ResearchPad - Analysis https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Exploring the Paradox of Increased Global Health and Degraded Global Environment: How Much Borrowed Time Is Humanity Living on?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Naac92970-d402-4070-a3c1-7b4596659e95 <![CDATA[Systematic review of the prevalence of current smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients in China: could nicotine be a therapeutic option?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N74e5f8c0-21f2-4a95-b2f4-5a40f36978e7 <![CDATA[Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3d84714b-929a-4275-87b8-88c22cfed338

Abstract

The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN, or Commission) considered amendments to Articles of its Constitution (ICZN 1999a) at a special session in Singapore, convened on June 3–7, 2019. During this meeting, Commissioners also planned revisions to the Bylaws, the current International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN 1999b, 2003, 2012, 2017) and ZooBank user policies.

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<![CDATA[Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Social Contact Patterns and Implications for Tuberculosis Transmission and Control]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nee18d789-0b3b-40b1-b66a-3ae64454cf7f

Social contact patterns might contribute to excess burden of tuberculosis in men. We conducted a study of social contact surveys to evaluate contact patterns relevant to tuberculosis transmission. Available data describe 21 surveys in 17 countries and show profound differences in sex-based and age-based patterns of contact. Adults reported more adult contacts than children. Children preferentially mixed with women in all surveys (median sex assortativity 58%, interquartile range [IQR] 57%–59% for boys, 61% [IQR 60%–63%] for girls). Men and women reported sex-assortative mixing in 80% and 95% of surveys (median sex assortativity 56% [IQR 54%–58%] for men, 59% [IQR 57%–63%] for women). Sex-specific patterns of contact with adults were similar at home and outside the home for children; adults reported greater sex assortativity outside the home in most surveys. Sex assortativity in adult contacts likely contributes to sex disparities in adult tuberculosis burden by amplifying incidence among men.

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<![CDATA[Coinfinder: detecting significant associations and dissociations in pangenomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5b6aa6ad-3805-4584-b068-4ce452f6f591

The accessory genes of prokaryote and eukaryote pangenomes accumulate by horizontal gene transfer, differential gene loss, and the effects of selection and drift. We have developed Coinfinder, a software program that assesses whether sets of homologous genes (gene families) in pangenomes associate or dissociate with each other (i.e. are ‘coincident’) more often than would be expected by chance. Coinfinder employs a user-supplied phylogenetic tree in order to assess the lineage-dependence (i.e. the phylogenetic distribution) of each accessory gene, allowing Coinfinder to focus on coincident gene pairs whose joint presence is not simply because they happened to appear in the same clade, but rather that they tend to appear together more often than expected across the phylogeny. Coinfinder is implemented in C++, Python3 and R and is freely available under the GNU license from https://github.com/fwhelan/coinfinder.

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<![CDATA[Advancing alcohol research in low-income and middle-income countries: a global alcohol environment framework]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6519e755-1f46-4bd5-a3a5-3ff76ee7dce6

Alcohol-related harm has gained increased attention in high-income countries (HICs) in recent years which, alongside government regulation, has effected a reduction in alcohol consumption. The alcohol industry has turned its attention to low-income and middle-income country (LMIC) markets as a new source of growth and profit, prompting increased consumption in LMICS. Alcohol use in LMICs is also increasing. There is a need to understand particularly in LMICs the impact of industry strategy in shaping local contexts of alcohol use. We draw on conceptualisations from food systems research, and research on the commercial determinants of health, to develop a new approach for framing alcohol research and discuss implications for alcohol research, particularly in LMICs, focusing on South Africa as an illustrative example. We propose a conceptualisation of the ‘alcohol environment’ as the system of alcohol provision, acquisition and consumption—including, critically, industry advertising and marketing—along with the political, economic and regulatory context of the alcohol industry that mediates people’s alcohol drinking patterns and behaviours. While each country and region is different in terms of its context of alcohol use, we contrast several broadly distinct features of alcohol environments in LMICs and HICs. Improving understanding of the full spectrum of influences on drinking behaviour, particularly in LMICs, is vital to inform the design of interventions and policies to facilitate healthier environments and reduce the harms associated with alcohol consumption. Our framework for undertaking alcohol research may be used to structure mixed methods empirical research examining the role of the alcohol environment particularly in LMICs.

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<![CDATA[Comparative Effectiveness of Tadalafil versus Tamsulosin in Treating Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Suggestive of Benign Prostate Hyperplasia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8ecb82b9-b09b-4cc7-a79f-962385c5d0d7

Background

Evidence directly evaluating the efficacy of tadalafil vs. tamsulosin for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) is limited. We performed a meta-analysis of published studies to assess the comparative effectiveness of tadalafil vs. tamsulosin in treating LUTS suggestive of BPH.

Material/Methods

After performing a comprehensive publication search with PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register using the search terms “tadalafil”, “tamsulosin”, “lower urinary tract symptoms”, and “controlled”, 335 articles were screened, out of which 7 randomized controlled trials published up to July 2019 were identified and included in this meta-analysis review.

Results

From 335 screened articles, 7 studies (totalling 1601 patients) were finally included in our analysis. There was no statistically significant difference between tadalafil and tamsulosin in improving the clinical outcomes of total International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), voiding subscores, storage subscores, quality of life (QoL) scores, maximum flow rate (Qmax), and postvoid residual urine (PVR), but a statistically significant difference was observed in the International Index of Erectile Function scores (IIEF scores).

Conclusions

Tadalafil and tamsulosin have similar effects in managing LUTS secondary to BPH. Tadalafil is superior to tamsulosin in treating LUTS suggestive of BPH when associated with erectile dysfunction (ED).

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<![CDATA[High SET Domain Bifurcated 1 (SETDB1) Expression Predicts Poor Prognosis in Breast Carcinoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbbe1478d-2fea-439d-90af-83dc5bd1ebe1

Background

SETDB1, an H3K9-specific histone methyltransferase, plays important roles in the progression of various human cancers. However, the expression patterns and its clinical roles of SETDB1 remain elusive in breast cancer (BC).

Material/Methods

The transcriptional level of SETDB1 and survival data in BC were analyzed through UALCAN, ONCOMINE, and Pan Cancer Prognostics Database. SETDB1 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 159 BC tissue samples. The associations between SETDB1 expression and clinical pathological characteristics of patients were analyzed. The GEO dataset GSE108656 was downloaded and analyzed to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between control and BC cells targeting interference with SETDB. The DEGs were further integrated by bioinformatics analysis to decipher the key signaling pathways and hub genes that are regulated by SETDB.

Results

The public databases showed the level of SETDB1 mRNA was significantly upregulated in BC. Our IHC results demonstrated the level of SETDB1 protein was associated with tumor size (P=0.028), histopathological grading (P=0.012), lymph node metastasis (P<0.001), and TNM stage (P<0.001). High expression of SETDB1 indicated worse overall survival (P=0.015) and shorter relapse-free survival (P=0.027). The bioinformatic analysis of GSE108656 suggested that the SETDB1-related DEGs was mainly enriched in antigen processing and presentation, as well as immune networks in BC. The cytoHubba analysis suggested the top 10 hub genes were IL6, BMP4, CD74, PECAM1, HLA-DPA1, HLA-DRA, LAMC1, CTSB, SERPINA1, and CTSD.

Conclusions

The results suggest that SETDB1 is an oncogene and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for BC. However, the mechanisms of SETDB1 in BC remain to be explored.

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<![CDATA[The Impact of Yoga on Fatigue in Cancer Survivorship: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3638a030-eaa8-49d5-b0b9-a42c5f6daff1

Abstract

Background

Mind-body approaches, particularly yoga, are used by cancer survivors to cope with treatment-related symptoms. Consistency of yoga-related effects on treatment-related symptoms are not known. This meta-analysis was designed to examine effects of yoga on pre- to postintervention improvements in fatigue among cancer patients.

Methods

PubMed and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed articles of yoga randomized controlled trials including cancer survivors and reporting at least one fatigue measure. Twenty-nine studies met inclusion criteria (n = 1828 patients). Effect sizes (Hedge’s g) were calculated for fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Patient-related and intervention-related characteristics were tested as moderators of outcomes. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results

Yoga practice was associated with a small, statistically significant decrease in fatigue (g=0.45, P = .013). Yoga type was a statistically significant moderator of this relationship (P =.02). Yoga was associated with a moderate decrease in depression (g=0.72, P = .007) but was not associated with statistically significant changes in quality of life (P = .48). Session length was a statistically significant moderator of the relationship between yoga and depression (P = .004). Neither timing of treatment (during treatment vs posttreatment) nor clinical characteristics were statistically significant moderators of the effects of yoga on outcomes. The effect of yoga on fatigue and depression was larger when the comparator was a “waitlist” or “usual care” than when the control group was another active treatment (P = .036).

Conclusions

Results suggest yoga may be beneficial as a component of treatment for both fatigue and depression in cancer survivors.

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<![CDATA[Adapting Lean methods to facilitate stakeholder engagement and co-design in healthcare]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2d94f311-d7c0-4522-bbcd-d592995deada

Quality improvement approaches drawn from industry can go beyond traditional concepts of value and deliver improvements in healthcare services, argue Iain Smith and colleagues

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<![CDATA[Revitalising audit and feedback to improve patient care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0d4688fb-19e8-4cb5-9a05-52b74d44ca07

Audit and feedback are widely used in quality improvement. Robbie Foy and colleagues argue that their full potential to improve patient care could be realised through a more evidence based and imaginative approach

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<![CDATA[Diet, nutrition, and cancer risk: what do we know and what is the way forward?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N74193380-6ac1-4c4e-86bc-64e72d27164c

Timothy J Key and colleagues describe the evidence linking diet and nutrition to cancer risk, concluding that obesity and alcohol are the most important factors

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<![CDATA[What role should the commercial food system play in promoting health through better diet?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N88ece1c4-45da-4d18-b318-acb21539dcb1

Martin White and coauthors consider that the commercial food system has the potential to show leadership and support for dietary public health, but systemic change is needed first and this is likely to require governmental action

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<![CDATA[Prevention of non-communicable disease: best buys, wasted buys, and contestable buys]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5810dd58-e1d2-4bca-b7ca-58553f667f62

Wanrudee Isaranuwatchai and colleagues highlight the importance of local context in making decisions about implementing interventions for preventing non-communicable diseases

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<![CDATA[Health benefits of policies to reduce carbon emissions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N808031f1-d370-4dea-94ad-e44e5f2ddbb1

James Milner and colleagues argue that carefully considered policies to lower carbon emissions can also improve health, and we should use these benefits to push for strong climate action

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<![CDATA[Clinical negligence costs: taking action to safeguard NHS sustainability]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3dafb0ba-d864-4775-9bf4-f1b33bd6cad7

The NHS cannot afford to divert more and more money to litigation, and we need to tackle the problem at source. Tim Draycott and colleagues set out four principles to reduce avoidable harm

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<![CDATA[Strengthening the links between planning and health in England]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfaa05631-0434-4afa-83d3-a1684a50e6a8

Gemma McKinnon and colleagues argue that multidisciplinary action in planning and health will contribute to more equitable communities and improved health and wellbeing

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<![CDATA[WHO should declare climate change a public health emergency ]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1c994454-5936-479e-a4d5-70718b88269e

Rapid and potentially irreversible climate change poses a direct threat to global public health. Andrew Harmer and colleagues argue that WHO should recognise this in the same way as global threats from specific diseases

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<![CDATA[To include or not include: renal dialysis policy in the era of universal health coverage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nde3633a4-11c9-4cf7-be80-7b7d697e4681

Expensive treatments such as renal dialysis are a challenge for countries aiming for universal coverage. Yot Teerawattananon and colleagues set out a systematic approach to ensuring it is affordable

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<![CDATA[Mitigating the wider health effects of covid-19 pandemic response]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N777bf89c-4f49-4275-8de8-9597d40391b0 ]]>