ResearchPad - Aerospace Engineering https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Microlearning for patient safety: Crew resource management training in 15-minutes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c8accebd5eed0c4849902fc

Objectives

We sought to establish the feasibility of chunking crew resource management (CRM) training into micro-size interventions and to compare different training approaches in the context of micro-learning.

Design

We evaluated whether participants in micro-learning CRM activities achieved learning objectives following training. In a between-subjects design, groups were observed for behaviour during a simulation that was part of a 15-minute modular intervention and tested for recollection afterwards.

Participants

The 129 participants recruited for this study were medical students, who already had relevant experience treating patients.

Interventions

The experimental setting involved three 5-minute components: video, simulation, and debriefing. Different groups viewed videos involving different didactic concepts: one group observed a videotaped concrete example of a medical care team applying a CRM tool (example group), and one group observed a videotaped lecture on the same topic (lecture group).

Main outcome measures

All simulations were videotaped and coded in detail for the occurrence of and time spent engaging in team behaviour and medical care. Questionnaires were administered before, immediately after, and two weeks after the intervention. We compared the groups’ behaviour during the simulation (team cooperation and medical care), retention of knowledge from the training content, and results of the evaluation.

Results

Both groups exhibited most of the behaviours included in the content of the instructional videos during the simulations and recollected information 2 weeks later. The example group exhibited significantly more of the training content during the simulation and demonstrated better retention 2 weeks later. Although the example group spent more time on team coordination, there was no difference in the number of executed medical measures.

Conclusion

Delivering CRM training in chunks of relatively short and highly standardised interventions appears feasible. In this study, the form of didactical presentation caused a difference in learning success between groups: a traditional lecture was outperformed by an instructional video demonstrating a practical example.

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<![CDATA[Analysis of development and evolution rules of civil aviation in China based on life cycle theory]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c76fe58d5eed0c484e5b913

The development of CAAC began in the early days of 1949. From a comparatively less popular means of transport to the world's second largest by volume, this means of transport has undergone major and minor changes in the last 70 years. It is not known whether there are significant laws in the process of development. For this reason, we analyze the statistical indicators of the development of civil aviation transport and select representative indicators, namely, the total turnover of transport, the number of routes, the number of aircraft, the number of transport aircraft, and the number of domestic city connections. At the same time, the life cycle theory is introduced, and the typical growth curve model is used to fit the data. It is found that the evolution life cycle of civil aviation in China can be divided into three stages: the first life cycle stage from 1950 to 1981, the second from 1982 to 2003, and the third from 2004 to 2017. Each life cycle follows the growth characteristics of occurrence, growth and maturity, and each life cycle has a time range of approximately 30 years. At present, China's civil aviation industry is in the period of rapid growth in the third life cycle. This industry is expected to reach maturity in approximately 2026 and then to begin to grow slowly. Relevant departments can adopt corresponding development strategies to guide the smooth development of civil aviation in accordance with the growth law of the development and evolution life cycle of civil aviation in China.

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<![CDATA[Maintenance and inspection as risk factors in helicopter accidents: Analysis and recommendations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c5df318d5eed0c484580cfa

In this work, we establish that maintenance and inspection are a risk factor in helicopter accidents. Between 2005 and 2015, flawed maintenance and inspection were causal factors in 14% to 21% of helicopter accidents in the U.S. civil fleet. For these maintenance-related accidents, we examined the incubation time from when the maintenance error was committed to the time when it resulted in an accident. We found a significant clustering of maintenance accidents within a short number of flight-hours after maintenance was performed. Of these accidents, 31% of these accidents occurred within the first 10 flight-hours. This is reminiscent of infant mortality in reliability engineering, and we characterized it as maintenance error infant mortality. The last quartile of maintenance-related accidents occurred after 60 flight-hours following maintenance and inspection. We then examined the “physics of failures” underlying maintenance-related accidents and analyzed the prevalence of different types of maintenance errors in helicopter accidents. We found, for instance, that the improper or incomplete (re)assembly or installation of a part category accounted for the majority of maintenance errors with 57% of such cases, and within this category, the incorrect torquing of the B-nut and incomplete assembly of critical linkages were the most prevalent maintenance errors. We also found that within the failure to perform a required preventive maintenance and inspection task category, the majority of the maintenance programs were not executed in compliance with federal regulations, nor with the manufacturer maintenance plan. Maintenance-related accidents are particularly hurtful for the rotorcraft community, and they can be eliminated. This is a reachable objective when technical competence meets organizational proficiency and the collective will of all the stakeholders in this community. We conclude with a set of recommendations based on our findings, which borrow from the ideas underlying the defense-in-depth safety principle to address this disquieting problem.

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