ResearchPad - Biochemistry, medical https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Setting the IMPACT (IMProve Access to Clinical Trial data) Observatory baseline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7a3e5d5eed0c484eab77b

Introduction

The aim of the IMPACT (IMProving Access to Clinical Trial data) Observatory is to assess the transformation of clinical trials (CT) related to the evolution of sharing of CT data. The objective of this study is to establish a baseline for monitoring CT data sharing by the Observatory.

Materials and methods

In this scoping review we searched for publications that address sharing, dissemination, transparency or reuse of CT data published prior to December 31st 2000. Two authors screened titles and abstracts of 1204 records received by Medline searches and added 47 publications from direct discovery. Four researchers extracted, coded, and analyzed the predefined information from 102 selected papers.

Results

We found a growing recognition of the importance of data sharing prior to 2001. However, there were numerous obstacles including the ambiguity of the concept of data sharing, the absence of specific terminology and the lack of an “open” culture. By the end of 2000, data, metadata, and evidence based medicine were defined. Data sharing, registries, databases and re-analyses of individual patient data (IPD) emerged. The use of systematic reviews and IPD meta-analysis in decision making was promoted. Most arguments for broader data sharing came from oncology, paediatrics, rare diseases, AIDS, pregnancy, perinatal medicine, and media reporting related scandals.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that the year 2000 could be used as a baseline for monitoring the evolution of CT data sharing as basic prerequisites were set in place, including greater understanding that CT data sharing is essential for decision making and the advancements of the Internet.

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<![CDATA[Biochemia Medica appoints new Editor-in-Chief and new Senior Editor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7a3e7d5eed0c484eab78d ]]> <![CDATA[Multiple pulmonary metastases in recurrent intracranial meningioma: Case report and literature review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b43d002463d7e2e32e8036c

Multiple pulmonary metastases from meningioma are rare. We report here a 59-year-old man with multiple pulmonary metastases from a recurrent intracranial meningioma. The primary intracranial tumour in the left occiput was totally excised in 2009. Pathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of atypical meningioma and adjuvant radiotherapy was given to help prevent recurrence. However, recurrence occurred in the left occipital region in 2011 and the meningioma was re-excised in 2012. At the same time, multiple metastases in the right pulmonary lobe were found and excised 3 months after the second craniotomy. The patient has not developed any further recurrence or metastases to date. Neurosurgeons should be aware of the occurrence of pulmonary metastases in patients with intracranial meningioma; potential predictive factors include atypical meningioma, venous sinus invasion, recurrence or previous intracranial surgery, and loss of heterozygosity.

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<![CDATA[The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3e3310463d7e44234bb54c

Summary

Background

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to pre sent some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

Methods

The study included 161 patients with WNND. Their blood and CSF samples were cytobiochemically analysed and the obtained variables were then tested for predictive significance of the disease outcome, or used for differentiation between two clinical syndromes (encephalitis vs meningitis).

Results

West Nile encephalitis was present in 127 (78.9%) patients and West Nile meningitis was diagnosed in 34 (21.1%) cases. Leukocytosis was found in 45.9% patients. CRP level higher than 100 mg/L was registered only in those with encephalitis (p=0.020). CSF leukocyte count was 146±171 per microlitre, with slight lymphocytic predominance (mean 52%). Hypoglycorrhachia was registered in 9.3% of our patients with WNND. Twenty-eight (17.4%) patients died and all of them had encephalitis. Independent predictors of fatal outcome in WNND were serum CRP > 100 mg/L (p=0.011) and CSF proteins > 1 g/L (p=0.002).

Conclusions

WNND usually affects older males. Prolonged neutrophilic predominance in CSF can occasionally be present, as well as hypoglycorrhachia. Patients with encephalitis, high serum CRP and high CSF protein level have a higher risk of fatal outcome.

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<![CDATA[Correlation Between Glycated Hemoglobin and Homa Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prediction of Beta-Cell Function from Glycated Hemoglobin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a2d5eed0c484371c30

Summary

Background

The present study aimed to determine the most efficient insulin resistance function related to glycemic control expressed as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). The other aim is to derive equations for the prediction of beta cell functions containing HbA1c as a parameter in addition to fasting glucose and insulin.

Methods

T2DM Patients were grouped according to the following: (1) degree of control (good, fair, and poor control) and (2) insulin resistance as observed in obtained data and significant differences revealed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of related parameters (insulin resistance = HOMA2IR, beta-cell function = HOMA%B, and insulin sensitivity = HOMA%S) among groups. Correlations and forecasting regression analysis were calculated.

Results

HbA1c was found to be correlated with insulin resistance parameters in T2DM subgroups. This correlation was also significantly correlated with HOMA%B and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in fair and poor control groups. Regression analysis was used to predict the forecasting equations for HOMA%B. The best applicable equations were derived for healthy control (HOMA2%B=−1.76*FBG+5.00*Insulin+4.69*HbA1c+189.84) and poor control groups (HOMA2%B=0.001* FBG+0.5*Insulin-8.67*HbA1c+101.96). These equations could be used to predict β-cell function (HOMA%B) after FBG, insulin and HbA1c values were obtained for healthy and poor control groups. In the good and fair control groups, the applicability of the HOMA model fails to yield appropriate results.

Conclusions

Beta-cell function is correlated with QUICKI and HbA1c and could be predicted properly from HbA1c, insulin, and glucose in the healthy and poor control groups. New regression equations were established that involve HbA1c.

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<![CDATA[Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Non-Diabetic, Pre-Diabetic and Diabetic Patients in the Acute Phase of the First Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd9049dd5eed0c484371a49

Summary

Background

Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are elevated in diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Little is known about their dynamics in the acute phase of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially in relation to the presence of DM and pre-diabetes (pre-DM). This study aimed to analyze time-dependent changes in ox-LDL and hs-CRP regarding the presence of pre-DM and DM in STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Methods

In 103 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI ox-LDL and hs-CRP were measured before pPCI, on day 2 and day 7 after pPCI.

Results

Patients were classified into: non-diabetics, pre-diabetics and diabetics. In each group the maximal ox-LDL concentration was found on admission, decreased on day 2 and reached the lowest values on day 7 (p<0.001). Diabetics had the highest ox-LDL concentrations compared to pre-diabetics and non-diabetics (on admission: p=0.028, on day 2: p=0.056, on day 7: p=0.004). hs-CRP concentration rose from admission, reached its peak on day 2 and decreased on day 7, in each group (p<0.001). Significant differences in hs-CRP concentrations were found between non-diabetics and pre-diabetics on admission (p=0.018) and day 2 (p=0.026). In a multivariate analysis DM was an independent determinant of high ox-LDL concentrations. Both ox-LDL and hs-CRP significantly correlated with Killip class, left ventricular ejection fraction, NT-proBNP and peak troponin I.

Conclusions

In patients with the first STEMI treated by pPCI there were significant differences in ox-LDL and hs-CRP concentrations between non-diabetics, pre-diabetics and diabetics. Ox-LDL and hs-CRP concentrations were related to heart failure parameters.

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<![CDATA[Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a4d5eed0c484371d5e

Summary

Background

Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult.

Methods

We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury.

Results

At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded.

Conclusions

CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

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<![CDATA[Associations of Resistin Levels with Resistin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in Thais]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a9d5eed0c484371fc7

Summary

Background

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical constellation comprising risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Resistin has been suggested as a linkage between obesity, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate resistin concentrations and hematological-biochemical parameters in MS subjects and controls, and to determine whether two resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms (−420C>G & +299G>A) are linked to resistin levels and MS among Thais.

Methods

This case-control study was performed with 322 Thai volunteers: 160 MS subjects and 162 controls. Anthropometric parameters and hematological-biochemical variables were determined. The RETN −420C>G (rs1862513) and +299G>A (rs3745367) polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique.

Results

The resistin levels of the MS group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Resistin levels were positively correlated with anthropometric parameters and WBC count in the MS group. According to RETN −420C>G polymorphism, MS subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) (3.9 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin concentrations than in subjects with the CC genotype (2.4 μg/L); with regard to RETN +299G>A polymorphism, carriers with the A allele (GA/AA) (3.8 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin levels than subjects with the GG genotype (2.7 μg/L), after adjusting for potential covariates. However, the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms were not found to be associated with MS, hematological-biochemical parameters and anthropometric variables.

Conclusions

These findings suggest resistin levels are linked with MS and the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms have impacted the circulating resistin concentrations. However, these two RETN polymorphisms probably do not influence susceptibility to MS among Thais.

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<![CDATA[Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Circulating C-reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904abd5eed0c484372088

Summary

Background

C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a risk marker and risk factor of cardiovascular disease. There have been a number of clinical reports suggesting that supplementation with L-carnitine can modulate systemic inflammation and lower circulating CRP concentrations, but the results have not been consistent.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in December 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the impact of oral L-carnitine supplementation on serum/plasma CRP concentration. A random effect method was used to calculate the combined effect size.

Results

Six studies comprising 541 cases and 546 controls met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of included trials revealed a significant reduction of circulating CRP concentrations in subjects under L-carnitine intervention compared to the control treatment. The calculated combined weighted mean reduction in CRP concentrations was −0.39 mg/L [95% CI (−0.62 – −0.16)]. This effect size estimate was found to be robust and remained unaffected by the removal of each single study.

Conclusions

The overall findings of the present meta-analysis support the clinically relevant benefit of L-carnitine supplementation in lowering the circulating levels of CRP.

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<![CDATA[»Treatment Resistance« Enigma Resolved by Pharmacogenomics − A Case Study of Clozapine Therapy in Schizophrenia / Enigma »Terapo-Rezistence« Razrešena Uz Pomoć Farmakogenomike - Prikaz Slućaja Terapije Klozapinom U Shizofreniji]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd9049fd5eed0c484371ad3

Summary

The introduction of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s forever changed the outlook on the treatment of schizophrenia, although there is still a large proportion of patients who do not reach functional recovery. At least 30% of patients do not respond to clozapine, the tricyclic dibenzodiazepine with complex pharmacological actions, which was proven to be more effective than any other antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia. According to most of the therapeutic guidelines for schizophrenia, clozapine is the third line therapy for patients who did not respond to other antipsychotics. Large inter-individual variability exists for clozapine bioavailability and plasma steady-state concentrations and clearance. Clozapine is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme family (CYP450). Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which is polymorphically expressed in humans, is the main enzyme of clozapine metabolism. This case report addresses the influence of CYP1A2*1F genetic polymorphism on clozapine metabolism, explains the primary non-response of a young patient with schizophrenia due to increased gene expression in homozygous genotype *1F/*1F (increased metabolism of clozapine) and underlies the importance of personalizing schizophrenia treatment by means of genetic and other molecular tools, at least in the cases of »treatment resistance«.

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<![CDATA[Homologous Recombination Repair Polymorphisms and the Risk for Osteosarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a0d5eed0c484371b67

Summary

Background

DNA repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining genome stability, and genetic variability in DNA repair genes may contribute to cancer susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN on the risk for osteosarcoma.

Methods

In total, 79 osteosarcoma cases and 373 controls were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of these SNPs with risk for osteosarcoma.

Results

None of the investigated SNPs was associated with risk for osteosarcoma in the whole cohort of patients, however, in patients diagnosed before the age of thirty years XRCC3 rs861539 C>T and NBN rs1805794 G>C were associated with significantly decreased risk for osteosarcoma (P=0.047, OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30–0.99 and P=0.036, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.19–0.94, respectively). Moreover, in the carriers of a combination of polymorphic alleles in both SNPs risk for osteosarcoma was decreased even more significantly (Ptrend=0.007). The risk for developing osteosarcoma was the lowest in patients with no wild-type alleles for both SNPs (P=0.039, OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.10–0.94).

Conclusions

Our results suggest that polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes might contribute to risk for osteosarcoma in patients diagnosed below the age of thirty years.

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<![CDATA[Laryngeal Granuloma – Benefit in Treatment with Zinc Supplementation? / Larinksni Granulom - Korist Od Terapije Preparatima Cinka]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b37d439463d7e71ed68e7aa

Summary

Laryngeal granulomas present as contact and postintubation ulcers and granulomas. Essentially, a contact granuloma is a pseudotumor of the lateral wall of the posterior glottis. The most common etiological factor is voice abuse, with predisponing factors such as reflux disease. Postintubation ulcers and granulomas, although of different etiology, according to all the other traits belong to this clinical entity. The therapy of choice is conservative treatment. Surgical laser excision is indicated for resistant cases and those whose size is causing respiratory distress. Treatment of laryngeal granulomas with zinc supplementation is reported in the literature as one of the forms of conservative treatment, and we wanted to consider it in this review. Zinc is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in many biochemical reactions and is considered very important for wound healing.

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<![CDATA[External Quality Assessment of MERS-CoV Molecular Diagnostics During the 2015 Korean Outbreak]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bc9d08940307c328e880ae1

Background

The largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection outside Middle East Asia in 2015 has necessitated the rapid expansion of laboratories that conduct MERS-CoV molecular testing in Korea, together with external quality assessment (EQA) to evaluate the assays used.

Methods

The EQA program consisted of two phases; self-validation and blind assessment. For the first EQA phase, in vitro transcribed upstream region of the envelope gene (upE) and the open reading frame (ORF)1a RNAs were used at a concentration of 1,000 copies/µL. The test panel for the second EQA phase consisted of RNA extracts from three samples, which were obtained from two MERS-CoV positive patients and one MERS-CoV negative patient.

Results

The first EQA phase results for 46 participants showed a linear relationship between the threshold cycle (CT) values of RNA materials and the logarithmic concentrations for both upE and ORF1a gene targets (R2=0.73 and 0.75, respectively). The mean CT value for each concentration was different depending on which commercial kit was used for the assay. Among the three commonly used kits, PowerChek MERS Real-Time PCR kit (KogeneBiotech, Korea) showed the lowest CT values at all concentrations of upE and most concentrations of ORF1a. The second EQA phase results for 47 participants were 100% correct for all tested samples.

Conclusions

This EQA survey demonstrates that the MERS-CoV molecular testing performed in Korea during the 2015 outbreak is of robust capability. However, careful establishment and validation of a cut-off value are recommended to ensure good analytical sensitivity.

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<![CDATA[Metformin Inhibits Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) Action in Human Granulosa Cells: Relevance to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b9f86fd40307c3d26238594

Background:

Women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are generally insulin-resistant and as a consequence are often treated with the biguanide metformin. Results with metformin have, however, been variable with some studies demonstrating induction of regular cycles and an increase in ovulation, whereas others do not. Hence more understanding is needed regarding the mechanism of metformin's actions in ovarian granulosa cells especially in light of previous demonstrations of direct actions.

Objective:

The aim of this study was to investigate metformin's interaction with the FSH/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway, which is the primary signaling pathway controlling CYP19A1 (aromatase) expression in the ovary.

Methods:

The effect of metformin on FSH and forskolin-stimulated aromatase expression in human granulosa cells was measured by quantitative real-time PCR. Activity was assessed after transfection with a promoter II-luciferase construct, and by an RIA measuring conversion of androgen to estrogens. The effect on FSH receptor (FSHR) mRNA was assessed by quantitative PCR. Levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 2 (CRTC2) were measured by Western blotting and cAMP by a bioluminescent assay.

Results:

Metformin markedly reduced FSH but not forskolin-stimulated aromatase expression and activity. This effect was exerted by inhibition of basal and ligand-induced up-regulation of FSHR expression. Metformin also reduced FSH-induced phosphorylation of CREB and hence CRE activity, which could potentially disrupt the CREB–CREB-binding protein–CRTC2 coactivator complex that binds to CRE in promoter II of the aromatase gene. This is mediated in an AMP-activated protein kinase-independent manner, and does not involve alteration of cAMP levels.

Conclusion:

These finding have implications for the use of metformin in the treatment of anovulation in women with PCOS.

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<![CDATA[Homocysteine affects cardiomyocyte viability: concentration-dependent effects on reversible flip-flop, apoptosis and necrosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7cb919463d7e1f884ab12a

Background

Hyperhomocysteinaemia (HHC) is thought to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease including heart failure. While numerous studies have analyzed the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in the vasculature, only a few studies investigated the role of Hcy in the heart. Therefore we have analyzed the effects of Hcy on isolated cardiomyocytes.

Methods

H9c2 cells (rat cardiomyoblast cells) and adult rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with Hcy and were analyzed for cell viability. Furthermore, we determined the effects of Hcy on intracellular mediators related to cell viability in cardiomyocytes, namely NOX2, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and ATP concentrations.

Results

We found that incubation of H9c2 cells with 0.1 mM D,L-Hcy (= 60 μM l-Hcy) resulted in an increase of ΔΨm as well as ATP concentrations. 1.1 mM d,l-Hcy (= 460 μM l-Hcy) induced reversible flip-flop of the plasma membrane phospholipids, but not apoptosis. Incubation with 2.73 mM d,l-Hcy (= 1.18 mM l-Hcy) induced apoptosis and necrosis. This loss of cell viability was accompanied by a thread-to-grain transition of the mitochondrial reticulum, ATP depletion and nuclear NOX2 expression coinciding with ROS production as evident from the presence of nitrotyrosin residues. Notably, only at this concentration we found a significant increase in S-adenosylhomocysteine which is considered the primary culprit in HHC.

Conclusion

We found concentration-dependent effects of Hcy in cardiomyocytes, varying from induction of reversible flip-flop of the plasma membrane phospholipids, to apoptosis and necrosis.

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<![CDATA[Quality Assurance in Clinical Chemistry: A Touch of Statistics and A Lot of Common Sense]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b37d65e463d7e71ed68e7ae

Summary

Working in laboratories of clinical chemistry, we risk feeling that our personal contribution to quality is small and that statistical models and manufacturers play the major roles. It is seldom sufficiently acknowledged that personal knowledge, skills and common sense are crucial for quality assurance in the interest of patients. The employees, environment and procedures inherent to the laboratory including its interactions with the clients are crucial for the overall result of the total testing chain. As the measurement systems, reagents and procedures are gradually improved, work on the preanalytical, postanalytical and clinical phases is likely to pay the most substantial dividends in accomplishing further quality improvements. This means changing attitudes and behaviour, especially of the users of the laboratory. It requires understanding people and how to engage them in joint improvement processes. We need to use our knowledge and common sense expanded with new skills e.g. from the humanities, management, business and change sciences in order to bring this about together with the users of the laboratory.

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<![CDATA[Does Sitagliptin Affect the Rate of Osteoporotic Fractures in Type 2 Diabetes? Population-Based Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5afdab98463d7e0aa444c39d

Context:

Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis are both common, chronic, and increase with age, whereas type 2 diabetes is also a risk factor for major osteoporotic fractures (MOFs). However, different treatments for type 2 diabetes can affect fracture risk differently, with metaanalyses showing some agents increase risk (eg, thiazolidinediones) and some reduce risk (eg, sitagliptin).

Objective:

To determine the independent association between new use of sitagliptin and MOF in a large population-based cohort study.

Design, Setting, and Subjects:

A sitagliptin new user study design employing a nationally representative Unites States claims database of 72 738 insured patients with type 2 diabetes. We used 90-day time-varying sitagliptin exposure windows and controlled confounding by using multivariable analyses that adjusted for clinical data, comorbidities, and time-updated propensity scores.

Main Outcomes:

We compared the incidence of MOF (hip, clinical spine, proximal humerus, distal radius) in new users of sitagliptin vs nonusers over a median 2.2 years follow-up.

Results:

At baseline, the median age was 52 years, 54% were men, and median A1c was 7.5%. There were 8894 new users of sitagliptin and 63 834 nonusers with a total 181 139 person-years of follow-up. There were 741 MOF (79 hip fractures), with 53 fractures (4.8 per 1000 person-years) among new users of sitagliptin vs 688 fractures (4.0 per 1000 person-years) among nonusers (P = .3 for difference). In multivariable analyses, sitagliptin was not associated with fracture (adjusted hazard ratio 1.1, 95% confidence interval 0.8–1.4; P = .7), although insulin (P < .001), sulfonylureas (P < .008), and thiazolidinedione (P = .019) were each independently associated with increased fracture risk.

Conclusions:

Even in a young population with type 2 diabetes, osteoporotic fractures were not uncommon. New use of sitagliptin was not associated with fracture, but other commonly used second-line agents for type 2 diabetes were associated with increased risk. These data should be considered when making treatment decisions for those with type 2 diabetes at particularly high risk of fractures.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy of noninvasive hemoglobin and invasive point-of-care hemoglobin testing compared with a laboratory analyzer]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5adb4649463d7e752073225f

Introduction

Hemoglobin concentration is assessed to detect anemia and its associated morbidities. Hemoglobin is usually determined from venous or capillary blood samples run on a laboratory analyzer. However, this method requires a needle stick and results can be delayed. It also exposes caregivers to risks associated with needle sticks and blood exposure. Noninvasive hemoglobin determination would be of benefit to patients and caregivers because it would allow for quick and painless point-of-care assessment.

Methods

Hemoglobin determination from a noninvasive spot check hemoglobin device (Pronto-7 with SpHb, Masimo) and an invasive point-of-care device (HemoCue) was compared with venous blood samples run on a laboratory hematology analyzer.

Results

A total of 440 outpatients and healthy volunteers were included (mean age 36 years, 62% female). Compared with the hematology analyzer, the bias ± standard deviation of was −0.1 ± 1.1 g/dL for SpHb and −0.1 ± 1.6 g/dL for HemoCue.

Conclusion

Noninvasive hemoglobin testing with SpHb provided similar accuracy as invasive point-of-care hemoglobin testing and may enable more efficient and effective patient care.

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<![CDATA[Evaluation of an Immunochromatographic Assay for the Rapid and Simultaneous Detection of Rotavirus and Adenovirus in Stool Samples]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad46481463d7e32cdfeb93d

Background

We evaluated the analytical and clinical performances of the SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Rapid kit (SD Rota/Adeno Rapid; Standard Diagnostics, Inc., Korea), an immunochromatographic assay (ICA), for the simultaneous detection of rotaviruses and adenoviruses in human stool samples.

Methods

We tested 400 clinical stool samples from patients with acute gastroenteritis and compared the ICA results with the results obtained by using ELISA, enzyme-linked fluorescent assays (ELFA), PCR, and multiplex reverse transcription-PCR (mRT-PCR). To assess the analytical performance of the SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Rapid kit, we determined its detection limit, reproducibility, cross-reactivity, and analytical reactivity for adenovirus subtypes, and performed interference studies.

Results

The overall agreement rates among the tested methods were 91.5% for rotavirus and 85.5% for adenovirus. On the basis of mRT-PCR, the overall agreement, positive agreement, and negative agreement rates of the ICA were 95.6%, 100%, and 94.9% for rotavirus, and 94.0%, 71.4%, and 94.8% for adenovirus, respectively. Using the ICA, we detected all the subtypes of adenovirus tested, but the analytical reactivities for adenovirus subtypes were different between the 4 adenovirus detection methods. The high reproducibility was confirmed, and no cross-reactivity or interference was detected.

Conclusions

The SD BIOLINE Rota/Adeno Rapid kit showed acceptable analytical and clinical performances. However, interpretation of adenovirus positive/negative result should be cautious because of different detectability for adenovirus subtypes among adenovirus detection methods.

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<![CDATA[Ataxia-Telangiectasia with Novel Splicing Mutations in the ATM Gene]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad161a7463d7e0ad5dbd3cd ]]>