ResearchPad - Anatomy https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

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<![CDATA[Acute ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Caused by Simultaneous Occlusion of Two Culprit Arteries]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N68f27915-4624-43c4-a572-fd5cbbd5812b

ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is usually caused by acute thrombosis of a single culprit vessel, whereas STEMI caused by the simultaneous thrombosis of multiple coronary arteries is rare. A review of 711 STEMI cases undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) revealed that only 2.5% of patients had acute coronary thrombosis of multiple arteries. We present a case of an 80-year-old female with a history of hypertension who presented with acute onset chest pain and underwent emergent angiography. Her angiography showed acute coronary thrombosis of both the distal left anterior descending artery (dLAD) and the distal obtuse marginal branch 3. She underwent PCI and had restoration of flow. Given the unique presentation of simultaneous multiple coronary thrombi, she underwent additional diagnostic workup before being discharged with guideline-directed medical therapy. While the American College of Cardiology and the European Society of Cardiology guidelines address culprit lesion only PCI versus complete revascularization of non-infarct related lesions, there are no guidelines or randomized controlled trials that have attempted to characterize the best management of STEMI caused by multiple culprit lesions. As a result, the best management of these cases is not standardized. Further case reports leading to prospective studies are needed to better predict outcomes and guide future management.

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<![CDATA[Size matters: micro-evolution in Polynesian rats highlights body size changes as initial stage in evolution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2dd55868-5849-4fff-8cf7-11bb065f2041

Microevolutionary patterns in populations of introduced rodent species have often been the focus of analytic studies for their potential relevance to understanding vertebrate evolution. The Polynesian rat (Rattus exulans) is an excellent proxy species because of its wide geographic and temporal distribution: its native and introduced combined range spans half the globe and it has been living for at least seven centuries wherever it was introduced. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of long-term isolation (insularity; up to 4,000 years) and geographic variables on skull shape variation using geometric morphometrics. A sample of 513 specimens from 103 islands and four mainland areas was analysed. This study, to my knowledge the first to extensively sample introduced rats, analysed 59 two-dimensional landmarks on the skull. Landmarks were obtained in three separate aspects (dorsal, lateral, ventral skull view). The coordinate data were then subjected to a multivariate ordination analysis (principal components analysis, or PCA), multivariate regressions, and a canonical variates analysis (CVA). Three measures of disparity were evaluated for each view. The results show that introduced Polynesian rats evolve skull shapes that conform to the general mammalian interspecific pattern of cranial evolutionary allometry (CREA), with proportionally longer snouts in larger specimens. In addition, larger skulls are more tubular in shape than the smaller skulls, which are more balloon-shaped with a rounder and wider braincase relative to those of large skulls. This difference is also observed between the sexes (sexual dimorphism), due to the slightly larger average male size. Large, tubular skulls with long snouts are typical for Polynesia and Remote Oceania, where no native mammals occur. The greater disparity of Polynesian rats on mammal species-poor islands (’exulans-only’ region) provides further insight into how diversity may affect diversification through ecological release from predators and competitors.

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<![CDATA[Study of Lethal Congenital Malformations at a Tertiary-Care Referral Centre in North India]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3cab8002-7f32-4091-85ab-4972beb8890b

Lethal congenital malformations (LCMs) are fatal birth defects that are an important cause of fetal/neonatal death. There is a lack of informative data about these malformations in India, a country that shares the maximum burden of neonatal mortality due to congenital birth defects. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis to know the prevalence of LCMs in late pregnancy, to find out associated factor/variables and to evaluate fetal/neonatal outcome of such anomalies; at a tertiary-care referral centre in North India. All deliveries with LCMs after 24 weeks of gestation were included in the study. Data about antepartum history (maternal age, parity, education, socioeconomic status, consanguineous marriage, folic acid intake, any chronic medical disorder, availability of anomaly scan, unplanned pregnancy); intrapartum events (gestational age at delivery, mode of delivery); postpartum events (weight of the baby, gender of the baby); newborn evaluation; and details of hospital stay were recorded from medical record sheet over the duration of one year. We found that anencephaly, severe meningomyelocele, multicystic dysplastic kidneys and non-immune hydrops with major cardiac defects were more prevalent among all LCMs. On the evaluation of the various studied variables, maximum babies with LCMs were born to mothers who were between 20 and 35 years of age, those who were illiterate, belonged to middle/lower socio-economic class, multigravida, and those who had no detailed anomaly scan. We feel that there is an urgent need to formulate a universally accepted definition of LCMs, to identify preventable risk factors and to formulate management strategy for both mother and liveborn baby with LCMs, in order to minimize the hidden burden of these defects in stillbirth/ perinatal/ neonatal mortality statistics.

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<![CDATA[A scoping review of determinants of performance in dressage]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbb9dd5b0-1352-4387-8c95-4c09e5b489d7

As a first step in achieving an evidence-based classification system for the sport of Para Dressage, there is a clear need to define elite dressage performance. Previous studies have attempted to quantify performance with able-bodied riders using scientific methods; however, definitive measures have yet to be established for the horse and/or the rider. This may be, in part, due to the variety of movements and gaits that are found within a dressage test and also due to the complexity of the horse-rider partnership. The aim of this review is therefore to identify objective measurements of horse performance in dressage and the functional abilities of the rider that may influence them to achieve higher scores. Five databases (SportDiscuss, CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, VetMed) were systematically searched from 1980 to May 2018. Studies were included if they fulfilled the following criteria: (1) English language; (2) employ objective, quantitative outcome measures for describing equine and human performance in dressage; (3) describe objective measures of superior horse performance using between-subject comparisons and/or relating outcome measures to competitive scoring methods; (4) describe demands of dressage using objective physiological and/or biomechanical measures from human athletes and/or how these demands are translated into superior performance. In total, 773 articles were identified. Title and abstract screening resulted in 155 articles that met the eligibility criteria, 97 were excluded during the full screening of articles, leaving 58 included articles (14 horse, 44 rider) involving 311 equine and 584 able-bodied human participants. Mean ± sd (%) quality scores were 63.5 ± 15.3 and 72.7 ± 14.7 for the equine and human articles respectively. Significant objective measures of horse performance (n = 12 articles) were grouped into themes and separated by gait/movement. A range of temporal variables that indicated superior performance were found in all gaits/movements. For the rider, n = 5 articles reported variables that identified significant differences in skill level, which included the postural position and ROM of the rider’s pelvis, trunk, knee and head. The timing of rider pelvic and trunk motion in relation to the movement of the horse emerged as an important indicator of rider influence. As temporal variables in the horse are consistently linked to superior performance it could be surmised that better overall dressage performance requires minimal disruption from the rider whilst the horse maintains a specific gait/movement. Achieving the gait/movement in the first place depends upon the intrinsic characteristics of the horse, the level of training achieved and the ability of the rider to apply the correct aid. The information from this model will be used to develop an empirical study to test the relative strength of association between impairment and performance in able-bodied and Para Dressage riders.

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<![CDATA[Isolated Thrombosis of the Superior Mesenteric Vein]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1f2f09de-f94c-465f-bec6-cc78b7fa692e

Most cases of pancreatitis are mild and self-limited. On the other hand, a few patients with pancreatitis may develop vascular complications. Splenic vein thrombosis is the most common vascular complication of acute pancreatitis. Isolated superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is rare and can lead to gut ischemia and necrosis if not timely diagnosed and managed. We report the case of a 40-year-old patient who presented to the hospital with abdominal pain due to acute pancreatitis, leading to superior mesenteric vein thrombosis, which was timely diagnosed and treated with a good outcome.

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<![CDATA[Lateral External-fixation Adjacent to Radial Nerve]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne3dc5ac2-4fa8-4f64-a35b-055d50ce8407

Introduction

The aim of our study was to describe the injury pattern and outcomes of active-duty subjects that underwent humeral external fixation and to determine if the placement of external fixator pins outside of the radial nerve safe zones is correlated with injury to the radial nerve.

Materials and methods

We examined all US Service members treated with humeral external fixation at our facility from June 2005 through June 2015. The mechanism of injury, injury pattern, location of external fixation application, pre- and postoperative radial nerve function, presence or absence of radial nerve transection from injury or external fixation, anatomic location of pins in relation to the radial nerve safe zone, and final radial nerve outcomes were recorded. We defined the proximal safe zone as 5 cm distal to the acromion to 14.8 cm proximal to the lateral epicondyle, and we defined the distal safe zone as the proximal 70% of the transepicondylar width of the humerus when projected proximally from the lateral epicondyle.

Results 

For our study, 123 patients were identified over our date range, and 16 subjects were included with documentation regarding nerve function/injury characteristics, appropriate radiographs, and active duty status. Around 80% of injuries resulted from a blast mechanism, and 80% of injury patterns included either an intraarticular or open fracture. The radial nerve safe zone was violated in 15 of the 16 subjects (94%). The one subject with a safe construct did not sustain a nerve injury. Complete preoperative documentation on nerve function was only available for half of the subjects. Two of five subjects known to have intact function prior to external fixation had a postoperative neurologic deficit (40%). Of eight subjects with unknown radial nerve function prior to external fixation, seven subjects had full nerve function at the final follow up, and one subject had partial sensory function only. Of the three subjects with impaired preoperative radial nerve function, two made a full recovery, and the third recovered sensory function only. Around 50% of all subjects required medical retirement.

Conclusion

External fixation of upper extremity injuries in combat is rarely absolutely indicated, often results in the placement of pins outside of the radial nerve safe zone, and is associated with up to a 40% incidence of radial nerve injury.

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<![CDATA[Effect of additional body weight on arch index and dynamic plantar pressure distribution during walking and gait termination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na3a41dc1-9743-460c-b4f0-1bde6646e983

The medial longitudinal arch is considered as an essential feature which distinguishes humans from other primates. The longitudinal arch plays a supporting and buffering role in human daily physical activities. However, bad movement patterns could lead to deformation of arch morphology, resulting in foot injuries. The authors aimed to investigate any alterations in static and dynamic arch index following different weight bearings. A further aim was to analyze any changes in plantar pressure distribution characteristics on gait during walking and stopping, Twelve males were required to complete foot morphology scans and three types of gait tests with 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of additional body weight. The dynamic gait tests included walking, planned and unplanned gait termination. Foot morphology details and plantar pressure data were collected from subjects using the Easy-Foot-Scan and Footscan pressure platform. No significant differences were observed in static arch index when adding low levels of additional body weight (10%). There were no significant changes observed in dynamic arch index when loads were added in the range of 20% to 30%, except in unplanned gait termination. Significant maximal pressure increases were observed in the rearfoot during walking and in both the forefoot and rearfoot during planned gait termination. In addition, significant maximum pressure increases were shown in the lateral forefoot and midfoot during unplanned gait termination when weight was increased. Findings from the study indicated that excessive weight bearing could lead to a collapse of the arch structure and, therefore, increases in plantar loading. This may result in foot injuries, especially during unplanned gait termination.

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<![CDATA[Long-term effect of the Brazilian Workers’ Food Program on the nutritional status of manufacturing workers: A population-based prospective cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N23375fc9-a89d-407e-9d06-75f348bd7d78

Background

The Brazilian Workers Food Program (WFP) is a public policy program of nutritional assistance to workers, with the main objective of improving nutritional conditions, which was implemented 40 years ago and serves over 21.4 million workers.

Objectives

To compare the long-term change in anthropometric indicators of the nutritional status and dietary intake between workers of manufacturing industries adherent to and non-adherent to the WFP.

Methods

A prospective cohort study, based on a combined stratified and multistage probability sampling, was carried out, with two waves with a 4-year interval. The change in body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and dietary intake at lunch by the 24-hour recall method were compared between groups with analysis of covariance.

Results

A total of 273 workers in 16 industries from an initial cohort of 1069 workers in 26 industries of the State of Rio Grande do Norte in Brazil were evaluated in the two waves. The mean age was 37±10 years and 53.1% were male, with no differences between groups in age and sex distribution. BMI increased in both groups (0.44 kg/m2 in non-WFP, p = 0.003, and 0.56 kg/m2 in WFP, p = 0.0006) and WC increased in the WFP group (1.50 cm, p = 0.0006). BMI change over time did not show statistical differences between groups (p = 0.54) but WC had a greater increase in the WFP group (difference 1.37 cm, p = 0.047). There were no differences between groups in the change over time of the dietary intake.

Conclusion

BMI and WC increased over time in manufacturing workers of industries both adherent and non-adherent to the WFP, but with a greater increase of WC in the WFP group. In order to achieve the objectives of the WFP, there will be a need for periodic evaluation and monitoring of nutritional indicators in these workers and implementation of monitoring and enforcement actions of the WFP.

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<![CDATA[Investigation of synovial fluid induced Staphylococcus aureus aggregate development and its impact on surface attachment and biofilm formation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf13f73b5-5132-41b9-b894-3d4dd0a113b1

Periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are a devastating complication that occurs in 2% of patients following joint replacement. These infections are costly and difficult to treat, often requiring multiple corrective surgeries and prolonged antimicrobial treatments. The Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of PJIs, and it is often resistant to a number of commonly used antimicrobials. This tolerance can be partially attributed to the ability of S. aureus to form biofilms. Biofilms associated with the surface of indwelling medical devices have been observed on components removed during chronic infection, however, the development and localization of biofilms during PJIs remains unclear. Prior studies have demonstrated that synovial fluid, in the joint cavity, promotes the development of bacterial aggregates with many biofilm-like properties, including antibiotic resistance. We anticipate these aggregates have an important role in biofilm formation and antibiotic tolerance during PJIs. Therefore, we sought to determine specifically how synovial fluid promotes aggregate formation and the impact of this process on surface attachment. Using flow cytometry and microscopy, we quantified the aggregation of various clinical S. aureus strains following exposure to purified synovial fluid components. We determined that fibrinogen and fibronectin promoted bacterial aggregation, while cell free DNA, serum albumin, and hyaluronic acid had minimal effect. To determine how synovial fluid mediated aggregation affects surface attachment, we utilized microscopy to measure bacterial attachment. Surprisingly, we found that synovial fluid significantly impeded bacterial surface attachment to a variety of materials. We conclude from this study that fibrinogen and fibronectin in synovial fluid have a crucial role in promoting bacterial aggregation and inhibiting surface adhesion during PJI. Collectively, we propose that synovial fluid may have conflicting protective roles for the host by preventing adhesion to surfaces, but by promoting bacterial aggregation is also contributing to the development of antibiotic tolerance.

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<![CDATA[Serum levels of bone sialoprotein correlate with portal pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd170950f-0b0f-46af-a42d-6b06a3bc49ed

Liver cirrhosis represents the common end-stage of chronic liver diseases regardless of its etiology. Patients with compensated disease are mostly asymptomatic, however, progression to a decompensated disease stage is common. The available stratification strategies are often unsuitable to identify patients with a higher risk for disease progression and a limited prognosis. SIBLINGs, soluble glycophosphoproteins, are secreted into the blood by immune-cells. While osteopontin, the most prominent member of the SIBLINGs family, has been repeatedly associated with liver cirrhosis, data on the diagnostic and/or prognostic value of bone sialoprotein (BSP) are scarce and partly inconclusive. In this study, we analyzed the diagnostic and prognostic potential of circulating BSP in comparison to other standard laboratory markers in a large cohort of patients with liver cirrhosis receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Serum levels of BSP were similar in patients with different disease stages and were not indicative for prognosis. Interestingly, BSP serum levels did correlate inversely with portal pressure, as well as its surrogates such as platelet count, the portal vein cross-sectional area and correlated positively with the portal venous velocity. In summary, our data highlight that BSP might represent a previously unrecognized marker for portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis.

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<![CDATA[Uptake and speciation of zinc in edible plants grown in smelter contaminated soils]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N21b4cc8f-fdc5-4198-8cfa-2868c1971919

Heavy metal accumulation in edible plants grown in contaminated soils poses a major environmental risk to humans and grazing animals. This study focused on the concentration and speciation of Zn in different edible plants grown in soils contaminated with smelter wastes (Spelter, WV, USA) containing high levels of the metals Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Their accumulation was examined in different parts (roots, stem, and leaves) of plants and as a function of growth stage (dry seed, sprouting seed, cotyledon, and leaves) in the root vegetables radish, the leafy vegetable spinach and the legume clover. Although the accumulation of metals varied significantly with plant species, the average metal concentrations were [Zn] > [Pb] > [Cu] > [Cd]. Metal uptake studies were complemented with bulk and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at Zn K-edge and micro X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) measurements to evaluate the speciation and distribution of Zn in these plant species. Dynamic interplay between the histidine and malate complexation of Zn was observed in all plant species. XRF mapping of spinach leaves at micron spatial resolution demonstrated the accumulation of Zn in vacuoles and leaf tips. Radish root showed accumulation of Zn in root hairs, likely as ZnS nanoparticles. At locations of high Zn concentration in spinach leaves, μXANES suggests Zn complexation with histidine, as opposed to malate in the bulk leaf. These findings shed new light on the dynamic nature of Zn speciation in plants.

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<![CDATA[Influence of the tubular network on the characteristics of calcium transients in cardiac myocytes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7f446290-780e-4486-a1de-95187c6060a1

Transverse and axial tubules (TATS) are an essential ingredient of the excitation-contraction machinery that allow the effective coupling of L-type Calcium Channels (LCC) and ryanodine receptors (RyR2). They form a regular network in ventricular cells, while their presence in atrial myocytes is variable regionally and among animal species We have studied the effect of variations in the TAT network using a bidomain computational model of an atrial myocyte with variable density of tubules. At each z-line the t-tubule length is obtained from an exponential distribution, with a given mean penetration length. This gives rise to a distribution of t-tubules in the cell that is characterized by the fractional area (F.A.) occupied by the t-tubules. To obtain consistent results, we average over different realizations of the same mean penetration length. To this, in some simulations we add the effect of a network of axial tubules. Then we study global properties of calcium signaling, as well as regional heterogeneities and local properties of sparks and RyR2 openings. In agreement with recent experiments in detubulated ventricular and atrial cells, we find that detubulation reduces the calcium transient and synchronization in release. However, it does not affect sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) load, so the decrease in SR calcium release is due to regional differences in Ca2+ release, that is restricted to the cell periphery in detubulated cells. Despite the decrease in release, the release gain is larger in detubulated cells, due to recruitment of orphaned RyR2s, i.e, those that are not confronting a cluster of LCCs. This probably provides a safeguard mechanism, allowing physiological values to be maintained upon small changes in the t-tubule density. Finally, we do not find any relevant change in spark properties between tubulated and detubulated cells, suggesting that the differences found in experiments could be due to differential properties of the RyR2s in the membrane and in the t-tubules, not incorporated in the present model. This work will help understand the effect of detubulation, that has been shown to occur in disease conditions such as heart failure (HF) in ventricular cells, or atrial fibrillation (AF) in atrial cells.

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<![CDATA[Reference values of physiological 18F-FET uptake: Implications for brain tumor discrimination]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N80bdbd58-ef10-47b0-8bc3-8bde8c3b2b52

Purpose

The aim of this study was to derive reference values of 18F-fluoro-ethyl-L-tyrosine positron emission tomography (18F-FET-PET) uptake in normal brain and head structures to allow for differentiation from tumor tissue.

Materials and methods

We examined the datasets of 70 patients (median age 53 years, range 15–79), whose dynamic 18F-FET-PET was acquired between January 2016 and October 2017. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), target-to-background standardized uptake value ratio (TBR), and time activity curve (TAC) of the 18F-FET-PET were assessed in tumor tissue and in eight normal anatomic structures and compared using the t-test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Correlation analyses were performed using Pearson or Spearman coefficients, and comparisons between several variables with Pearson’s chi-squared tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests as well as the Benjamini-Hochberg correction.

Results

All analyzed structures showed an 18F-FET uptake higher than background (threshold: TBR > 1.5). The venous sinuses and cranial muscles exhibited a TBR of 2.03±0.46 (confidence interval (CI) 1.92–2.14), higher than the uptake of caudate nucleus, pineal gland, putamen, and thalamus (TBR 1.42±0.17, CI 1.38–1.47). SUVmax, TBR, and TAC showed no difference in the analyzed structures between subjects with high-grade gliomas and subjects with low-grade gliomas, except the SUVmax of the pineal gland (t-tests of the pineal gland: SUVmax: p = 0.022; TBR: p = 0.411). No significant differences were found for gender and age.

Conclusion

Normal brain tissue demonstrates increased 18F-FET uptake compared to background tissue. Two distinct clusters have been identified, comprising venous structures and gray matter with a reference uptake of up to SUVmax of 2.99 and 2.33, respectively.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of availability, awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding preschool vision screening in Kumasi, Ghana: An exploratory study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N637f6c02-dcec-48f9-ae4a-5e42bca666db

Background

Regardless of the importance of preschool vision screening (PSVS), there is limited data on the current state of these programs in Africa (particularly Ghana). This study sought to investigate the level of awareness and perception of stakeholders regarding PSVS, its availability and related policies/programmes in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

Methods

This descriptive cross-sectional study included 100 systematically sampled preschools in the metropolis (using probability proportional-to-size method); 72 private schools and 28 public schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit stakeholders of preschools (teachers, head teachers, proprietors, administrators, directors, and educationists), and were interviewed using a well-structured questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to all eligible respondents who were present at the time of data collection.

Results

A total of 344 respondents participated in the study; 123 (35.8%) males and 221 (64.2%) females. The overall mean age of respondents was 37.63 ±12.20 years (18–71 years). Of the respondents, 215 (62.5%), 94 (27.3%), and 35 (10.2%) were enrolled from private schools, public schools, and Metropolitan Education Directorate, respectively. 73.8% of respondents reported the absence of routine PSVS in schools whereas 90.1% reported no written policies for PSVS in schools. Only 63.6% of respondents were aware of PSVS whereas more than half (59.6%) of all respondents perceived PSVS to be very important for preschoolers. Private school ownership was significantly associated with availability of PSVS whereas age, teachers, private school ownership, and preschool experience > 10 years were significantly associated with awareness of PSVS (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant association between sociodemographic factors and perception of PSVS.

Conclusion

PSVS is largely unavailable in most Ghanaian schools. Majority of stakeholders were aware of PSVS and agreed to its implementation and incorporation into schools’ health programmes. There is the need to implement a national programme/policy on preschool vision screening in Ghana.

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<![CDATA[Changes in human health parameters associated with an immersive exhibit experience at a zoological institution]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N69289aa2-a5fc-4464-abf6-42bfa80ae1ee

Zoological institutions often use immersive, naturalistic exhibits to create an inclusive atmosphere that is inviting for visitors while providing for the welfare of animals in their collections. In this study, we investigated physiological changes in salivary cortisol and blood pressure, as well as psychological changes among visitors before and after a walk through the River’s Edge, an immersive, naturalistic exhibit at the Saint Louis Zoo. Study participants had a significant reduction in salivary cortisol and blood pressure after walking through the exhibit. Psychological assessments of mood found that most visitors felt happier, more energized, and less tense after the visit. Additionally, participants who spent more time in River’s Edge, had visited River’s Edge prior to the study, and had seen more exhibits at the Zoo prior to entering River’s Edge experienced greater psychological and/or physiological benefits. We conclude that immersive, naturalistic exhibits in zoos can elicit positive changes in physiological and psychological measures of health and well-being and argue for a greater scientific focus on the role of zoos and other green spaces in human health.

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<![CDATA[Opposing effects of HNP1 (α-defensin-1) on plasma cholesterol and atherogenesis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ndf7081dd-c312-4392-aa9c-ddf6cf67dfa0

Atherosclerosis, the predominant cause of death in well-resourced countries, may develop in the presence of plasma lipid levels within the normal range. Inflammation may contribute to lesion development in these individuals, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Transgenic mice expressing α-def-1 released from activated neutrophils develop larger lipid and macrophage-rich lesions in the proximal aortae notwithstanding hypocholesterolemia caused by accelerated clearance of α-def-1/low-density lipoprotein (LDL) complexes from the plasma. The phenotype does not develop when the release of α-def-1 is prevented with colchicine. However, ApoE-/- mice crossed with α-def-1 mice or given exogenous α-def-1 develop smaller aortic lesions associated with reduced plasma cholesterol, suggesting a protective effect of accelerated LDL clearance. Experiments were performed to address this seeming paradox and to determine if α-def-1 might provide a means to lower cholesterol and thereby attenuate atherogenesis. We confirmed that exposing ApoE-/- mice to α-def-1 lowers total plasma cholesterol and decreases lesion size. However, lesion size was larger than in mice with total plasma cholesterol lowered to the same extent by inhibiting its adsorption or by ingesting a low-fat diet. Furthermore, α-def-1 levels correlated independently with lesion size in ApoE-/- mice. These studies show that α-def-1 has competing effects on atherogenesis. Although α-def-1 accelerates LDL clearance from plasma, it also stimulates deposition and retention of LDL in the vasculature, which may contribute to development of atherosclerosis in individuals with normal or even low plasma levels of cholesterol. Inhibiting α-def-1 may attenuate the impact of chronic inflammation on atherosclerotic vascular disease.

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<![CDATA[Neuroprotective effects of exogenous erythropoietin in Wistar rats by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate N-methyl-D-aspartate-mediated retinal ganglion cells death]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N85685bba-c047-422b-abfc-358a98ed1fe7

The aim of this study was to investigate whether exogenous erythropoietin (EPO) administration attenuates N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage in Wistar rats. The survival rate of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were investigated by flat mount analysis and flow cytometry. A total of 125 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five groups: negative control, NMDA80 (i.e., 80 nmoles NMDA intravitreally injected), NMDA80 + 10ng EPO, NMDA80 + 50ng EPO, and NMDA80 + 250ng EPO. The NMDA80 + 50ng EPO treatment group was used to evaluate various administrated points (pre-/co-/post- administration of NMDA80). Meanwhile, the transferase dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) assay of RGCs, the inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and the apoptotic signal transduction pathways of μ-calpain, Bax, and caspase 9 were assessed simultaneously using an immunohistochemical method (IHC). When EPO was co-administered with NMDA80, attenuated cell death occurred through the downregulation of the apoptotic indicators: μ-calpain was activated first (peak at ~18hrs), followed by Bax and caspase 9 (peak at ~40hrs). Furthermore, the images of retinal cross sections have clearly demonstrated that thickness of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) was significantly recovered at 40 hours after receiving intravitreal injection with NMDA80 and 50ng EPO. Exogenous EPO may protect RGCs and bipolar cell axon terminals in IPL by downregulating apoptotic factors to attenuate NMDA-mediated excitotoxic retinal damage.

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<![CDATA[Drug induced pancreatitis: A systematic review of case reports to determine potential drug associations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8c4889da-2d62-467b-8b66-b271dff2cf8d

Objective

A current assessment of case reports of possible drug-induced pancreatitis is needed. We systematically reviewed the case report literature to identify drugs with potential associations with acute pancreatitis and the burden of evidence supporting these associations.

Methods

A protocol was developed a priori (PROSPERO CRD42017060473). We searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and additional sources to identify cases of drug-induced pancreatitis that met accepted diagnostic criteria of acute pancreatitis. Cases caused by multiple drugs or combination therapy were excluded. Established systematic review methods were used for screening and data extraction. A classification system for associated drugs was developed a priori based upon the number of cases, re-challenge, exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis, and consistency of latency.

Results

Seven-hundred and thirteen cases of potential drug-induced pancreatitis were identified, implicating 213 unique drugs. The evidence base was poor: exclusion of non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis was incomplete or poorly reported in all cases, 47% had at least one underlying condition predisposing to acute pancreatitis, and causality assessment was not conducted in 81%. Forty-five drugs (21%) were classified as having the highest level of evidence regarding their association with acute pancreatitis; causality was deemed to be probable or definite for 19 of these drugs (42%). Fifty-seven drugs (27%) had the lowest level of evidence regarding an association with acute pancreatitis, being implicated in single case reports, without exclusion of other causes of acute pancreatitis.

Discussion

Much of the case report evidence upon which drug-induced pancreatitis associations are based is tenuous. A greater emphasis on exclusion of all non-drug causes of acute pancreatitis and on quality reporting would improve the evidence base. It should be recognized that reviews of case reports, are valuable scoping tools but have limited strength to establish drug-induced pancreatitis associations.

Registration

CRD42017060473.

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<![CDATA[Role of intraoperative oliguria in risk stratification for postoperative acute kidney injury in patients undergoing colorectal surgery with an enhanced recovery protocol: A propensity score matching analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N90678846-11a4-456d-84dc-7e3677d2f27e

Background

The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol for colorectal cancer resection recommends balanced perioperative fluid therapy. According to recent guidelines, zero-balance fluid therapy is recommended in low-risk patients, and immediate correction of low urine output during surgery is discouraged. However, several reports have indicated an association of intraoperative oliguria with postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI). We investigated the impact of intraoperative oliguria in the colorectal ERAS setting on the incidence of postoperative AKI.

Patients and methods

From January 2017 to August 2019, a total of 453 patients underwent laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection with the ERAS protocol. Among them, 125 patients met the criteria for oliguria and were propensity score (PS) matched to 328 patients without intraoperative oliguria. After PS matching had been performed, 125 patients from each group were selected and the incidences of AKI were compared between the two groups. Postoperative kidney function and surgical outcomes were also evaluated.

Results

The incidence of AKI was significantly higher in the intraoperative oliguria group than in the non-intraoperative oliguria group (26.4% vs. 11.2%, respectively, P = 0.002). Also, the eGFR reduction on postoperative day 0 was significantly greater in the intraoperative oliguria than non-intraoperative oliguria group (−9.02 vs. −1.24 mL/min/1.73 m2 respectively, P < 0.001). In addition, the surgical complication rate was higher in the intraoperative oliguria group than in the non-intraoperative oliguria group (18.4% vs. 9.6%, respectively, P = 0.045).

Conclusions

Despite the proven benefits of perioperative care with the ERAS protocol, caution is required in patients with intraoperative oliguria to prevent postoperative AKI. Further studies regarding appropriate management of intraoperative oliguria in association with long-term prognosis are needed in the colorectal ERAS setting.

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