ResearchPad - 46 https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Structural organization of the C1a-e-c supercomplex within the ciliary central apparatus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_15310 Nearly all motile cilia contain a central apparatus (CA) composed of two connected singlet microtubules with attached projections that play crucial roles in regulating ciliary motility. Defects in CA assembly usually result in motility-impaired or paralyzed cilia, which in humans causes disease. Despite their importance, the protein composition and functions of the CA projections are largely unknown. Here, we integrated biochemical and genetic approaches with cryo-electron tomography to compare the CA of wild-type Chlamydomonas with CA mutants. We identified a large (>2 MD) complex, the C1a-e-c supercomplex, that requires the PF16 protein for assembly and contains the CA components FAP76, FAP81, FAP92, and FAP216. We localized these subunits within the supercomplex using nanogold labeling and show that loss of any one of them results in impaired ciliary motility. These data provide insight into the subunit organization and 3D structure of the CA, which is a prerequisite for understanding the molecular mechanisms by which the CA regulates ciliary beating.

]]>
<![CDATA[Structure-preserving integrators for dissipative systems based on reversible– irreversible splitting]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N8e5e187d-b403-4e9a-ac42-1d06f44c1472

We study the optimal design of numerical integrators for dissipative systems, for which there exists an underlying thermodynamic structure known as GENERIC (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible–irreversible coupling). We present a frame-work to construct structure-preserving integrators by splitting the system into reversible and irreversible dynamics. The reversible part, which is often degenerate and reduces to a Hamiltonian form on its symplectic leaves, is solved by using a symplectic method (e.g. Verlet) with degenerate variables being left unchanged, for which an associated modified Hamiltonian (and subsequently a modified energy) in the form of a series expansion can be obtained by using backward error analysis. The modified energy is then used to construct a modified friction matrix associated with the irreversible part in such a way that a modified degeneracy condition is satisfied. The modified irreversible dynamics can be further solved by an explicit midpoint method if not exactly solvable. Our findings are verified by various numerical experiments, demonstrating the superiority of structure-preserving integrators over alternative schemes in terms of not only the accuracy control of both energy conservation and entropy production but also the preservation of the conformal symplectic structure in the case of linearly damped systems.

]]>
<![CDATA[Detection of arterial wall abnormalities via Bayesian model selection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/N69a661b2-27fb-4d37-ae69-1b21d4fb846a

Patient-specific modelling of haemodynamics in arterial networks has so far relied on parameter estimation for inexpensive or small-scale models. We describe here a Bayesian uncertainty quantification framework which makes two major advances: an efficient parallel implementation, allowing parameter estimation for more complex forward models, and a system for practical model selection, allowing evidence-based comparison between distinct physical models. We demonstrate the proposed methodology by generating simulated noisy flow velocity data from a branching arterial tree model in which a structural defect is introduced at an unknown location; our approach is shown to accurately locate the abnormality and estimate its physical properties even in the presence of significant observational and systemic error. As the method readily admits real data, it shows great potential in patient-specific parameter fitting for haemodynamical flow models.

]]>
<![CDATA[Responses of apoptosis and matrix metabolism of annulus fibrosus cells to different magnitudes of mechanical tension in vitro]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c94bd6dd5eed0c484613215

Background: Annulus fibrosus (AF) is important to confine disc nucleus pulposus (NP) tissue during mechanical load experience. However, the knowledge on AF cell biology under mechanical load is much limited compared with disc NP. Objective: The present study aimed to investigate responses of apoptosis and matrix metabolism of AF cells to different magnitudes of mechanical tension in vitro. Methods: Rat AF cells were subjected to different magnitudes (5, 10, and 20% elongations at a frequency of 1.0 Hz for 6 h per day) of mechanical tension for 7 days. Control AF cells were cultured without mechanical tension. Cell apoptosis ratio, caspase-3 activity, gene/protein expression of apoptosis-related molecules (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3/cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP), matrix macromolecules (aggrecan and collagen I) and matrix metabolism-related enzymes (TIMP-1, TIMP-3, MMP-3, and ADAMTS-4) were analyzed. Results: Compared with 5% tension group and control group, 10 and 20% tension groups significantly increased apoptosis ratio, caspase-3 activity, up-regulated gene/protein expression of Bax, caspase-3/cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, MMP-3, and ADAMTS-4, whereas down-regulated gene/protein expression of Bcl-2, aggrecan, collagen I, TIMP-1, and TIMP-3. No significant difference was found in these parameters apart from Bcl-2 expression between the control group and 5% tension group. Conclusion: High mechanical tension promotes AF cell apoptosis and suppresses AF matrix synthesis compared with low mechanical tension. The present study indirectly indicates how mechanical overload induces disc degeneration through affecting AF biology.

]]>
<![CDATA[Tumor necrosis factor gene polymorphisms are associated with silicosis: a systemic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c800fdad5eed0c484a9679a

Studies investigating association between tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene polymorphisms and silicosis susceptibility report conflicting results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess association between TNF gene polymorphisms and silicosis susceptibility. A systematic literature search was conducted to find relevant studies. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of association. Finally, a total of 12 articles, involving 1990 silicosis patients and 1898 healthy controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, meta-analysis revealed a significant association between the TNF −308A allele and silicosis (OR = 1.348, 95%CI = 1.156–1.570, P<0.001). A significant association of AA+AG genotype of the TNF −308 A/G polymorphism with susceptibility to silicosis was also found (OR = 1.466, 95%CI = 1.226–1.753, P<0.001). After stratification by ethnicity, significant associations were detected under the genetic models (A allele and AA+AG genotype) for TNF −308A/G polymorphisms in the Asian population (P<0.05). Similarly, meta-analysis of the TNF −238A/G polymorphism revealed the same pattern as that shown by meta-analysis of TNF −308A/G. The meta-analysis suggests that the TNF −308A/G and −238A/G polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to silicosis, especially in Asians.

]]>
<![CDATA[miR-134 inhibits chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by targetting SMAD6]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6863c8d5eed0c484023b42

Various miRNAs have been reported to regulate the chondrogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs); however, whether miR-134 plays a role in this biological process remains undetermined. In the present study, we first evaluated the chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by Alcian blue staining, and examined the miR-134 expression by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) during this process. And miR-134 inhibitor was used to investigate the functions of miR-134 in chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by Alcian blue staining, qRT-PCR, and Western blot. Subsequently, the correlation between miR-134 and SMAD6 was assessed via bioinformatics analysis and dual-luciferase reporter assay. Finally, the role of SMAD6 in chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs was also determined through Alcian blue staining, qRT-PCR, and Western blot. As results showed that miR-134 expression was significantly down-regulated during chondrogenic differentiation, and inhibition of miR-134 obviously promoted chondrogenic differentiation. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that miR-134 could directly target the 3′-UTRs of SMAD6, inhibit miR-134 expression in BMSCs, and up-regulate SMAD6 expression. Moreover, we found that overexpression of SMAD6 significantly promoted chondrogenic differentiation, and that SMAD6-induced promotion of chondrogenic differentiation could be reversed by miR-134 mimics. In conclusion, our findings suggest that miR-134 may act as a negative regulator during chondrogenic differentiation of BMSCs by interacting with SMAD6.

]]>
<![CDATA[ The molecular basis of transient heme-protein interactions: analysis, concept and implementation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6863e9d5eed0c484023c4d

Deviant levels of available heme and related molecules can result from pathological situations such as impaired heme biosynthesis or increased hemolysis as a consequence of vascular trauma or bacterial infections. Heme-related biological processes are affected by these situations, and it is essential to fully understand the underlying mechanisms. While heme has long been known as an important prosthetic group of various proteins, its function as a regulatory and signaling molecule is poorly understood. Diseases such as porphyria are caused by impaired heme metabolism, and heme itself might be used as a drug in order to downregulate its own biosynthesis. In addition, heme-driven side effects and symptoms emerging from heme-related pathological conditions are not fully comprehended and thus impede adequate medical treatment. Several heme-regulated proteins have been identified in the past decades, however, the molecular basis of transient heme-protein interactions remains to be explored. Herein, we summarize the results of an in-depth analysis of heme binding to proteins, which revealed specific binding modes and affinities depending on the amino acid sequence. Evaluating the binding behavior of a plethora of heme-peptide complexes resulted in the implementation of a prediction tool (SeqD-HBM) for heme-binding motifs, which eventually led and will perspectively lead to the identification and verification of so far unknown heme-regulated proteins. This systematic approach resulted in a broader picture of the alternative functions of heme as a regulator of proteins. However, knowledge on heme regulation of proteins is still a bottomless barrel that leaves much scope for future research and development.

]]>
<![CDATA[Serum profile of cytokines and their genetic variants in metabolic syndrome and healthy subjects: a comparative study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c6863f1d5eed0c484023c8a

Aim: To identify genetic variants in promoter areas of IL-6 -174 G>C and TNF-α -308 G>A in metabolic syndrome (Met S) and controls and associate them with Met S and serum cytokine levels.

It was a cross-sectional study, including 224 cases of Met S and 200 controls. A fasting blood sample was taken and biochemical parameters including serum glucose, insulin, lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were measured. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to identify the genetic variants of IL-6 and TNF-α. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and insulin resistance were significantly higher in cases than the controls. IL-6 showed significant positive correlation with HOMA-IR and TNF-α. CC genotype of IL-6 was associated with the increased risk of Met S (P=0.016, OR for CC vs GC+GG = 2.33, CI: 1.15–4.71). There was no significant difference of TNF-α genotypes between the cases and the controls. Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in AA and CC genotypes of TNF-α (-308 G>A) and IL-6 (-174 G>C) as compared with the GG (P=0.00 and P=0.001). Significant correlation of IL-6 with TNF-α and insulin resistance was observed that may provide us a therapeutic target for preventing metabolic derangements from insulin resistance.

]]>
<![CDATA[Functional and structural studies of tolloid-like 1 mutants associated with atrial-septal defect 6]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b93e5d5eed0c48487d36e

Inactive mammalian tolloid-like 1 (tll1) and mutations detected in tolloid-like 1 (TLL1) have been linked to the lack of the heart septa formation in mice and to a similar human inborn condition called atrial-septal defect 6 (ASD6; OMIM 613087, formerly ASD II). Previously, we reported four point mutations in TLL1 found in approximately 20% of ASD6 patients. Three mutations in the coding sequence were M182L, V238A, and I629V. In this work, we present the effects of these mutations on TLL1 function. Three recombinant cDNA constructs carrying the mutations and one wild-type construct were prepared and then expressed in HT-1080 cells. Corresponding recombinant proteins were analyzed for their metalloendopeptidase activity using a native substrate, chordin. The results of these assays demonstrated that in comparison with the native TLL1, mutants cleaved chordin and procollagen I at significantly lower rates. CD analyses revealed significant structural differences between the higher order structure of wild-type and mutant variants. Moreover, biosensor-based assays of binding interactions between TLL1 variants and chordin demonstrated a significant decrease in the binding affinities of the mutated variants. The results from this work indicate that mutations detected in TLL1 of ASD6 patients altered its metalloendopeptidase activity, structure, and substrate-binding properties, thereby suggesting a possible pathomechanism of ASD6.

]]>
<![CDATA[AMPK: a therapeutic target of heart failure—not only metabolism regulation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b93d6d5eed0c48487d0f5

Heart failure (HF) is a serious disease with high mortality. The incidence of this disease has continued to increase over the past decade. All cardiovascular diseases causing dysfunction of various physiological processes can result in HF. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), an energy sensor, has pleiotropic cardioprotective effects and plays a critical role in the progression of HF. In this review, we highlight that AMPK can not only improve the energy supply in the failing heart by promoting ATP production, but can also regulate several important physiological processes to restore heart function. In addition, we discuss some aspects of some potential clinical drugs which have effects on AMPK activation and may have value in treating HF. More studies, especially clinical trials, should be done to evaluate manipulation of AMPK activation as a potential means of treating HF.

]]>
<![CDATA[Rare copy number variants in the genome of Chinese female children and adolescents with Turner syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c4b93f1d5eed0c48487d5b0

Turner syndrome (TS) is a congenital disease caused by complete or partial loss of one X chromosome. Low bone mineral status is a major phenotypic characteristic of TS that can not be fully explained by X chromosome loss, suggesting other autosomal-linked mutations may also exist. Therefore, the present study aimed to detect potential genetic mutations in TS through examination of copy number variation (CNV). Seventeen patients with TS and 15 healthy volunteer girls were recruited. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on whole blood genomic DNA (gDMA) from the 17 TS patients and 15 healthy volunteer girls to identify potential CNVs. The abnormal CNV of one identified gene (CARD11) was verified by quantitative PCR. All cases diagnosed had TS based on genotype examination and physical characteristics, including short stature and premature ovarian failure. Three rare CNVs, located individually at 7p22.3, 7p22.2, and Xp22.33, where six genes (TTYH3, AMZ1, GNA12, BC038729, CARD11, and SHOX (stature homeobox)) are located, were found in TS patients. Quantitative PCR confirmed the CNV of CARD11 in the genome of TS patients. Our results indicate that CARD11 gene is one of the mutated genes involved in TS disease. However, this CNV is rare and its contribution to TS phenotype requires further study.

]]>
<![CDATA[Commentary on Ivancic et al.: Enzyme kinetics from circular dichroism of insulin reveals mechanistic insights into the regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c19b346d5eed0c484c530e7

Despite the enormous number of therapeutic advances in medicine, nowadays many diseases are still incurable, mainly due to the lack of knowledge of the pathological biochemical pathways triggering those diseases. For this reason, it is compulsory for the scientific community to investigate and unveil the biomolecular mechanisms responsible for the development of those diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes, which are widespread all over the world. In this scenario, it is of paramount importance to develop new analytical techniques and experimental procedures that are capable to make the above-mentioned investigations feasible. These new methods should allow easy performable analysis carried out in a label-free environment, in order to give reliable answers to specific biochemical questions. A recent paper published on Bioscience Reports by Ivancic et al. (https://doi.org/10.1042/BSR20181416) proposes a new analytical technique capable to reveal some mechanistic insights into the regulation of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), a protein involved in the above-mentioned diseases. IDE is a multifaceted enzyme having different and not well-defined roles in the cell, but it is primarily a proteolytic enzyme capable to degrade several different amyloidogenic substrates involved in different diseases. Moreover, many molecules are responsible for IDE activity modulation so that understanding how IDE activity is regulated represents a very challenging analytical task. The new analytical approach proposed by Ivancic et al. reports on the possibility to study IDE activity in an unbiased and label-free manner, representing a valid alternative assay for the investigation of any proteases degradative activity.

]]>
<![CDATA[Acidic pH promotes nucleus pulposus cell senescence through activating the p38 MAPK pathway]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c15d693d5eed0c484287f25

Background: Nucleus pulposus (NP) cell senescence is an important cellular feature within the degenerative disc. It is known that a very acidic niche exists in the degenerative disc, which participates in regulating disc cell viability and matrix metabolism. Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate the role and potential signaling transduction pathway of an acidic pH in regulating NP cell senescence. Methods: Rat NP cells were cultured in an acidic pH of 7.2 close to that in a healthy disc (Control group) or in an acidic pH of 6.2 close to that in a severe degenerative disc (Experiment group) for 10 days. Additionally, the experimental NP cells were incubated along with the inhibitor SB203580 to analyze the role of p38 MAPK pathway in this process. Results: Compared with the control NP cells, experimental NP cells showed a suppressed cell proliferation potency, an increased G0/G1 phase fraction whereas a decreased S-phase fraction and a declined telomerase activity, an up-regulated expression of senescence-related molecules (p16 and p53), and a down-regulated expression of matrix-related moleucles (aggrecan and collagen II). Further analysis showed that inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway partly reversed effects of acidic pH of 6.2 on the experimental NP cells. Conclusion: The very acidic niche identified in a severe degenerative disc promotes NP cell senescence through regulating the p38 MAPK pathway. The present study provides a new mechanism that drives NP cell senescence during disc degeneration.

]]>
<![CDATA[Decreased expression of circulating Aire and increased Tfh/Tfr cells in myasthenia gravis patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c15d6aad5eed0c484288226

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a rare prototypical autoimmune disorder caused by antibodies (Ab) against postsynaptic membrane proteins. Most reports have investigated the role of autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) in thymic tissue in machianism of MG initiation. So far, the expression of Aire in human peripheral blood cells (we call it circulating Aire expression in the following passage) has not been reported. Herein, we explore the expression of Aire in peripharal blood, circulating T-follicular helper (cTfh) and T-follicular regulatory (cTfr) cells in MG patients. In our research, we found that the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) Ab level is higher in generalized MG (GMG) than that in ocular MG (OMG). Compared with the control group (CG), lower expression of Aire was found in MG patients, especially in GMG. The ratio of Tfh/Tfr was higher in GMG patients, and then in the OMG patients, and lowest in CG. All these differences above were statistically significant. Negative relation was discovered between expression of Aire in circulating blood and ratio of Tfh/Tfr, so did it exist between Aire expression and the severity of MG. Meanwhile, positive relation was discovered between ratio of Tfh/Tfr and the severity of MG. However, no significant relation was manifested in our study between the subset age of MG and Aire level. Overall, these findings imply circulating Aire might play a role in the imbalance of cTfh and cTfr cells and participate in the pathogenesis of MG.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Chinese medicine Chai Hu Li Zhong Tang protects against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease by activating AMPKα]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c15d69ed5eed0c48428807f

An effective treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is urgently needed. In the present study, we investigated whether the Chinese medicine Chai Hu Li Zhong Tang (CHLZT) could protect against the development of NAFLD. Rats in an animal model of NAFLD were treated with CHLZT, and their serum levels of cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were detected with an automatic biochemical analyzer. A cellular model of NAFLD was also established by culturing HepG2 cells in a medium that contained a long chain fat emulsion. Those cells were treated with CHLZT that contained serum from rats. After treatment, the levels of adenylate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α (AMPKα), p-AMPKα, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) α (ACCα), pACCα, PPARγ, and SREBP-2 were detected. The AMPK agonist, acadesine (AICAR), was used as a positive control compound. Our results showed that CHLZT or AICAR significantly decreased the serum levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, AST, ALT, and insulin in NAFLD rats, and significantly increased their serum HDL-C levels. Treatments with CHLZT or AICAR significantly decreased the numbers of lipid droplets in NAFLD liver tissues and HepG2 cells. CHLZT and AICAR increased the levels of p-AMPKα and PPARγ in the NAFLD liver tissues and HepG2 cells, but decreased the levels of ACC-α, p-ACC-α, SREBP-2, and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR). CHLZT protects against NAFLD by activating AMPKα, and also by inhibiting ACC activity, down-regulating SREBP2 and HMGR, and up-regulating PPAR-γ. Our results suggest that CHLZT might be useful for treating NAFLD in the clinic.

]]>
<![CDATA[Mucins: the frontline defence of the lung]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c114484d5eed0c4845d3e0d

Mucus plays a vital role in protecting the lungs from environmental factors, but conversely, in muco-obstructive airway disease, mucus becomes pathologic. In its protective role, mucus entraps microbes and particles removing them from the lungs via the co-ordinated beating of motile cilia. This mechanism of lung defence is reliant upon a flowing mucus gel, and the major macromolecular components that determine the rheological properties of mucus are the polymeric mucins, MUC5AC and MUC5B. These large O-linked glycoproteins have direct roles in maintaining lung homeostasis. MUC5B is essential for interaction with the ciliary clearance system and MUC5AC is up-regulated in response to allergic inflammatory challenge. Mucus with abnormal biophysical properties is a feature of muco-obstructive respiratory disease and can result from many different mechanisms including alterations in mucin polymer assembly, mucin concentration and the macromolecular form in mucus, as well as changes in airway surface hydration, pH and ion composition. The abnormal mucus results in defective lung protection via compromised ciliary clearance, leading to infection and inflammation.

]]>
<![CDATA[Vitamin C and immune cell function in inflammation and cancer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11448bd5eed0c4845d3fbc

Vitamin C (ascorbate) is maintained at high levels in most immune cells and can affect many aspects of the immune response. Intracellular levels generally respond to variations in plasma ascorbate availability, and a combination of inadequate intake and increased turnover during severe stress can result in low plasma ascorbate status. Intracellular ascorbate supports essential functions and, in particular, acts as an enzyme cofactor for Fe- or Cu-containing oxygenases. Newly discovered enzymes in this family regulate cell metabolism and epigenetics, and dysregulation of their activity can affect cell phenotype, growth and survival pathways, and stem cell phenotype. This brief overview details some of the recent advances in our understanding of how ascorbate availability can affect the hydroxylases controlling the hypoxic response and the DNA and histone demethylases. These processes play important roles in the regulation of the immune system, altering cell survival pathways, metabolism and functions.

]]>
<![CDATA[Towards a therapy for mitochondrial disease: an update]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5c11447cd5eed0c4845d3c78

Preclinical work aimed at developing new therapies for mitochondrial diseases has recently given new hopes and opened unexpected perspectives for the patients affected by these pathologies. In contrast, only minor progresses have been achieved so far in the translation into the clinics. Many challenges are still ahead, including the need for a better characterization of the pharmacological effects of the different approaches and the design of appropriate clinical trials with robust outcome measures for this extremely heterogeneous, rare, and complex group of disorders. In this review, we will discuss the most important achievements and the major challenges in this very dynamic research field.

]]>
<![CDATA[ER stress dependent microparticles derived from smooth muscle cells promote endothelial dysfunction during thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b3db09c463d7e39b1acfc82

The degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cell(s) (SMC) is one of the key features of thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). We and others have shown that elevated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes SMC loss and TAAD formation, however, the mechanism of how SMC dysfunction contributes to intimal damage, leading to TAAD, remains to be explored. In the present study, in vitro assay demonstrated that elevated mechanical stretch (18% elongation, 3600 cycles/h) stimulated the ER stress response and microparticle(s) (MP) production from both SMC and endothelial cell(s) (EC) in a time-dependent manner. Treatment of EC with isolated MP led to anoikis, which was determined by measuring the fluorescence of the ethidium homodimer (EthD-1) and Calcein AM cultured in hydrogel-coated plates and control plates. MP stimulation of EC also up-regulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory molecules (i.e. Vascular cellular adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1)), intercellular adhesion molecular-1 (ICAM-1), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)). Use of an ER stress inhibitor or knockout of CHOP decreased mechanical stretch-induced MP production in SMC. In vivo, administration of an ER stress inhibitor or knockout of CHOP suppressed both apoptosis of EC and the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Moreover, TAAD formation was also suppressed by the administration of an ER stress inhibitor. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that elevated mechanical stretch induces MP formation in SMC leading to endothelial dysfunction, which is ER stress dependent. The inhibition of ER stress suppressed EC apoptosis, inflammation in the aorta, and TAAD development.

]]>
<![CDATA[SerpinC1/Antithrombin III in kidney-related diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/5b3c4707463d7e1fb862561e

The gene SerpinC1 encodes a serine protease inhibitor named antithrombin III (ATIII). This protease demonstrates both anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory action. ATIII is the most important coagulation factor inhibitor, and even minor changes in ATIII can significantly alter the risk of thromboembolism. ATIII can also suppress inflammation via a coagulation-dependent or -independent effect. Moreover, apart from ATIII deficiency, ATIII and its gene SerpinC1 may also be related to many diseases (e.g. hypertension, kidney diseases). The present review summarizes how ATIII affects the progress of kidney disease and its mechanism. Further studies are required to investigate how ATIII affects renal function and the treatment.

]]>