ResearchPad - 26 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Impact on Health‐Related Quality of Life of Parenteral Nutrition for Patients with Advanced Cancer Cachexia: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6609 Malnutrition impairs clinical outcome in patients with advanced cancer. This study compared parenteral nutrition with oral feeding for malnourished patients with advanced cancer and functional gastrointestinal tract.

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<![CDATA[Late‐Onset Immunotherapy Toxicity and Delayed Autoantibody Changes: Checkpoint Inhibitor–Induced Raynaud's‐Like Phenomenon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_6602 Autoantibody analysis may provide insight into the mechanism, nature, and timing of immune‐related adverse events. This case report describes a case of immune checkpoint inhibitor‐induced late‐onset Raynaud's‐like phenomenon in a patient receiving combination immunotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Characterizing the limits of human stability during motion: perturbative experiment validates a model-based approach for the Sit-to-Stand task]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N5a996293-1b8c-469c-9f6a-d493f7ebf040

Falls affect a growing number of the population each year. Clinical methods to assess fall risk usually evaluate the performance of specific motions such as balancing or Sit-to-Stand. Unfortunately, these techniques have been shown to have poor predictive power, and are unable to identify the portions of motion that are most unstable. To this end, it may be useful to identify the set of body configurations that can accomplish a task under a specified control strategy. The resulting strategy-specific boundary between stable and unstable motion could be used to identify individuals at risk of falling. The recently proposed Stability Basin is defined as the set of configurations through time that do not lead to failure for an individual under their chosen control strategy. This paper presents a novel method to compute the Stability Basin and the first experimental validation of the Stability Basin with a perturbative Sit-to-Stand experiment involving forwards or backwards pulls from a motor-driven cable with 11 subjects. The individually-constructed Stability Basins are used to identify when a trial fails, i.e. when an individual must switch from their chosen control strategy (indicated by a step or sit) to recover from a perturbation. The constructed Stability Basins correctly predict the outcome of trials where failure was observed with over 90% accuracy, and correctly predict the outcome of successful trials with over 95% accuracy. The Stability Basin was compared to three other methods and was found to estimate the stable region with over 45% more accuracy in all cases. This study demonstrates that Stability Basins offer a novel model-based approach for quantifying stability during motion, which could be used in physical therapy for individuals at risk of falling.

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<![CDATA[A novel Movement Amplification environment reveals effects of controlling lateral centre of mass motion on gait stability and metabolic cost]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfd5798db-ed43-4174-91c4-68b9a691c45f

During human walking, the centre of mass (COM) laterally oscillates, regularly transitioning its position above the two alternating support limbs. To maintain upright forward-directed walking, lateral COM excursion should remain within the base of support, on average. As necessary, humans can modify COM motion through various methods, including foot placement. How the nervous system controls these oscillations and the costs associated with control are not fully understood. To examine how lateral COM motions are controlled, healthy participants walked in a ‘Movement Amplification’ force field that increased lateral COM momentum in a manner dependent on the participant's own motion (forces were applied to the pelvis proportional to and in the same direction as lateral COM velocity). We hypothesized that metabolic cost to control lateral COM motion would increase with the gain of the field. In the Movement Amplification field, participants were significantly less stable than during baseline walking. Stability significantly decreased as the field gain increased. Participants also modified gait patterns, including increasing step width, which increased the metabolic cost of transport as the field gain increased. These results support previous research suggesting that humans modulate foot placement to control lateral COM motion, incurring a metabolic cost.

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<![CDATA[Automated detection of lameness in sheep using machine learning approaches: novel insights into behavioural differences among lame and non-lame sheep]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N183bc01e-c2df-4f63-911a-93bdee63f3a9

Lameness in sheep is the biggest cause of concern regarding poor health and welfare among sheep-producing countries. Best practice for lameness relies on rapid treatment, yet there are no objective measures of lameness detection. Accelerometers and gyroscopes have been widely used in human activity studies and their use is becoming increasingly common in livestock. In this study, we used 23 datasets (10 non-lame and 13 lame sheep) from an accelerometer- and gyroscope-based ear sensor with a sampling frequency of 16 Hz to develop and compare algorithms that can differentiate lameness within three different activities (walking, standing and lying). We show for the first time that features extracted from accelerometer and gyroscope signals can differentiate between lame and non-lame sheep while standing, walking and lying. The random forest algorithm performed best for classifying lameness with an accuracy of 84.91% within lying, 81.15% within standing and 76.83% within walking and overall correctly classified over 80% sheep within activities. Both accelerometer- and gyroscope-based features ranked among the top 10 features for classification. Our results suggest that novel behavioural differences between lame and non-lame sheep across all three activities could be used to develop an automated system for lameness detection.

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<![CDATA[Biarticular muscles in light of template models, experiments and robotics: a review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Ned029f8a-6261-4e91-9952-9b542b3ef533

Leg morphology is an important outcome of evolution. A remarkable morphological leg feature is the existence of biarticular muscles that span adjacent joints. Diverse studies from different fields of research suggest a less coherent understanding of the muscles’ functionality in cyclic, sagittal plane locomotion. We structured this review of biarticular muscle function by reflecting biomechanical template models, human experiments and robotic system designs. Within these approaches, we surveyed the contribution of biarticular muscles to the locomotor subfunctions (stance, balance and swing). While mono- and biarticular muscles do not show physiological differences, the reviewed studies provide evidence for complementary and locomotor subfunction-specific contributions of mono- and biarticular muscles. In stance, biarticular muscles coordinate joint movements, improve economy (e.g. by transferring energy) and secure the zig-zag configuration of the leg against joint overextension. These commonly known functions are extended by an explicit role of biarticular muscles in controlling the angular momentum for balance and swing. Human-like leg arrangement and intrinsic (compliant) properties of biarticular structures improve the controllability and energy efficiency of legged robots and assistive devices. Future interdisciplinary research on biarticular muscles should address their role for sensing and control as well as non-cyclic and/or non-sagittal motions, and non-static moment arms.

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<![CDATA[Olanzapine Versus Haloperidol for Treatment of Delirium in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N9e25bb1b-9a06-4eab-a5ee-fbf84cc9751d

Abstract

Background

Treatment of delirium often includes haloperidol. Second‐generation antipsychotics like olanzapine have emerged as an alternative with possibly fewer side effects. The aim of this multicenter, phase III, randomized clinical trial was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of olanzapine with haloperidol for the treatment of delirium in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer.

Materials and Methods

Eligible adult patients (≥18 years) with advanced cancer and delirium (Delirium Rating Scale‐Revised‐98 [DRS‐R‐98] total score ≥17.75) were randomized 1:1 to receive either haloperidol or olanzapine (age‐adjusted, titratable doses). Primary endpoint was delirium response rate (DRR), defined as number of patients with DRS‐R‐98 severity score <15.25 and ≥4.5 points reduction. Secondary endpoints included time to response (TTR), tolerability, and delirium‐related distress.

Results

Between January 2011 and June 2016, 98 patients were included in the intention‐to‐treat analysis. DRR was 45% (95% confidence interval [CI], 31–59) for olanzapine and 57% (95% CI, 43–71) for haloperidol (Δ DRR −12%; odds ratio [OR], 0.61; 95% CI, 0.2–1.4; p = .23). Mean TTR was 4.5 days (95% CI, 3.2–5.9 days) for olanzapine and 2.8 days (95% CI, 1.9–3.7 days; p = .18) for haloperidol. Grade ≥3 treatment‐related adverse events occurred in 5 patients (10.2%) and 10 patients (20.4%) in the olanzapine and haloperidol arm, respectively. Distress rates were similar in both groups. The study was terminated early because of futility.

Conclusion

Delirium treatment with olanzapine in hospitalized patients with advanced cancer did not result in improvement of DRR or TTR compared with haloperidol. Clinical trial identification number. NCT01539733. Dutch Trial Register. NTR2559.

Implications for Practice

Guidelines recommend that pharmacological interventions for delirium treatment in adults with cancer should be limited to patients who have distressing delirium symptoms. It was suggested that atypical antipsychotics, such as olanzapine, outperform haloperidol in efficacy and safety. However, collective data comparing the efficacy and safety of typical versus atypical antipsychotics in patients with cancer are limited. If targeted and judicious use of antipsychotics is considered for the treatment of delirium in patients with advanced cancer, this study demonstrated that there was no statistically significant difference in response to haloperidol or olanzapine. Olanzapine showed an overall better safety profile compared with haloperidol, although this difference was not statistically significant.

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<![CDATA[Physical Activity and Exercise in Lung Cancer Care: Will Promises Be Fulfilled?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd9cae7a1-114b-44be-b297-677c2d14264d

Abstract

Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer‐related death worldwide. Affected patients frequently experience debilitating disease‐related symptoms, including dyspnea, cough, fatigue, anxiety, depression, insomnia, and pain, despite the progresses achieved in term of treatment efficacy.

Physical activity and exercise are nonpharmacological interventions that have been shown to improve fatigue, quality of life, cardiorespiratory fitness, pulmonary function, muscle mass and strength, and psychological status in patients with lung cancer. Moreover, physical fitness levels, especially cardiorespiratory endurance and muscular strength, are demonstrated to be independent predictors of survival. Nevertheless, patients with lung cancer frequently present insufficient levels of physical activity and exercise, and these may contribute to quality of life impairment, reduction in functional capacity with skeletal muscle atrophy or weakness, and worsening of symptoms, particularly dyspnea.

The molecular bases underlying the potential impact of exercise on the fitness and treatment outcome of patients with lung cancer are still elusive. Counteracting specific cancer cells’ acquired capabilities (hallmarks of cancer), together with preventing treatment‐induced adverse events, represent main candidate mechanisms.

To date, the potential impact of physical activity and exercise in lung cancer remains to be fully appreciated, and no specific exercise guidelines for patients with lung cancer are available. In this article, we perform an in‐depth review of the evidence supporting physical activity and exercise in lung cancer and suggest that integrating this kind of intervention within the framework of a global, multidimensional approach, taking into account also nutritional and psychological aspects, might be the most effective strategy.

Implications for Practice

Although growing evidence supports the safety and efficacy of exercise in lung cancer, both after surgery and during and after medical treatments, most patients are insufficiently active or sedentary. Engaging in exercise programs is particularly arduous for patients with lung cancer, mainly because of a series of physical and psychosocial disease‐related barriers (including the smoking stigma). A continuous collaboration among oncologists and cancer exercise specialists is urgently needed in order to develop tailored programs based on patients’ needs, preferences, and physical and psychological status. In this regard, benefit of exercise appears to be potentially enhanced when administered as a multidimensional, comprehensive approach to patients’ well‐being.

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<![CDATA[Traumatologie II]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N04fc72e7-c94d-4215-a610-6430b94598e4 ]]> <![CDATA[Oral Care Evaluation to Prevent Oral Mucositis in Estrogen Receptor‐Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Everolimus (Oral Care‐BC): A Randomized Controlled Phase III Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N55d95938-a9e1-4de7-b0f8-3e004139eb3c

Abstract

Background

The incidence of oral mucositis (any grade) after everolimus treatment is 58% in the general population and 81% in Asian patients. This study hypothesized that professional oral care (POC) before everolimus treatment could reduce the incidence of everolimus‐induced oral mucositis.

Materials and Methods

This randomized, multicenter, open‐label, phase III study evaluated the efficacy of POC in preventing everolimus‐induced mucositis. Patients were randomized into POC and control groups (1:1 ratio) and received everolimus with exemestane. Patients in the POC group underwent teeth surface cleaning, scaling, and tongue cleaning before everolimus initiation and continued to receive weekly POC throughout the 8‐week treatment period. Patients in the control group brushed their own teeth and gargled with 0.9% sodium chloride solution or water. The primary endpoint was the incidence of all grades of oral mucositis. We targeted acquisition of 200 patients with a 2‐sided type I error rate of 5% and 80% power to detect 25% risk reduction.

Results

Between March 2015 and December 2017, we enrolled 175 women from 31 institutions, of which five did not receive the protocol treatment and were excluded. Over the 8 weeks, the incidence of grade 1 oral mucositis was significantly different between the POC group (76.5%, 62 of 82 patients) and control group (89.7%, 78 of 87 patients; p = .034). The incidence of grade 2 (severe) oral mucositis was also significantly different between the POC group (34.6%, 28 of 82 patients) and control group (54%, 47 of 87 patients; p = .015). As a result of oral mucositis, 18 (22.0%) patients in the POC group and 28 (32.2%) in the control group had to undergo everolimus dose reduction.

Conclusion

POC reduced the incidence and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving everolimus and exemestane. This might be considered as a treatment option of oral care for patients undergoing this treatment. Clinical trial identification number: NCT 02069093.

Implications for Practice

The Oral Care‐BC trial that prophylactically used professional oral care (POC), available worldwide, did not show a greater than 25% difference in mucositis. The 12% difference in grade 1 or higher mucositis and especially the ∼20% difference in grade 2 mucositis are likely clinically meaningful to patients. POC before treatment should be considered as a treatment option of oral care for postmenopausal patients who are receiving everolimus and exemestane for treatment of hormone receptor‐positive, HER2‐negative advanced breast cancer and metastatic breast cancer. However, POC was not adequate for prophylactic oral mucositis in these patients, and dexamethasone mouthwash prophylaxis is standard treatment before everolimus.

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<![CDATA[Validity and Reliability of the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale‐Thai Version (MDAS‐T) for Assessment of Delirium in Palliative Care Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfef12811-ffec-42a9-a1d3-2114ae4c9642

Abstract

Background

Delirium, a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs throughout medical illness trajectories, is frequently misdiagnosed. The Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale (MDAS) is a commonly used tool in palliative care (PC) settings. Our objective was to establish and validate the Memorial Delirium Assessment Scale‐Thai version (MDAS‐T) in PC patients.

Materials and Methods

The MDAS was translated into Thai. Content validity, inter‐rater reliability, and internal consistency were explored. The construct validity of the MDAS‐T was analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. Instrument testing of the MDAS‐T, the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM‐ICU‐T), and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition as the gold standard was performed. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine the optimal cutoff score. The duration of each assessment was recorded.

Results

The study enrolled 194 patients. The content validity index was 0.97. The intraclass correlation coefficient and Cronbach's α coefficient were 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. A principal component analysis indicated a homogeneous, one‐factor structure. The area under the ROC curve was 0.96 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93–0.99). The best combination of sensitivity and specificity (95% CI) of the MDAS‐T were 0.92 (0.85–0.96) and 0.90 (0.82–0.94), respectively, with a cutoff score of 9, whereas the CAM‐ICU‐T yielded 0.58 (0.48–0.67) and 0.98 (0.93–0.99), respectively. The median MDAS‐T assessment time was 5 minutes.

Conclusion

This study established and validated the MDAS‐T as a good and feasible tool for delirium screening and severity rating in PC settings.

Implications for Practice

Delirium is prevalent in palliative care (PC) settings and causes distress to patients and families, thereby making delirium screening necessary. This study found that the MDAS‐T is a highly objective and feasible test for delirium screening and severity monitoring in PC settings and can greatly improve the quality of care for this population.

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<![CDATA[Body mass index, diet, physical inactivity, and the incidence of dementia in 1 million UK women]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nfcb8d3d1-21de-491a-8874-c3f58b22aaa4

Objective

To help determine whether midlife obesity is a cause of dementia and whether low body mass index (BMI), low caloric intake, and physical inactivity are causes or merely consequences of the gradual onset of dementia by recording these factors early in a large 20-year prospective study and relating them to dementia detection rates separately during follow-up periods of <5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, and 15+ years.

Methods

A total of 1,136,846 UK women, mean age 56 (SD 5) years, were recruited in 1996 to 2001 and asked about height, weight, caloric intake, and inactivity. They were followed up until 2017 by electronic linkage to National Health Service records, detecting hospital admissions with mention of dementia. Cox regression yielded adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for first dementia detection during particular follow-up periods.

Results

Fifteen years after the baseline survey, only 1% were lost to follow-up, and 89% remained alive with no detected dementia, of whom 18,695 had dementia detected later, at a mean age of 77 (SD 4) years. Dementia detection during years 15+ was associated with baseline obesity (BMI 30+ vs 20–24 kg/m2: RR 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.16–1.26, p < 0.0001) but not clearly with low BMI, low caloric intake, or inactivity at baseline. The latter 3 factors were associated with increased dementia rates during the first decade, but these associations weakened substantially over time, approaching null after 15 years.

Conclusions

Midlife obesity may well be a cause of dementia. In contrast, behavioral changes due to preclinical disease could largely or wholly account for associations of low BMI, low caloric intake, and inactivity with dementia detection during the first decade of follow-up.

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<![CDATA[APOE ε4, white matter hyperintensities, and cognition in Alzheimer and Lewy body dementia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N76324b9d-5102-4b8b-986e-48c4e3701f51

Objective

To determine if APOE ε4 influences the association between white matter hyperintensities (WMH) and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).

Methods

A total of 289 patients (AD = 239; DLB = 50) underwent volumetric MRI, neuropsychological testing, and APOE ε4 genotyping. Total WMH volumes were quantified. Neuropsychological test scores were included in a confirmatory factor analysis to identify cognitive domains encompassing attention/executive functions, learning/memory, and language, and factor scores for each domain were calculated per participant. After testing interactions between WMH and APOE ε4 in the full sample, we tested associations of WMH with factor scores using linear regression models in APOE ε4 carriers (n = 167) and noncarriers (n = 122). We hypothesized that greater WMH volume would relate to worse cognition more strongly in APOE ε4 carriers. Findings were replicated in 198 patients with AD from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI-I), and estimates from both samples were meta-analyzed.

Results

A significant interaction was observed between WMH and APOE ε4 for language, but not for memory or executive functions. Separate analyses in APOE ε4 carriers and noncarriers showed that greater WMH volume was associated with worse attention/executive functions, learning/memory, and language in APOE ε4 carriers only. In ADNI-I, greater WMH burden was associated with worse attention/executive functions and language in APOE ε4 carriers only. No significant associations were observed in noncarriers. Meta-analyses showed that greater WMH volume was associated with worse performance on all cognitive domains in APOE ε4 carriers only.

Conclusion

APOE ε4 may influence the association between WMH and cognitive performance in AD and DLB.

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<![CDATA[Cognition at age 70]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Nd27d6813-5240-40fa-aebc-105afba68a90

Objective

To investigate predictors of performance on a range of cognitive measures including the Preclinical Alzheimer Cognitive Composite (PACC) and test for associations between cognition and dementia biomarkers in Insight 46, a substudy of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development.

Methods

A total of 502 individuals born in the same week in 1946 underwent cognitive assessment at age 69–71 years, including an adapted version of the PACC and a test of nonverbal reasoning. Performance was characterized with respect to sex, childhood cognitive ability, education, and socioeconomic position (SEP). In a subsample of 406 cognitively normal participants, associations were investigated between cognition and β-amyloid (Aβ) positivity (determined from Aβ-PET imaging), whole brain volumes, white matter hyperintensity volumes (WMHV), and APOE ε4.

Results

Childhood cognitive ability was strongly associated with cognitive scores including the PACC more than 60 years later, and there were independent effects of education and SEP. Sex differences were observed on every PACC subtest. In cognitively normal participants, Aβ positivity and WMHV were independently associated with lower PACC scores, and Aβ positivity was associated with poorer nonverbal reasoning. Aβ positivity and WMHV were not associated with sex, childhood cognitive ability, education, or SEP. Normative data for 339 cognitively normal Aβ-negative participants are provided.

Conclusions

This study adds to emerging evidence that subtle cognitive differences associated with Aβ deposition are detectable in older adults, at an age when dementia prevalence is very low. The independent associations of childhood cognitive ability, education, and SEP with cognitive performance at age 70 have implications for interpretation of cognitive data in later life.

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<![CDATA[Ambulation Recovery After Surgery for Metastases to the Femur]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N47e66871-5e66-4833-a6c2-f0eb0735f99f

Abstract

Background

Postoperative ambulation recovery after surgery for femur metastases has significant implications for not only the patient's quality of life but also administration of further cancer treatment. Thus, identification of preoperative predictors of ambulation recovery is necessary to set appropriate expectations and guide treatment. This study aimed to assess ambulation recovery rate and identify predictors of ambulation recovery in patients undergoing surgery for femur metastases.

Materials and Methods

A total of 244 patients who underwent surgery for femur metastases at our institution were reviewed. Patients were considered ambulatory if they were able to walk independently or walk with aids and nonambulatory if they were wheelchair bound or bedridden. The following potential clinicopathologic factors that might predict postoperative ambulation recovery were evaluated: premorbid general status, cancer burden, and local factors.

Results

A total of 165 patients (68%) regained ambulatory status postoperatively. A multivariate analysis revealed poor Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (odds ratio [OR], 5.327; p < .001) and nonambulatory premorbid ambulatory status (OR, 7.459; p < .001) as independent predictors of poor ambulation recovery after surgery for femur metastases. Postoperative ambulatory status was significantly associated with postoperative survival time (p < .001).

Conclusion

Postoperative ambulation recovery rate in our cohort was 68%. Premorbid ambulatory status and ECOG performance status are predictors of ambulation recovery in patients undergoing surgery for femur metastases.

Implications for Practice

Postoperative ambulation recovery rate in this cohort was 68%. Premorbid ambulatory status and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status are predictors of ambulation recovery in patients undergoing surgery for femur metastases.

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<![CDATA[Acceptability of Routine Evaluations Using Patient‐Reported Outcomes of Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events and Other Patient‐Reported Symptom Outcome Tools in Cancer Outpatients: Princess Margaret Cancer Centre Experience]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/Neb7f2fdc-96dd-41ba-a953-ffd1b838a5d2

regorafenib dosing in patients with metastatic or recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors after failure of imatinib and sunitinib.

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<![CDATA[Amyloid- and tau-PET imaging in a familial prion kindred]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c2a7772d5eed0c4842265bc

Objective

To study the in vivo binding properties of 18F-AV-1451 (tau-PET) and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB-PET) in a unique kindred with a familial prion disorder known to produce amyloid plaques composed of prion protein alongside Alzheimer disease (AD)–like tau tangles.

Methods

A case series of 4 symptomatic family members with the 12-octapeptide repeat insertion in the PRNP gene were imaged with 3T MRI, PiB-PET, and tau-PET in their fourth decade of life.

Results

There was significant neocortical uptake of the tau-PET tracer in all 4 familial prion cases. However, PiB-PET images did not demonstrate abnormally elevated signal in neocortical or cerebellar regions for any of the patients.

Conclusions

In vivo detection of molecular hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases will be a prerequisite to well-conducted therapeutic trials. Understanding the in vivo behavior of these PET biomarkers in the setting of various neurodegenerative processes is imperative to their proper use in such trials and for research studies focused on the basic neurobiology of neurodegeneration. This study supports the high specificity of neocortical 18F-AV-1451 binding to AD-like tau and the lack of PiB binding to PrP plaques. It is uncertain how early in the disease course tau pathology appears in the brains of individuals who carry this PRNP gene mutation or how it evolves throughout the disease course, but future longitudinal 18F-AV-1451 imaging of symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals in this kindred will help address these uncertainties.

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<![CDATA[Dielectric characterization of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells using microfluidic impedance cytometry]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1acd4ad5eed0c484078b8f

Although malaria is the world's most life-threatening parasitic disease, there is no clear understanding of how certain biophysical properties of infected cells change during the malaria infection cycle. In this article, we use microfluidic impedance cytometry to measure the dielectric properties of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (i-RBCs) at specific time points during the infection cycle. Individual parasites were identified within i-RBCs using green fluorescent protein (GFP) emission. The dielectric properties of cell sub-populations were determined using the multi-shell model. Analysis showed that the membrane capacitance and cytoplasmic conductivity of i-RBCs increased along the infection time course, due to membrane alterations caused by parasite infection. The volume ratio occupied by the parasite was estimated to vary from less than 10% at earlier stages, to approximately 90% at later stages. This knowledge could be used to develop new label-free cell sorting techniques for sample pre-enrichment, improving diagnosis.

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<![CDATA[A Case of Nivolumab‐Induced Bullous Pemphigoid: Review of Dermatologic Toxicity Associated with Programmed Cell Death Protein‐1/Programmed Death Ligand‐1 Inhibitors and Recommendations for Diagnosis and Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c16d221d5eed0c484539b8f

Bullous pemphigoid is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease characterized by the development of tense bullae and is most frequently seen in the elderly. PD‐1/PD‐L1‐induced bullous pemphigoid (BP) has emerged as a potentially serious dermatologic toxicity. This article reports a case of a 72‐year‐old woman who developed BP shortly after initiating treatment with the PD‐1 inhibitor nivolumab for metastatic non‐small cell lung cancer.

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<![CDATA[Vertebral artery fusiform aneurysm geometry in predicting rupture risk]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c1522f4d5eed0c4840bd78d

Cerebral aneurysms affect a significant portion of the adult population worldwide. Despite significant progress, the development of robust techniques to evaluate the risk of aneurysm rupture remains a critical challenge. We hypothesize that vertebral artery fusiform aneurysm (VAFA) morphology may be predictive of rupture risk and can serve as a deciding factor in clinical management. To investigate the VAFA morphology, we use a combination of image analysis and machine learning techniques to study a geometric feature set computed from a depository of 37 (12 ruptured and 25 un-ruptured) aneurysm images. Of the 571 unique features we compute, we distinguish five features for use by our machine learning classification algorithm by an analysis of statistical significance. These machine learning methods achieve state-of-the-art classification performance (81.43 ± 13.08%) for the VAFA morphology, and identify five features (cross-sectional area change of aneurysm, maximum diameter of nearby distal vessel, solidity of aneurysm, maximum curvature of nearby distal vessel, and ratio of curvature between aneurysm and its nearby proximal vessel) as effective predictors of VAFA rupture risk. These results suggest that the geometric features of VAFA morphology may serve as useful non-invasive indicators for the prediction of aneurysm rupture risk in surgical settings.

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