ResearchPad - Animal Science and Zoology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A taxonomic revision helps to clarify differences between the Atlantic invasive Ptilohyale littoralis and the Mediterranean endemic Parhyale plumicornis (Crustacea, Amphipoda)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b594c6a463d7e5ad39d04bf
Abstract

Ptilohyale explorator (formerly Parhyale explorator), described by Arresti (1989), can be considered to be a synonym of west-Atlantic Ptilohyale littoralis (Stimpson, 1853), based on morphological observations of paratypes and specimens recently collected in the type locality of Ptilohyale explorator. The first collections of Ptilohyale littoralis, from the eastern Atlantic were from the port of Rotterdam (The Netherlands) in 2009 and later in Wimereux, Opal Coast (France) in 2014; however, the synonymy of Ptilohyale explorator with Ptilohyale littoralis backdates to the first European record of Ptilohyale littoralis in 1985 at La Vigne, Bay of Arcachon (France). This indicates that Ptilohyale littoralis has been established along European Atlantic coast for many years.

An assessment of the nominal valid species belonging to the genus Ptilohyale was carried out and a comparison between the Atlantic Ptilohyale littoralis and the very similar Mediterranean hyalid species, Parhyale plumicornis, is presented based on morphological features and distribution. Due to the invasive ability of Ptilohyale littoralis, a comparison between the two species is necessary.

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<![CDATA[Millipede and centipede assemblages on the northern and southern slopes of the lowland Altais, southwestern Siberia, Russia (Diplopoda, Chilopoda)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bfde6e1d5eed0c4846e7305
Abstract

The total species richness in the myriapod assemblages of the lowland Altais near Charyshskoe Village, Altai Province, southwestern Siberia, Russia is estimated to be at least 19 species from ten genera, eight families, five orders, and two classes. The following species are new to SW Siberia: Lithobius (Ezembius) ostiacorum Stuxberg, 1876, L. vagabundus Stuxberg, 1876, and L. (Monotarsobius) nordenskioeldii Stuxberg, 1876, while L. (E.) proximus Sseliwanoff, 1880 and L. (M.) insolens Dányi & Tuf, 2012 are recorded for the first time from the Altai Province of Russia. A species of Strigamia which is morphologically similar to Strigamia cf. transsilvanica (Verhoeff, 1928) has been found in the study area but its true specific identity is yet to be determined. The seasonal dynamics of myriapod assemblages in terms of the species diversity, density, sex-age structure, and vertical distribution along the soil profile have been studied with regard to the different slope exposures.

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<![CDATA[Expression and distribution of the zinc finger protein, SNAI3, in mouse ovaries and pre-implantation embryos]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58b3d0463d7e4e4568863f

The Snail gene family includes Snai1, Snai2, and Snai3 that encode zinc finger-containing transcriptional repressors in mammals. The expression and localization of SNAI1 and SNAI2 have been studied extensively during folliculogenesis, ovulation, luteinization, and embryogenesis in mice. However, the role of SNAI3 is unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression of SNAI3 during these processes. Our immunohistochemistry data showed that SNAI3 first appeared in oocytes by postnatal day (PD) 9. Following this, SNAI3 was found to be expressed consistently in theca and interstitial cells, along with oocytes. In gonadotropin-treated immature mice, the expression of SNAI3 did not change significantly during follicular development. The expression of SNAI3 was reduced during ovulation, after which it increased gradually during luteinization. Similar results were obtained from western blot analyses. Furthermore, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses revealed varying mRNA levels of different Snail factors at a given time in gonadotropin-induced ovaries. During early embryo cleavage, SNAI3 was localized to the nucleus, except the nucleolus at the germinal vesicle and one-cell stages. From two- to eight-cell stages, SNAI3 was localized only to the nucleolus. Thereafter, SNAI3 was detected only in the cytoplasm, except during the blastocyst stage when it was localized to the nucleus of the trophectoderm and the inner cell mass. RT-PCR results showed that the expression of Snail superfamily genes was decreased during the blastocyst stage. From the eight-cell to morula stage, when compaction occurs that is a prerequisite for blastocyst formation, Snai3 mRNA was expressed at very low levels and was opposite to the highest expression level of the compaction-related gene, E-cadherin, at the eight-cell stage. Taken together, our results suggest that SNAI3 likely plays some roles during folliculogenesis, luteinization, and early embryonic development.

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<![CDATA[Morphological and histological study of the forewing of Orthezia urticae (Linnaeus, 1758) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58a7f7463d7e4da2d63a51
Abstract

Wings of Orthezia urticae males were studied. Both ventral and dorsal surfaces of wings were examined under light and scanning electron microscopes. The structure regarded as vein cubitus anterior turned out to be a reinforcement element only. Two elements known as radius sector and media are almost transparent depressions in the wing membrane. Veins at the margin of the fold of the wing anal lobe were not confirmed. Studies indicated a row of sensilla cupola at the beginning of the subcostal ridge.

Cross sections of the wing membrane showed a two-layered membrane. The presence of two veins was confirmed in a common stem – subcostal and radius. The change of common stem shape was described. Neither tracheae nor nerves were observed. This is the second paper on cross-sections of wing within Sternorrhyncha.

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<![CDATA[First records of the genus Pelionella Kaydan, 2015 in East Asia, with description of a new species (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58a156463d7e4d042bbfe4
Abstract

Two mealybug species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), Pelionella osakaensis sp. n. and P. manifecta (Borchsenius, 1949), are described and illustrated based on adult female specimens collected in Japan, on the Japanese mugwort Artemisia indica Willd. var. maximowiczii (Nakai) H. Hara (Asteraceae). These are the first records of the occurrence of Pelionella species in East Asia. The new species is similar to P. grassiana (Goux, 1989) and P. proeminens (Goux, 1990), but differs in lacking multilocular pores with double loculi rings on the venter and in possessing dorsal cerarii and a circulus. The Japanese population of P. manifecta is morphologically slightly different from the Azerbaijani and French populations in lacking large-type oral-collar tubular ducts associated with clusters formed by multilocular pores and oral-collar ducts on ventral abdominal segments III and IV. A modified key to species of the genus Pelionella Kaydan, 2015, is provided.

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<![CDATA[An Adult Zebrafish Diet Contaminated with Chromium Reduces the Viability of Progeny]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4ce366463d7e10fe544865

Abstract

The lack of standardized diet for laboratory animals can have profound effects on animal health and lead to less reproducible research outcomes. Live diets are commonly used in zebrafish culture and, although they are a more natural feed than flake or pellet food, are also a potential source of pathogens and toxic compounds. Heavy metals are a group of such compounds, which can accumulate in fish leading to developmental abnormalities, reduced growth, and increased rates of mortality. Two to three weeks after feeding adult zebrafish a new lot of nonhatching decapsulated brine shrimp cysts (Decaps), embryos at the University of Minnesota Zebrafish Core Facility (ZCF) and the University of Utah Centralized Zebrafish Animal Resource (CZAR) began to exhibit an orange color in the yolk, and larval health began to decline. The concentration of chromium in the Decaps (69.6 mg/kg) was more than 30 times that of other zebrafish diets tested (up to 2.1 mg/kg) and is thought to be the cause of the observed symptoms. Within 3 weeks of removing the Decaps from the feeding regimen, the orange coloration in the yolks began to diminish, the morphological abnormalities began to subside, and larval survival rates began to increase. Thus, implementation of standardized zebrafish diets and regular feed-quality testing may help to prevent the introduction of contaminants to zebrafish research facilities.

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<![CDATA[Milk production and blood metabolites of dairy cattle as influenced by thermal-humidity index]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c5ba2463d7e09f8ec4a86

The effects of high thermal stress on serum protein metabolites, milk production of transition dairy cows in semi-arid areas in South Africa were evaluated. Forty, ± 8 months pregnant, Jersey heifers (± 26 months) in zero grazing management were selected during summer from two semi-arid communal areas. Summer thermal-humidity index (THI) of the areas were THI-1 (72–83: extreme caution) and THI-2 (75–87: danger). Blood samples were collected (21 days pre-partum, and 21 and 75 days post-partum) and analysed for serum protein metabolites. Milk yield was recorded daily and samples collected for milk fat, protein, lactose and urea nitrogen analysis. Heifers in THI-2 had lower (P < 0.05) total serum proteins, albumin and blood urea nitrogen than THI-1. Post-calving, cows in THI-1 had higher (P < 0.05) TP (73.4 vs 67.9 g/l) and BUN (4.61 vs 3.77 mmol/l) at 21 DIM, and lower (P creatinine at 21 and 75 DIM than THI-2 group. Milk yield, fat and protein in THI-2 were all lower (P < 0.05) than THI-1 21DIM. The results confirm that heat stress affects utilisation of nutrients in transition dairy cows.

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<![CDATA[Intensified Sampling in Response to a Salmonella Heidelberg Outbreak Associated with Multiple Establishments Within a Single Poultry Corporation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c5a3c463d7e09f8ec4a81

Abstract

On June 28, 2013, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) was notified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) of an investigation of a multistate cluster of illnesses of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg. Since case-patients in the cluster reported consumption of a variety of chicken products, FSIS used a simple likelihood-based approach using traceback information to focus on intensified sampling efforts. This article describes the multiphased product sampling approach taken by FSIS when epidemiologic evidence implicated chicken products from multiple establishments operating under one corporation. The objectives of sampling were to (1) assess process control of chicken slaughter and further processing and (2) determine whether outbreak strains were present in products from these implicated establishments. As part of the sample collection process, data collected by FSIS personnel to characterize product included category (whole chicken and type of chicken parts), brand, organic or conventional product, injection with salt solutions or flavorings, and whether product was skinless or skin-on. From the period September 9, 2013, through October 31, 2014, 3164 samples were taken as part of this effort. Salmonella percent positive declined from 19.7% to 5.3% during this timeframe as a result of regulatory and company efforts. The results of intensified sampling for this outbreak investigation informed an FSIS regulatory response and corrective actions taken by the implicated establishments. The company noted that a multihurdle approach to reduce Salmonella in products was taken, including on-farm efforts such as environmental testing, depopulation of affected flocks, disinfection of affected houses, vaccination, and use of various interventions within the establishments over the course of several months.

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<![CDATA[Peptidomic investigation of Neoponera villosa venom by high-resolution mass spectrometry: seasonal and nesting habitat variations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b039a463d7e70c3bdeaf9

Background

Advancements in proteomics, including the technological improvement in instrumentation, have turned mass spectrometry into an indispensable tool in the study of venoms and toxins. In addition, the advance of nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to nanoelectrospray mass spectrometry allows, due to its high sensitivity, the study of venoms from species previously left aside, such as ants. Ant venoms are a complex mixture of compounds used for defense, predation or communication purposes. The venom from Neoponera ants, a genus restricted to Neotropical regions, is known to have cytolytic, hemolytic, antimicrobial and insecticidal activities. Moreover, venoms from several Neoponera species have been compared and differences in their toxicity related to nesting habitat variation were reported. Therefore, the present study aimed to perform a deep peptidomic analysis of Neoponera villosa venom and a comparison of seasonal and nesting habitat variations using high-resolution mass spectrometry.

Methods

Specimens of N. villosa ants were captured in Panga Natural Reserve (Uberlândia, MG, Brazil) from arboreal and ground-dwelling nests during summer and winter time. The venom glands were dissected, pooled and disrupted by ultra-sonic waves. The venom collected from different habitats (arboreal and ground-dwelling) and different seasons (summer and winter) was injected into a nanoACQUITY ULPC hyphened to a Q-Exactive Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The raw data were analyzed using PEAKS 7.

Results

The results showed a molecular diversity of more than 500 peptides among these venoms, mostly in the mass range of 800–4000 Da. Mutations and post-translational modifications were described and differences among the venoms were observed. Part of the peptides matched with ponericins, a well-known antimicrobial peptide family. In addition, smaller fragments related to ponericins were also identified, suggesting that this class of antimicrobial peptide might undergo enzymatic cleavages.

Conclusion

There are substantial differences among the venom of N. villosa ants collected in different seasons and from different nest habitats. The venom composition is affected by climate changes that influence prey availability and predator presence. Clearly, nano-LC-MS boosted the knowledge about ant venom, a rich source of unexplored and promising bioactive compounds.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (10.1186/s40409-018-0141-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Biochemical characterization of a phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4b02c9463d7e70c3bdeaf6

Background

Wasp venoms constitute a molecular reservoir of new pharmacological substances such as peptides and proteins, biological property holders, many of which are yet to be identified. Exploring these sources may lead to the discovery of molecules hitherto unknown. This study describes, for the first time in hymenopteran venoms, the identification of an enzymatically inactive phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from the venom of the social wasp Polybia occidentalis.

Methods

P. occidentalis venom was fractioned by molecular exclusion and reverse phase chromatography. For the biochemical characterization of the protein, 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE were performed, along with phospholipase activity assays on synthetic substrates, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and sequencing by Edman degradation.

Results

The protein, called PocTX, was isolated using two chromatographic steps. Based on the phospholipase activity assay, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the protein presented a high degree of purity, with a mass of 13,896.47 Da and a basic pI. After sequencing by the Edman degradation method, it was found that the protein showed a high identity with snake venom PLA2 homologues.

Conclusion

This is the first report of an enzymatically inactive PLA2 isolated from wasp venom, similar to snake PLA2 homologues.

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<![CDATA[Description of the last-instar larva and pupa of a leaf-mining hispine – Prionispa champaka Maulik, 1919 (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Oncocephalini)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4a8651463d7e6681b4b30b
Abstract

The last-instar larva and pupa of Prionispa champaka Maulik, 1919 are described and figured in detail. The chaetotaxy of the head, mouthparts, legs, and dorsal and ventral surfaces of the body are given. The larva of P. champaka mine in the leaves of Pollia japonica Thunb. (Commelinaceae) and pupate in the base of the mid-ribs. The adults were also observed feeding on the leaves of Pollia siamensis (Carib.) Faden ex D. Y. Hong. The prominent diagnostic characters of immature stages of other species of the three genera of Oncocephalini (Prionispa, Chaeridiona, and Oncocephala) are discussed.

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<![CDATA[Two new Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 species from Brazil and Bolivia (Araneae, Theraphosidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b49c3bd463d7e1886d84b5a
Abstract

Two new species of Dolichothele Mello-Leitão, 1923 are described from Brazil and Bolivia, D. mottai sp. n. from Distrito Federal and the state of Goiás, Brazil, and D. camargorum sp. n. from the state of Rondônia, Brazil, and the La Paz region, Bolivia. Males of the two new species resemble Dolichothele bolivianum (Vol, 2001) in having a small subapical keel on the distal embolus and females in particular by the short spermatheca. Dolichothele bolivianum is redescribed, and its geographical distribution is herein restricted to Bolivia and the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil.

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<![CDATA[Optimum culture duration for growing oocytes to attain meiotic and fertilization competence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b46cce6463d7e6446d0e409

To determine the optimum culture duration for porcine growing oocytes (GOs) to attain maturation competence, we examined the meiotic competence, chromatin configuration, and fertilization ability of porcine oocytes obtained from early antral follicles and cultured for 10–16 days. The survival rate of oocytes after 10 days of culture (62.8%) was similar to that of oocytes after 12 days of culture (55%) and significantly higher than that of oocytes cultured for 14 and 16 days (52.9 and 24.3%, respectively). No significant difference was observed in the diameter of ooplasm from oocytes cultured for different durations (117.4–118.3 μm). The maturation rates of surviving oocytes after 10 and 16 days of culture (38.3 and 22.7%, respectively) were significantly lower than those of oocytes cultured for 12 and 14 days, and their in vivo counterparts (52.8–62.4%). The number of oocytes with surrounded-nucleolus chromatin was significantly lower in the 10-day culture group (78.4%) as compared with 14-day culture and in vivo counterpart groups (93.6 and 95.1%, respectively). After in vitro maturation and intracytoplasmic sperm injection, no significant difference was observed in the rate of fertilization among oocytes cultured for 12 and 14 days, and their in vivo counterparts (40.5–47.2%). Thus, porcine GOs required at least 12 days to acquire meiotic and fertilization competence, and the culture duration to maximize the number of mature oocytes ranged from 12 to 14 days.

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<![CDATA[Drusus sharrensis sp. n. (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae), a new species from Sharr National Park in Kosovo, with molecular and ecological notes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833f240307c0c7525d38b <![CDATA[Revision of the subgenus Tinotus Sharp, stat. n., of the parasitoid rove-beetle genus Aleochara Gravenhorst (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) from Japan, Taiwan, and the Russian Far East]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833ee40307c0c7525d38a <![CDATA[Ectomyelois Heinrich, 1956 in China, with descriptions of two new species and a key (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae, Phycitinae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833f740307c0c7525d38c <![CDATA[A black-and-red stick insect from the Philippines – observations on the external anatomy and natural history of a new species of Orthomeria]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833e840307c0c7525d388 <![CDATA[Two new species of Parapharyngodon parasites of Sceloporus pyrocephalus, with a key to the species found in Mexico (Nematoda, Pharyngodonidae)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833e340307c0c7525d386 <![CDATA[A new interstitial ostracod species of the genus Paracobanocythere from Vietnam, with mitochondrial CO1 sequence data of three Asian species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833e540307c0c7525d387 <![CDATA[Revision of Paranastatus Masi (Eupelmidae, Eupelminae) with descriptions of four new species]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc833eb40307c0c7525d389