxic antitumor immune response can lead to immunogenic tumor cell death. ]]> <![CDATA[Downregulation of RIG-I mediated by ITGB3/c-SRC/STAT3 signaling confers resistance to interferon-α-induced apoptosis in tumor-repopulating cells of melanoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nebbc2604-a71e-41a7-aa39-390b7c4af5e7

Background

Interferon-α (IFN-α) plays a pivotal role in host antitumor immunity, and the evasion of IFN-α signaling pathway can lead to IFN-α resistance during the treatment of cancer. Although the interplay between IFN-α and tumor cells has been extensively investigated in differentiated tumor cells, much less attention has been directed to tumor-repopulating cells (TRCs).

Methods

Three-dimentional soft fibrin matrix was used to select and grow highly malignant and tumorigenic melanoma TRCs. The regulation of integrin β3 (ITGB3)-c-SRC-STAT signaling pathway in melanoma TRCs was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. The relevant mRNA and protein expression levels were analyzed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Immunoprecipitation and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by qPCR (ChIP-qPCR) assays were performed to detect protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The clinical impacts of retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) were assessed in melanoma datasets obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas and Gene Expression Omnibus profiles.

Results

IFN-α-induced apoptosis was decreased in melanoma TRCs. Compared with conventional flask-cultured cells, IFN-α-mediated STAT1 activation was diminished in melanoma TRCs. Decreased expression of RIG-I in melanoma TRCs led to diminished activation of STAT1 via enhancing the interaction between Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 and STAT1. In addition, low expression levels of RIG-I correlated with poor prognosis in patients with melanoma. STAT3 was highly phosphorylated in TRCs and knockdown of STAT3 reversed the downregulation of RIG-I in TRCs. Knockdown of STAT3 resulted in STAT1 activation and increased expression of the pro-apoptosis genes in IFN-α-treated TRCs. Combined treatment of STAT3 inhibitor and IFN-α increased the apoptosis rate of TRCs. Disruption of ITGB3/c-SRC/STAT3 signaling pathway significantly elevated the efficiency of IFN-α-induced apoptosis of TRCs.

Conclusions

In melanoma TRCs, ITGB3-c-SRC-STAT3 pathway caused RIG-I repression and then affect STAT1 activation to cause resistance to IFN-α-induced apoptosis. RIG-I is a prognostic marker in patients with melanoma. Combination of STAT3 inhibitor and IFN-α could enhance the efficacy of melanoma treatment. Our findings may provide a new concept of combinatorial treatment for future immunotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Cancer cell-intrinsic expression of MHC II in lung cancer cell lines is actively restricted by MEK/ERK signaling and epigenetic mechanisms]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N755fcbcb-1806-47bd-86fa-12a69a2e88be Background
Programmed death 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) targeted immunotherapy affords clinical benefit in ~20% of unselected patients with lung cancer. The factor(s) that determine whether a tumor responds or fails to respond to immunotherapy remains an active area of investigation. We have previously defined divergent responsiveness of two KRAS-mutant cell lines to PD-1/PD-L1 blockade using an orthotopic, immunocompetent mouse model. Responsiveness to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint blockade correlates with an interferon gamma (IFNγ)-inducible gene signature and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression by cancer cells. In the current study, we aim to identify therapeutic targets that can be manipulated in order to enhance cancer-cell-specific MHC II expression.
Methods
Responsiveness to IFNγ and induction of MHC II expression was assessed after various treatment conditions in mouse and human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using mass cytometric and flow cytometric analysis.
Results
Single-cell analysis using mass and flow cytometry demonstrated that IFNγ consistently induced PD-L1 and MHC class I (MHC I) across multiple murine and human NSCLC cell lines. In contrast, MHC II showed highly variable induction following IFNγ treatment both between lines and within lines. In mouse models of NSCLC, MHC II induction was inversely correlated with basal levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, suggesting potential mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase-dependent antagonism of MHC II expression. To test this, cell lines were subjected to varying levels of stimulation with IFNγ, and assessed for MHC II expression in the presence or absence of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitors. IFNγ treatment in the presence of MEK inhibitors significantly enhanced MHC II induction across multiple lung cancer lines, with minimal impact on expression of either PD-L1 or MHC I. Inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs) also enhanced MHC II expression to a more modest extent. Combined MEK and HDAC inhibition led to greater MHC II expression than either treatment alone.
Conclusions
These studies emphasize the active inhibitory role that epigenetic and ERK signaling cascades have in restricting cancer cell-intrinsic MHC II expression in NSCLC, and suggest that combinatorial blockade of these pathways may engender new responsiveness to checkpoint therapies.
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<![CDATA[Targeting ANXA1 abrogates Treg-mediated immune suppression in triple-negative breast cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N4ab5fc9f-ce8a-400b-baf7-8762e937ce2d

Background

Regulatory T (Treg) cells play a negative role in anti-tumor immunity against triple-negative breast cancer, so it is of great significance to find the potential therapeutic target of Treg cells.

Methods

First, Annexin A1 (ANXA1) expression and survival of patients with breast cancer were analyzed using TCGA data. Then plasma ANXA1 levels in patients with malignant and benign breast tumors were detected by ELISA. Next, the effect of ANXA1 on Treg cells was studied through suppressive assays, and how ANXA1 regulates the function of Treg cells was detected by RNA sequencing. Finally, the in vivo experiment in balb/c mice was conducted to test whether the ANXA1 blocker Boc1 could shrink tumors and affect the function of Treg cells.

Results

Our data suggest that ANXA1 expression is associated with lower survival and a higher risk of breast malignancy. Suppressive assays show that ANXA1 can enhance the inhibition function of Treg cells. RNA-Sequencing results indicate that Boc1 could reduce the expression of granzyme A mRNA in Treg cells. Animal experiments have been done to show that Boc1 can reduce tumor size and down regulate Treg cell function.

Conclusions

ANXA1 can enhance the function of Treg cells and reduce the survival rate of patients with breast cancer. Targeting ANXA1 can reduce Treg cell function and shrink breast tumors.

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<![CDATA[ALKS 4230: a novel engineered IL-2 fusion protein with an improved cellular selectivity profile for cancer immunotherapy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N020486a9-73e5-448e-8e8c-ddc393502034 Background
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a pivotal role in immune homeostasis due to its ability to stimulate numerous lymphocyte subsets including natural killer (NK) cells, effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Low concentrations of IL-2 induce signaling through the high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) comprised of IL-2Rα, IL-2Rβ, and common γ chain (γc), preferentially expressed on Tregs. Higher concentrations of IL-2 are necessary to induce signaling through the intermediate-affinity IL-2R, composed of IL-2Rβ and γc, expressed on memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells. Recombinant human IL-2 (rhIL-2) is approved for treatment of metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but adverse events including capillary leak syndrome, potentially mediated through interaction with the high-affinity IL-2R, limit its therapeutic use. Furthermore, antitumor efficacy of IL-2 may also be limited by preferential expansion of immunosuppressive Tregs. ALKS 4230 is an engineered fusion protein comprised of a circularly-permuted IL-2 with the extracellular domain of IL-2Rα, designed to selectively activate effector lymphocytes bearing the intermediate-affinity IL-2R.
Results
ALKS 4230 was equipotent to rhIL-2 in activating human cells bearing the intermediate-affinity IL-2R, and less potent than rhIL-2 on cells bearing the high-affinity IL-2R. As observed in vitro with primary human cells from healthy donors and advanced cancer patients, ALKS 4230 induced greater activation and expansion of NK cells with reduced expansion of Tregs relative to rhIL-2. Similarly, in mice, ALKS 4230 treatment stimulated greater expansion of NK cells and memory-phenotype CD8+ T cells at doses that did not expand or activate Tregs. ALKS 4230 treatment induced significantly lower levels of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6, and interferon gamma relative to rhIL-2. Furthermore, ALKS 4230 exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in the mouse B16F10 lung tumor model, where ALKS 4230 could be administered via multiple routes of administration and dosing schedules while achieving equivalent antitumor efficacy.
Conclusions
ALKS 4230 exhibited enhanced pharmacokinetic and selective pharmacodynamic properties resulting in both improved antitumor efficacy and lower indices of toxicity relative to rhIL-2 in mice. These data highlight the potential of ALKS 4230 as a novel cancer immunotherapy, and as such, the molecule is being evaluated clinically.
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<![CDATA[Immune involvement of the contralateral hemisphere in a glioblastoma mouse model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nf4c5414a-8f92-4f69-8937-47fb8479463f Background
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and deadliest form of brain cancer in adults. Standard treatment, consisting of surgery and radiochemotherapy, only provides a modest survival benefit and is incapable of combating infiltrating GBM cells in other parts of the brain. New therapies in clinical trials, such as anti-programmed cell death 1 immunotherapy, have so far shown limited success in GBM. Moreover, it is unclear how the growth of GBM suppresses the immune system locally at the site of the brain tumor or if distant sites of tumor cell migration are also involved. Invasive GBM cells in brain tissue beyond the primary tumor limit the use of surgery, thus immunotherapy could be beneficial if activated/suppressed immune cells are present in the contralateral hemisphere.
Methods
Here, we used a syngeneic orthotopic GL26 GBM mouse model and multiparameter fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis to study the phenotype of resident and infiltrating immune cells in both the brain tumor hemisphere and contralateral hemisphere.
Results
We show that lymphoid cells, including tumor antigen-specific CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are present in the tumor and are characterized by a tolerogenic phenotype based on high immune checkpoint expression. Massive infiltration of myeloid cells is observed, expressing immune checkpoint ligands, suggesting an immune-dependent coinhibitory axis limiting TIL responses. Surprisingly, these phenotypes are paralleled in the contralateral hemisphere, showing that infiltrating immune cells are also present at distant sites, expressing key immune checkpoints and immune checkpoint ligands.
Conclusion
Whole-brain analysis indicates active immune involvement throughout the brain, both at the site of the primary tumor and in the contralateral hemisphere. Using the right combination and timing, immune checkpoint blockade could have the potential to activate immune cells at the site of the brain tumor and at distant sites, thereby also targeting diffusely infiltrating GBM cells.
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