ResearchPad - Atmospheric Science https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Stereoscopic optimization of industrial structure of the equipment manufacturing industry from the perspective of collaborative emissions reduction: Evidence from China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nbe165fed-3c05-4b65-8891-344b36e27456

Equipment manufacturing industry is one of the major industries of the Chinese economy. Previous researches have revealed that the industry has dilemmas of unreasonable industrial structure and high pollution. Using the data of 30 provinces in 2006-2015 in China, this study calculated a comprehensive pollution indicator when estimating the possible pollution reduction brought by the optimization of industrial structure and then evaluated the reasonable level of capital allocation of provinces and industries by using the methods of nonlinear programming and stochastic frontier method. Under the target of collaborative emission reduction, the results show that the optimized output of China’s equipment manufacturing industry could be increased by 5.42%, the energy intensity could be reduced by about 10.4%, and the comprehensive emission intensity could be reduced by about 7.47%. Due to the industry heterogeneity and regional heterogeneity, industrial capacity should be transferred between industries and regions. Since the capital investment in the equipment manufacturing industry is significantly mismatched between industries and regions, the capital allocation of provincial industries in China needs to be adjusted properly. This study provides theoretically and practically reference for collaborative pollution reduction, industry restructure, spatial layout and capital investment, which contributes to achieving the stereoscopic optimization of equipment manufacturing industry.

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<![CDATA[The applicability of recreation-grade GNSS receiver (GPS watch, Suunto Ambit Peak 3) in a forested and an open area compared to a mapping-grade receiver (Trimble Juno T41)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8984bd8b-66a6-4b6e-8af7-92a53859b107

Due to developments in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and the miniaturization of their components, the usage of Global Positioning System (GPS) is no longer restricted to professional applications, but has become available in various consumer type devices, such as wristwatches. These commercial devices, however, were primarily designed for tracking activities in predominately urban settings and their accuracy has not been tested in forested areas. In this study, we present an assessment of the positional accuracy of a GPS watch (Ambit Peak 3, Suunto, Finland) under different forest cover types, seasons and meteorological conditions within the Whitehall Forest GPS Test Site located in Athens, Georgia, USA. As a standard of comparison, the performance of the GPS watch measurements was juxtaposed to that of a mapping-grade receiver (Juno T41, Trimble Inc., USA). In this study, we analyzed the differences between the determined and control positions using root-mean-square-error (RMSE), along with the distribution of observed positions through the standard deviational ellipse. The results suggest that the seasonal variations contributed to a statistically significant impact on the RMSE values for the GPS watch. However, there were no statistically significant differences in horizontal position accuracy by forest cover-type when using the GPS watch. Furthermore, no significant differences were found in horizontal position accuracy during the leaf-off period between the RMSE values for the GPS watch and those of the mapping-grade receiver. Lastly, the positional accuracies for both types of receivers were found to be weakly, but significantly correlated with fluctuations in air temperature and absolute humidity.

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<![CDATA[Future trends of water resources and influences on agriculture in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N87c2566a-6970-4c5f-9ecf-ecac024e386a

Water resources are indispensable for all social-economic activities and ecosystem functions. In addition, changes in water resources have great significance for agricultural production. This paper uses five global climate models from CMIP5 to evaluate the future spatiotemporal variation in water resources in China under four RCP scenarios. The results show that the available precipitation significantly decreases due to evapotranspiration. Comparing the four RCP scenarios, the national average of the available precipitation is the highest under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, followed by that under the RCP 8.5 scenario. In terms of spatial distribution, the amount of available precipitation shows a decreasing trend from southeast to northwest. Regarding temporal changes, the available precipitation under RCP 8.5 exhibits a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, while the available precipitation under the RCP 6.0 scenario exhibits a trend of first decreasing and then increasing. Under the RCP 2.6 and 4.5 scenarios, the available precipitation increases, and the RCP 4.5 scenario has a higher rate of increase than that of RCP 2.6. In the context of climate change, changes in water resources and temperature cause widespread increases in potential agricultural productivity around Hu’s line, especially in southwestern China. However, the potential agricultural productivity decreases in a large area of southeastern China. Hu’s line has a partial breakthrough in the locking of agriculture, mainly in eastern Tibet, western Sichuan, northern Yunnan and northwestern Inner Mongolia. The results provide a reference for the management and deployment of future water resources and can aid in agricultural production in China.

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<![CDATA[Do parents counter-balance the carbon emissions of their children?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nea582d41-f072-4a93-882b-8bb6cca64243

It is well understood that adding to the population increases CO2 emissions. At the same time, having children is a transformative experience, such that it might profoundly change adult (i.e., parents’) preferences and consumption. How it might change is, however, unknown. Depending on if becoming a parent makes a person “greener” or “browner,” parents may either balance or exacerbate the added CO2 emissions from their children. Parents might think more about the future, compared to childless adults, including risks posed to their children from environmental events like climate change. But parenthood also adds needs and more intensive competition on your scarce time. Carbon-intensive goods can add convenience and help save time, e.g., driving may facilitate being in more places in one day, compared to public transportation or biking. Pre-prepared food that contain red meat may save time and satisfy more household preferences, relative to vegetarian food. We provide the first rigorous test of whether parents are greener or browner than other adults. We create a unique dataset by combining detailed micro data on household expenditures of all expenditure groups particularly important for CO2 emissions (transportation, food, and heating/electricity) with CO2 emissions, and compare emissions from Swedish adults with and without children. We find that parents emit more CO2 than childless adults. Only a small fraction of adults permanently choose not to have children, which means any meaningful self-selection into parenthood based on green preferences is unlikely. Our findings suggest that having children might increase CO2 emissions both by adding to the population and by increasing CO2 emissions from those choosing to have children.

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<![CDATA[The effect of NaOH pretreatment on coal structure and biomethane production]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nec5b1db1-34f5-4425-bec1-1f1e431a6eb6

Biogenic CBM is an important component of detected CBM, which is formed by coal biodegradation and can be regenerated by anaerobic microorganisms. One of the rate-limiting factors for microbial degradation is the bioavailability of coal molecules, especially for anthracite which is more condense and has higher aromaticity compared with low-rank coal. In this paper, NaOH solution with different concentrations and treating time was employed to pretreat anthracite from Qinshui Basin to alter the coal structure and facilitate the biodegradation. The results showed that the optimal pretreatment conditions were 1.5 M NaOH treating for 12 h, under which the biomethane production was increased by 17.65% compared with untreated coal. The results of FTIR and XRD showed that NaOH pretreatment mainly reduced the multi-substituted aromatics, increased the C-O in alcohols and aromatic ethers and the branching degree of aliphatic chain, and decreased the aromatic ring structure, resulting in the improvement of coal bioavailability and enhancement of biomethane yield. And some organics with potential to generate methane were released to filtrate as revealed by GC-MS. Our results suggested that NaOH was an effective solution for pretreating coal to enhance biogenic methane production, and anthracite after treating with NaOH could be the better substrate for methanogenesis.

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<![CDATA[South Asian summer monsoon projections constrained by the interdecadal Pacific oscillation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N36c385f9-c733-4a45-add7-623601e32c59

The Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation offers hope for more reliable projections of near-term South Asian summer monsoon.

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<![CDATA[On the fate of oxygenated organic molecules in atmospheric aerosol particles]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd8ca817d-0356-465c-ac5c-223f42529ce7

Real-time investigation of the intraparticle reactions in secondary organic aerosol.

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<![CDATA[The Archean atmosphere]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N8fe5f09b-2469-4af4-87af-8d4ba598bdc8

What was the early atmosphere made of? We review what is known during the Archean eon, 4 to 2.5 billion years ago.

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<![CDATA[The fuel of atmospheric chemistry: Toward a complete description of reactive organic carbon]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Naeef03b0-5b55-4a09-b4a9-a9bb6e878f8e

Tracking reactive organic carbon in the atmosphere is critical to advancing our understanding of air quality and climate.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying the Timescale and Strength of Southern Hemisphere Intraseasonal Stratosphere‐troposphere Coupling]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne2d0b07a-2452-4f6d-ba26-c3d3b5569795

Abstract

The Southern Hemisphere zonal circulation manifests a downward influence of the stratosphere on the troposphere from late spring to early summer. However, the strength and timescale of the connection, given the stratospheric state, have not been explicitly quantified. Here, SH zonal wind reanalysis time series are analyzed with a methodology designed to detect the minimal set of statistical predictors of multiple interacting variables via conditional independence tests. Our results confirm from data that the variability of the stratospheric polar vortex is a predictor of the tropospheric eddy‐driven jet between September and January. The vortex variability explains about 40% of monthly mean jet variability at a lead time of 1 month and can entirely account for the observed jet persistence. Our statistical model can quantitatively connect the multidecadal trends observed in the vortex and jet during the satellite era. This shows how short‐term variability can help understand statistical links in long‐term changes.

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<![CDATA[The Western Tibetan Vortex as an Emergent Feature of Near‐Surface Temperature Variations]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N1bf0379a-74fc-4336-b19e-848eaabf9a8f

Abstract

Glaciers around the world are shrinking, yet in a region in northwestern High Mountain Asia (HMA), glaciers show growth. A proposed explanation for this anomalous behavior is related to the variability of the “Western Tibetan Vortex” (WTV), which correlates well with near‐surface temperatures in northwestern HMA. Using analytical formulations and ERA5 reanalysis data, we show that the WTV is the change of wind field resulting from changes in near‐surface temperature gradients in geostrophic flow and that it is not unique to northwestern HMA. Instead, we argue that net radiation is likely the main driver of near‐surface temperatures in Western HMA in summer and autumn. The decreasing strength of the WTV during summer in the twentieth century is thus likely the result of decreasing net radiation. We do argue that the WTV is a useful concept that could yield insights in other regions as well.

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<![CDATA[Atmospheric CO2 levels from 2.7 billion years ago inferred from micrometeorite oxidation]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N677dcc2a-66fc-4852-ac87-4ea50cdef65e

Iron-rich micrometeorites from a 2.7 billion-year-old limestone could constrain atmospheric CO2 levels on the early Earth.

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<![CDATA[Quantifying Stratospheric Temperature Signals and Climate Imprints From Post‐2000 Volcanic Eruptions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nc8f53688-9428-448b-9f34-38bdaf6f31f8

Abstract

Small volcanic eruptions and their effects have recently come into research focus. While large eruptions are known to strongly affect stratospheric temperature, the impacts of smaller eruptions are hard to quantify because their signals are masked by natural variability. Here, we quantify the temperature signals from small volcanic eruptions between 2002 and 2016 using new vertically resolved aerosol data and precise temperature observations from radio occultation. We find characteristic space‐time signals that can be associated with specific eruptions. In the lower stratosphere, robust warming signals are observed, while in the midstratosphere also cooling signals of some eruptions appear. We find that the volcanic contribution to the temperature trend is up to 20%, depending on latitude and altitude. We conclude that detailed knowledge of the vertical structure of volcanic temperature impacts is crucial for comprehensive trend analysis in order to separate natural from anthropogenic temperature changes.

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<![CDATA[Mid-Holocene Northern Hemisphere warming driven by Arctic amplification]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N09bb001f-98a2-4780-9331-3966fb7836b8

Analyses of a mid-Holocene climate model ensemble and paleo-proxies reveal that the mid-Holocene Northern Hemisphere was warm.

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<![CDATA[Sap flow of Salix psammophila and its principal influencing factors at different slope positions in the Mu Us desert]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9e08a49c-6957-422b-bc2c-73a7e35a95db

The changes in sap flow of Salix psammophila growing on a gentle slope (lower slope, P1), a middle slope (P2), and an upper slope (P3), and the response of sap flow to meteorological factors at the different slope positions were studied using the continuous and synchronized observations, the instrument were wrapped stem flowmeter EMS 62 sap-flow heat-balance-based system and the LSI-LASTEM automatic weather station. The results revealed that the soil moisture content was the highest and the growth conditions of Salix psammophila were the best at P1, followed by P2. At P3, however, although good apical dominance was observed, the proportion of dead branches was the highest. Furthermore, the daily variation patterns of sap flow on the three slopes presented as multi-peak bell-shaped curves. The daily accumulation changes in sap flow showed a trend of P1 > P3 > P2, and within the same diameter range, the sap flow at P1 was significantly different from that at P2 and P3, whereas the sap flow at P2 and P3 did not vary significantly. All the three slopes showed a significant and positive correlation with photosynthetically active radiation, atmospheric temperature, and vapor pressure difference, and a significant and negative correlation with relative humidity; however, the degrees of correlation varied slightly. The stepwise regression analysis showed that, at different slopes, different variables were selected for different branch diameters, but photosynthetically active radiation and atmospheric temperature played dominant roles on all slopes. This study reveals the sap flow pattern of Salix psammophila on different slopes and its response mechanism to meteorological factors, which was essential for understanding the restoration ability, physiological adaptability, and ecosystem stability of Salix psammophila communities.

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<![CDATA[Atmospheric rivers drive flood damages in the western United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N55372d1b-4e92-498b-b3f8-a876695ca9b7

Damaging floods in the western United States are mainly due to atmospheric rivers, causing substantial socioeconomic impacts.

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<![CDATA[A δ2H Isoscape of blackberry as an example application for determining the geographic origins of plant materials in New Zealand]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nea2d9f77-f900-4107-8de8-5a146688a563

In this investigation, two previously reported precipitation δ2H isoscapes for New Zealand were used to develop a δ2H isoscape for blackberry (Rubus sp.) leaf. These isoscapes were calibrated using the measured δ2H values of 120 authentic blackberry leaf samples collected from across the country. A regression model based on environmental variables available for New Zealand was also determined to predict δ2H values measured from blackberry leaves without initially modelling the precipitation δ2H values. The three models were compared for their accuracy and precision when assigning 10 samples of blackberry leaves for their geographic location based on their measured δ2H values. One of the models based on a precipitation isoscape was similar in accuracy and precision of assignment to the model determined from the environmental variables and provides an approach for determining valid isoscapes for future plant materials.

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<![CDATA[Prediction model for dengue fever based on interactive effects between multiple meteorological factors in Guangdong, China (2008–2016)]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfe4e2064-ca0a-4d6d-a8b7-4f75eb296e9a

Introduction

In order to improve the prediction accuracy of dengue fever incidence, we constructed a prediction model with interactive effects between meteorological factors, based on weekly dengue fever cases in Guangdong, China from 2008 to 2016.

Methods

Dengue fever data were derived from statistical data from the China National Notifiable Infectious Disease Reporting Information System. Daily meteorological data were obtained from the China Integrated Meteorological Information Sharing System. The minimum temperature for transmission was identified using data fitting and the Ross-Macdonald model. Correlations and interactive effects were examined using Spearman’s rank correlation and multivariate analysis of variance. A probit regression model to describe the incidence of dengue fever from 2008 to 2016 and forecast the 2017 incidence was constructed, based on key meteorological factors, interactive effects, mosquito-vector factors, and other important factors.

Results

We found the minimum temperature suitable for dengue transmission was ≥18°C, and as 97.91% of cases occurred when the minimum temperature was above 18 °C, the data were used for model training and construction. Epidemics of dengue are related to mean temperature, maximum/minimum and mean atmospheric pressure, and mean relative humidity. Moreover, interactions occur between mean temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure, and mean relative humidity. Our weekly probit regression prediction model is 0.72. Prediction of dengue cases for the first 41 weeks of 2017 exhibited goodness of fit of 0.60.

Conclusion

Our model was accurate and timely, with consideration of interactive effects between meteorological factors.

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<![CDATA[Pinpointing nitrogen oxide emissions from space]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5f85182e-ac1b-4a38-91cf-3e27d6e07134

Power plant exhausts can be identified and quantified from satellite observations.

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<![CDATA[A previously unrecognized source of the O2Atmospheric band emission in Earth’s nightglow]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ca26164d5eed0c4846dc7cc

Energy transfer from vibrationally excited OH to O atoms leads to enhanced O2 nightglow in Earth’s upper atmosphere.

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