ResearchPad - Analysis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Adolescent Brain Development and Progressive Legal Responsibility in the Latin American Context]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_12966 In this article, we analyze the contributions of neuroscience to the development of the adolescent brain and shed additional light on the minimum age of criminal responsibility in the context of Latin America. In neurobiology, maturity is perceived to be complex because the brain’s temporal development process is not uniform across all its regions. This has important consequences for adolescents’ behavior; in their search for the acceptance of their peers, they are more vulnerable to pressure and more sensitive to stress than adults. Their affectivity is more unstable, and they show signs of low tolerance to frustration and important emotional reactivity, with a decrease in the capacity to self-regulate. Consequently, risky behavior presents itself more frequently during adolescence, and behaviors that transgress norms and social conventions typically peak between the ages of 17 and 19 years. However, only a small percentage of young offenders escalate their behavior to committing crimes during adulthood. In comparative law, there are considerable differences in Latin American countries’ legal dispositions regarding the minimum age of criminal responsibility; Brazil, Costa Rica, and Ecuador regard the age of criminal responsibility to be 12 years, while Argentina accepts this to be 16 years. From a legal viewpoint, however, the debate about the minimum age of criminal responsibility is connected to other circumstances that, because they are still at a developmental stage, are attributed to adolescents’ rights in their decision-making and understanding of autonomy (e.g., the minimum ages for voting, alcohol consumption, and medical consent). We argue that research on the development of the adolescent brain does not provide definitive answers about the exact age required for different juridical purposes. Nonetheless, the current state of knowledge does allow for reflection on the development and maturation of adolescents and the implications for considering them criminally responsible. It also validates demands for a system that provides adolescents with greater protection and that favors their healthy integral development. In any case, although a specific minimum age is not evident, this study is disposed not to recommend lowering the age of criminal responsibility, but rather increasing it.

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<![CDATA[Comprehensive Analysis of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor (FGFR) Family Genes in Breast Cancer by Integrating Online Databases and Bioinformatics]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11864 Fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) play vital roles in the development and progression of human cancers. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the prognostic performances of FGFR1–4 expression in breast cancer (BC) by mining databases.Material/MethodsThe levels of FGFR1–4 expression in BC were analyzed by online databases, GEPIA (Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis) and UALCAN. Survival analysis of FGFR1–4 was carried out by Kaplan-Meier plotter. GSE74146 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and analyzed by GEO2R to screen the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between FGFR2-silenced BC cells and control. Over-presentation for DEGs were done by Enrichr tool. Networks of DEGs were obtained by using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes (STRING) and Cytoscape software. Hub genes were identified by cytoHubba Cytoscape plugin.ResultsThe online databases showed that FGFR1 was significantly downregulated whereas FGFR3 was upregulated in BC. Kaplan-Meier plotter demonstrated the upregulation of both FGFR1 and FGFR3 indicated favorable relapse free survival (RFS) whereas FGFR4 overexpression predicted unfavorable overall survival (OS) in BC patients. Importantly, our results showed FGFR2 overexpression robustly predicted favorable OS and RFS in BC. Further bioinformatics analysis of GSE74146 suggested FGFR2 mainly participated in regulating degradation and organization of the extracellular matrix and signaling of retinoic acid. Moreover, CXCL8, CD44, MMP9, and BMP7 were identified as crucial FGFR2-related hub genes.ConclusionsOur study comprehensively analyzed the prognostic values of FGFR1–4 expression in BC and proposed FGFR2 might serve as a promising biomarker. However, the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. ]]> <![CDATA[Epidemiological Analysis of the First 1389 Cases of COVID-19 in Poland: A Preliminary Report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11695 The World Health Organization has declared COVID-19 a global pandemic. This paper presents an epidemiological analysis of the first phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in Poland.Material/MethodsThis cross-sectional study was carried out between 3 and 27 March 2020 on a sample of 1389 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases in Poland. Data were obtained from epidemiological reports collected by the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate. Analysis includes the number of COVID-19 cases, number of deaths, number of hospitalizations, number of people quarantined, and number of laboratory tests performed.ResultsThe first case was confirmed on 4 March 2020. Over 24 days after the first case, the total number of confirmed infections rose to 1389 (34,000 laboratory tests were performed). The highest incidence rates (over 5 per 100,000) were observed in the 2 central administrative regions (Mazowieckie and Łódzkie) and in the south-western region of Dolnośląskie, which borders the Czech Republic and Germany. Based on available data about age and sex, a clearly higher incidence was observed in the 20–29 years (4.0 per 100,000), 40–49 years (4.1 per 100,000), and 50–59 years (4.3 per 100,000) age groups. In the period analyzed (24 days), there were 16 confirmed deaths (average age 65.5 years; 81.2% males).ConclusionsThe proportion of women and men with confirmed COVID-19 infection was similar to the sex ratio in the general population. Infections were relatively less common in those aged under 20 years. The largest numbers of confirmed cases were detected in 3 of the 4 largest cities, each of which has an international airport. ]]> <![CDATA[Association of the HTR2C-759C/T polymorphism and antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11693 Antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG) is a crucial factor for the medication cessation of patients with schizophrenia. Multiple studies have shown that the functional polymorphism -759 C/T (rs3813929) in the HTR2C promoter region could possibly be correlated with AIWG.AimTo evaluate the genetic association of the HTR2C-759C/T polymorphism and AIWG in patients with schizophrenia with antipsychotic drugs (APDs) administration.MethodsEligible studies were identified by searching the following databases: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, China Nation Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP, Wanfang Data, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) and the Airiti Library. The quality of studies was evaluated based on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The pooled OR and 95% CI were calculated for the dominant (CT/TT/T vs CC/C) mode, and subgroup analyses were performed based on ethnicity, antipsychotic medication and gender; all statistical analyses were performed using the statistical software STATA V.12.0.ResultA total of 17 studies with 3170 patients with schizophrenia were included in our meta-analysis. The result of the meta-analysis has shown that the association between the -759 C/T polymorphism and AIWG is statistically significant (OR 0.34, 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.57, z=4.11, p<0.001). The subgroup analyses revealed significant correlations between the -759 C/T polymorphism and AIWG in the Caucasian population (OR 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.77, z=2.55, p=0.011), the Asian population (OR 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18 to 0.52, z=4.46, p<0.001), the patients with APDs administration (CT/TT/T vs CC/C: OR 0.63, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.00, z=1.97, p=0.049) and the patients with atypical antipsychotic drug administration (CT/TT/T vs CC/C: OR 0.21, 95% CI: 0.09 to 0.47, z=3.83, p<0.001). The sensitivity analysis showed that the results were stable. Begg’s test (after correction z=1.07, p=0.287) and Egger’s test (t=−2.41, p=0.029) show that the included articles have no significant publication bias.ConclusionThere is a significant genetic association between HTR2C-759C/T and AIWG, and patients with T allele are less likely to have AIWG. ]]> <![CDATA[Chloroplast genomes of Rubiaceae: Comparative genomics and molecular phylogeny in subfamily Ixoroideae]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11231 In Rubiaceae phylogenetics, the number of markers often proved a limitation with authors failing to provide well-supported trees at tribal and generic levels. A robust phylogeny is a prerequisite to study the evolutionary patterns of traits at different taxonomic levels. Advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized biology by providing, at reduced cost, huge amounts of data for an increased number of species. Due to their highly conserved structure, generally recombination-free, and mostly uniparental inheritance, chloroplast DNA sequences have long been used as choice markers for plant phylogeny reconstruction. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to gain insight in chloroplast genome evolution in the Rubiaceae (Ixoroideae) through efficient methodology for de novo assembly of plastid genomes; and, 2) to test the efficiency of mining SNPs in the nuclear genome of Ixoroideae based on the use of a coffee reference genome to produce well-supported nuclear trees. We assembled whole chloroplast genome sequences for 27 species of the Rubiaceae subfamily Ixoroideae using next-generation sequences. Analysis of the plastid genome structure reveals a relatively good conservation of gene content and order. Generally, low variation was observed between taxa in the boundary regions with the exception of the inverted repeat at both the large and short single copy junctions for some taxa. An average of 79% of the SNP determined in the Coffea genus are transferable to Ixoroideae, with variation ranging from 35% to 96%. In general, the plastid and the nuclear genome phylogenies are congruent with each other. They are well-resolved with well-supported branches. Generally, the tribes form well-identified clades but the tribe Sherbournieae is shown to be polyphyletic. The results are discussed relative to the methodology used and the chloroplast genome features in Rubiaceae and compared to previous Rubiaceae phylogenies.

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<![CDATA[A modified arginine-depleting enzyme NEI-01 inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11227 Arginine deprivation cancer therapy targets certain types of malignancies with positive result in many studies and clinical trials. NEI-01 was designed as a novel arginine-depleting enzyme comprising an albumin binding domain capable of binding to human serum albumin to lengthen its half-life. In the present work, NEI-01 is shown to bind to serum albumin from various species, including mice, rat and human. Single intraperitoneal administration of NEI-01 to mice reduced plasma arginine to undetectable level for at least 9 days. Treatment of NEI-01 specifically inhibited cell viability of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cancer cell lines, which were ASS1 negative. Using a human pancreatic mouse xenograft model, NEI-01 treatment significantly reduced tumor volume and weight. Our data provides proof of principle for a cancer treatment strategy using NEI-01.

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<![CDATA[Implementation of maternity protection legislation: Gynecologists’ perceptions and practices in French-speaking Switzerland]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11226 In several countries, maternity protection legislations (MPL) confer an essential role to gynecologist-obstetricians (OBGYNs) for the protection of pregnant workers and their future children from occupational exposures. This study explores OBGYNs’ practices and difficulties in implementing MPL in the French-speaking part of Switzerland.MethodsAn online survey was sent to 333 OBGYNs. Data analysis included: 1) descriptive and correlational statistics and 2) hierarchical cluster analysis to identify patterns of practices.ResultsOBGYNs evoked several problems in MPL implementation: absence of risk analysis in the companies, difficult collaboration with employers, lack of competencies in the field of occupational health. Preventive leave was underused, with sick leave being prescribed instead. Training had a positive effect on OBGYNs’ knowledge and implementation of MPL. Hierarchical cluster analysis highlighted three main types of practices: 1) practice in line with legislation; 2) practice on a case-by-case basis; 3) limited practice. OBGYNs with good knowledge of MPL more consistently applied its provisions.ConclusionThe implementation of MPL appears challenging for OBGYNs. Collaboration with occupational physicians and training might help OBGYNs to better take on their role in maternity protection. MPL in itself could be improved. ]]> <![CDATA[A model for the assessment of bluetongue virus serotype 1 persistence in Spain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_11225 Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an arbovirus of ruminants that has been circulating in Europe continuously for more than two decades and has become endemic in some countries such as Spain. Spain is ideal for BTV epidemiological studies since BTV outbreaks from different sources and serotypes have occurred continuously there since 2000; BTV-1 has been reported there from 2007 to 2017. Here we develop a model for BTV-1 endemic scenario to estimate the risk of an area becoming endemic, as well as to identify the most influential factors for BTV-1 persistence. We created abundance maps at 1-km2 spatial resolution for the main vectors in Spain, Culicoides imicola and Obsoletus and Pulicaris complexes, by combining environmental satellite data with occurrence models and a random forest machine learning algorithm. The endemic model included vector abundance and host-related variables (farm density). The three most relevant variables in the endemic model were the abundance of C. imicola and Obsoletus complex and density of goat farms (AUC 0.86); this model suggests that BTV-1 is more likely to become endemic in central and southwestern regions of Spain. It only requires host- and vector-related variables to identify areas at greater risk of becoming endemic for bluetongue. Our results highlight the importance of suitable Culicoides spp. prediction maps for bluetongue epidemiological studies and decision-making about control and eradication measures.

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<![CDATA[Association of circulating cystatin C levels with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9503 This study aimed to systemically summarize the present literature about circulating cystatin C (Cys C) levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and provide a more precise evaluation of Cys C levels in T2DM.Material and methodsRelevant studies about Cys C concentrations in T2DM were searched in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library database (up to Oct 31 2018). We computed the pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) of Cys C levels through a random-effect model. The Q test and the I2 statistic were used to assess and quantify between-study heterogeneity; publication bias was evaluated through a funnel plot and Egger’s linear regression test.ResultsAfter the literature search and screening process, 14 studies with 723 T2DM patients and 473 healthy controls were finally included in the meta-analysis. The results showed that T2DM patients had significantly higher Cys C levels compared to healthy controls (SMD = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.92–1.86, p < 0.001). Publication bias was not detected based on the symmetrical shape of the funnel plot and the results of Egger’s test (p = 0.452). Subgroup analyses suggested that variables of human race, age, gender, study sample size and disease duration have a relationship with Cys C level in T2DM patients.ConclusionsOverall, our study suggests that patients with T2DM have an elevated circulating Cys C level compared to healthy controls, and it is associated with race, age, gender, study sample size and disease duration. Further investigations are still needed to explore the causal relationship of aberrant Cys C concentrations in T2DM. ]]> <![CDATA[Assessment of selected nutrient intake by Polish preschool children compared to dietary recommendations: a meta-analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_9484 In recent years a steady increase in the number of obese people has been observed worldwide. This problem is also increasingly applicable to children and adolescents. In this study, we conducted a meta-analysis of studies carried out in Poland over ten years (2005–2015) which analysed the diet of preschool children and assessed how significantly it affects the prevention of diet-dependent disease.Material and methodsTwo of the researchers independently performed a systematic search of Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and the Polish Medical Bibliography to find studies published between 2005 and 2015. The variance of the means of differences between selected factors in relation to dietary guidelines and standards for preschool children was estimated by summing the individual variances of means. The means of differences between selected factors across the studies were pooled using random-effects model meta-analysis.ResultsThe analysis included a total of 2095 children. Mean protein content in the diet of children studied is 111% higher than indicated in dietary recommendations for this age group; mean consumption of carbohydrates in the study group is 24% higher than recommended. In moderately high calorie diets, analysis showed that the recommended norm is exceeded by 47%, CE 0.77, p < 0.001.ConclusionsNutrient intake is not compliant with recommendations for this age group and could not only inhibit physical development, but also increase the risk of diet-dependent diseases. ]]> <![CDATA[Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8992 The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, or Commission) considered amendments to Articles of its Constitution (ICZN 1999a) at a special session in Singapore, convened on June 3–7, 2019. During this meeting, Commissioners also planned revisions to the Bylaws, the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999b, 2003, 2012, 2017) and ZooBank user policies.

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<![CDATA[Thalamic, cortical, and amygdala involvement in the processing of a natural sound cue of danger]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7872 When others stop and silence ensues, animals respond as if threatened. This study highlights the brain areas involved in listening to the dangerous silence.

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<![CDATA[Proficiency based progression simulation training significantly reduces utility strikes; A prospective, randomized and blinded study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7871 We evaluated a simulation-based training curriculum with quantitatively defined performance benchmarks for utility workers location and excavation of utility services.BackgroundDamaging buried utilities is associated with considerable safety risks to workers and substantial cost to employers.MethodsIn a prospective, randomized and blinded study we assessed the impact of Proficiency Based Progression (PBP) simulation training on the location and excavation of utility services work.ResultsPBP simulation training reduced performance errors (33%, p = 0.006) in comparison a standard trained group. When implemented across all workers in the same division there was a 35–61% reduction in utility strikes (p = 0.028) and an estimated cost saving of £116,000 –£2,175,000 in the 12 months (47,000 work hours) studied.ConclusionsThe magnitude of the training benefit of PBP simulation training in the utilities sector appears to be the same as it is in surgery, cardiology and procedure-based medicine.ApplicationQuality-assured utility worker simulation training significantly reduces utility damage and associated costs. ]]> <![CDATA[Using case-level context to classify cancer pathology reports]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7869 Individual electronic health records (EHRs) and clinical reports are often part of a larger sequence—for example, a single patient may generate multiple reports over the trajectory of a disease. In applications such as cancer pathology reports, it is necessary not only to extract information from individual reports, but also to capture aggregate information regarding the entire cancer case based off case-level context from all reports in the sequence. In this paper, we introduce a simple modular add-on for capturing case-level context that is designed to be compatible with most existing deep learning architectures for text classification on individual reports. We test our approach on a corpus of 431,433 cancer pathology reports, and we show that incorporating case-level context significantly boosts classification accuracy across six classification tasks—site, subsite, laterality, histology, behavior, and grade. We expect that with minimal modifications, our add-on can be applied towards a wide range of other clinical text-based tasks.

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<![CDATA[Modeling competitive evolution of multiple languages]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7854 Increasing evidence demonstrates that in many places language coexistence has become ubiquitous and essential for supporting language and cultural diversity and associated with its financial and economic benefits. The competitive evolution among multiple languages determines the evolution outcome, either coexistence, or decline, or extinction. Here, we extend the Abrams-Strogatz model of language competition to multiple languages and then validate it by analyzing the behavioral transitions of language usage over the recent several decades in Singapore and Hong Kong. In each case, we estimate from data the model parameters that measure each language utility for its speakers and the strength of two biases, the majority preference for their language, and the minority aversion to it. The values of these two biases decide which language is the fastest growing in the competition and what would be the stable state of the system. We also study the system convergence time to stable states and discover the existence of tipping points with multiple attractors. Moreover, the critical slowdown of convergence to the stable fractions of language users appears near and peaks at the tipping points, signaling when the system approaches them. Our analysis furthers our understanding of evolution of various languages and the role of tipping points in behavioral transitions. These insights may help to protect languages from extinction and retain the language and cultural diversity.

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<![CDATA[Methamphetamine administration increases hepatic CYP1A2 but not CYP3A activity in female guinea pigs]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7848 Methamphetamine use has increased over the past decade and the first use of methamphetamine is most often when women are of reproductive age. Methamphetamine accumulates in the liver; however, little is known about the effect of methamphetamine use on hepatic drug metabolism. Methamphetamine was administered on 3 occassions to female Dunkin Hartley guinea pigs of reproductive age, mimicking recreational drug use. Low doses of test drugs caffeine and midazolam were administered after the third dose of methamphetamine to assess the functional activity of cytochrome P450 1A2 and 3A, respectively. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the mRNA expression of factors involved in glucocorticoid signalling, inflammation, oxidative stress and drug transporters. This study showed that methamphetamine administration decreased hepatic CYP1A2 mRNA expression, but increased CYP1A2 enzyme activity. Methamphetamine had no effect on CYP3A enzyme activity. In addition, we found that methamphetamine may also result in changes in glucocorticoid bioavailability, as we found a decrease in 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 mRNA expression, which converts inactive cortisone into active cortisol. This study has shown that methamphetamine administration has the potential to alter drug metabolism via the CYP1A2 metabolic pathway in female guinea pigs. This may have clinical implications for drug dosing in female methamphetamine users of reproductive age.

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<![CDATA[Active Notch signaling is required for arm regeneration in a brittle star]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7845 Cell signaling pathways play key roles in coordinating cellular events in development. The Notch signaling pathway is highly conserved across all multicellular animals and is known to coordinate a multitude of diverse cellular events, including proliferation, differentiation, fate specification, and cell death. Specific functions of the pathway are, however, highly context-dependent and are not well characterized in post-traumatic regeneration. Here, we use a small-molecule inhibitor of the pathway (DAPT) to demonstrate that Notch signaling is required for proper arm regeneration in the brittle star Ophioderma brevispina, a highly regenerative member of the phylum Echinodermata. We also employ a transcriptome-wide gene expression analysis (RNA-seq) to characterize the downstream genes controlled by the Notch pathway in the brittle star regeneration. We demonstrate that arm regeneration involves an extensive cross-talk between the Notch pathway and other cell signaling pathways. In the regrowing arm, Notch regulates the composition of the extracellular matrix, cell migration, proliferation, and apoptosis, as well as components of the innate immune response. We also show for the first time that Notch signaling regulates the activity of several transposable elements. Our data also suggests that one of the possible mechanisms through which Notch sustains its activity in the regenerating tissues is via suppression of Neuralized1.

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<![CDATA[Right ventricular pressure overload directly affects left ventricular torsion mechanics in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_8470 This study examined the impact of septal flattening on left ventricular (LV) torsion in patients with precapillary pulmonary hypertension (PH). Fifty-two patients with proven precapillary PH and 13 healthy controls were included. Ventricular function was assessed including 4D-measurements, tissue velocity imaging, and speckle tracking analysis. Increased eccentricity index (1.39 vs. 1.08, p<0.001), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (64 vs. 29mmHg, p<0.001) and right ventricular Tei index (0.55 vs. 0.28, p = 0.007), and reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (19.0 vs. 26.5mm, p<0.001) were detected in PH patients as compared to controls. With increasing eccentricity of left ventricle, LV torsion was both decreased and delayed. Torsion rate paralleled this pattern of change during systole, but not during diastole. In conclusion, right ventricular pressure overload directly affects LV torsion mechanics. The echocardiographic methodology applied provides novel insights in the interrelation of right- and left ventricular function.

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<![CDATA[Flavonoids and antioxidant activity of rare and endangered fern: <i>Isoetes sinensis</i>]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7844 Isoetes sinensis Palmer is a critically endangered, first-class protected plant in China. Until now, researchers have primarily focused on the ultrastructure, phylogeny, and transcriptomes of the plant. However, flavonoid profiles and bioactivity of I. sinensis have not been extensively investigated. To develop the endangered I. sinensis for edible and medicinal purposes, flavonoid content, chemical constitution, and antioxidant activities were investigated in this study. Results revealed the following. 1) The total flavonoid content was determined as 10.74 ± 0.25 mg/g., 2) Antioxidant activities were stronger than most ferns, especially ABTS free radical scavenging activities. 3) Four flavones, containing apigenin, apigenin-7-glucuronide, acacetin-7-O-glcopyranoside, and homoplantageninisoetin; four flavonols, namely, isoetin, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-[6”-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-β-D-glucopyranoside], and limocitrin-Neo; one prodelphinidin (procyanidins;) and one nothofagin (dihydrochalcone) were tentatively identified in the mass spectrometry-DAD (254nm) chromatograms. This study was the first to report on flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of I. sinensis. Stronger antioxidant activity and flavonoid content suggests that the endangered I. sinensis is an important and potentially edible and medicinal plant.

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<![CDATA[Effects of scent lure on camera trap detections vary across mammalian predator and prey species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/article/elastic_article_7840 Camera traps are a unique survey tool used to monitor a wide variety of mammal species. Camera trap (CT) data can be used to estimate animal distribution, density, and behaviour. Attractants, such as scent lures, are often used in an effort to increase CT detections; however, the degree which the effects of attractants vary across species is not well understood. We investigated the effects of scent lure on mammal detections by comparing detection rates between 404 lured and 440 unlured CT stations sampled in Alberta, Canada over 120 day survey periods between February and August in 2015 and 2016. We used zero-inflated negative binomial generalized linear mixed models to test the effect of lure on detection rates for a) all mammals, b) six functional groups (all predator species, all prey, large carnivores, small carnivores, small mammals, ungulates), and c) four varied species of management interest (fisher, Pekania pennanti; gray wolf, Canis lupus; moose, Alces alces; and Richardson’s ground squirrel; Urocitellus richardsonii). Mammals were detected at 800 of the 844 CTs, with nearly equal numbers of total detections at CTs with (7110) and without (7530) lure, and variable effects of lure on groups and individual species. Scent lure significantly increased detections of predators as a group, including large and small carnivore sub-groups and fisher specifically, but not of gray wolf. There was no effect of scent lure on detections of prey species, including the small mammal and ungulate sub-groups and moose and Richardson’s ground squirrel specifically. We recommend that researchers explicitly consider the variable effects of scent lure on CT detections across species when designing, interpreting, or comparing multi-species surveys. Additional research is needed to further quantify variation in species responses to scent lures and other attractants, and to elucidate the effect of attractants on community-level inferences from camera trap surveys.

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