ResearchPad - Case Reports Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Ketogenic diet for treating alopecia in BCS1l‐related mitochondrial disease (Bjornstad syndrome)]]> <![CDATA[Developmental brain abnormalities and acute encephalopathy in a patient with myopathy with extrapyramidal signs secondary to pathogenic variants in MICU1]]> <![CDATA[Breast reconstruction in a patient with an implanted deep brain stimulator]]> <![CDATA[SUN-917 Aggressive De Novo MEN1 Variant in a Child with Metastatic Pancreatic Acth and Crh Co-Secreting Neuroendocrine Tumor: Diagnosis and 10-Year Follow Up]]>



In Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) only about 2% of pituitary adenomas are ACTH-secreting. Cushing Syndrome due to ectopic ACTH or CRH secretion from neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), carcinoid tumors, or pheochromocytomas is very rare, though patients with MEN1 are at increased risk for these three types of tumors, as well as autonomous adrenal secretion of cortisol. The 10-year follow up of a previously-reported case of a child with MEN1 and metastatic pancreatic ACTH/CRH-secreting NET is presented.

Clinical Case:

A previously-reported (J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 2015) now 21 yo female presented to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) at 11 yo with persistent hypercortisolemia despite transsphenoidal surgery for suspected Cushing Disease. However, the resected tissue revealed pituitary hyperplasia, and she remained hypercortisolemic. A CRH test was consistent with an ectopic source, and abdominal CT, PET scan, and Octreotide scan revealed a mass in the pancreatic tail. The patient underwent partial pancreatectomy at 11 yo with the resected tissue staining positive for ACTH and CRH. However, she remained hypercortisolemic, so bilateral adrenalectomy was performed. At 12 yo metastases were found, so Octreotide therapy was initiated. She continued to have elevated ACTH levels > 1000 pg/mL (5-46).

Additionally, a pituitary adenoma was noted at 12 yo, which has since increased in size. The patient also developed mild primary hyperparathyroidism, first noted at 19 yo. Sequencing of MEN1 for the patient and her parents revealed a de novo heterozygous c.1546dupC variant, consistent with sporadic MEN1. The patient also had a chromosome 8p23.2 duplication that was present in unaffected relatives.


While 2% of patients with MEN1 may develop Cushing Syndrome due to an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma, it is also important to consider ectopic secretion of ACTH/CRH from MEN1-associated NETs, carcinoid tumors, or pheochromocytomas, as well as autonomous adrenal secretion of cortisol. Given the early age and severe presentation of MEN1 features in this patient, the c.1546dupC heterozygous variant of MEN1, which has been previously reported in multiple other cases of MEN1, may represent a higher-risk causative variant of MEN1. Alternatively, expression of this variant may have been affected by the concurrent presence of an otherwise apparently benign chromosomal variant.


A. Karageorgiadis, G. Papadakis, J. Biro, M. Keil, C. Lyssikatos, M. Quezado, M. Merino, D. Schrump, E. Kebebew, N. Patronas, M. Hunter, M. Alwazeer, L. Karaviti, A. Balazs, M. Lodish, and C. Stratakis. Ectopic Adrenocorticotropic Hormone and Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Co-Secreting Tumors in Children and Adolescents Causing Cushing Syndrome: A Diagnostic Dilemma and How to Solve It. Clin Endocrinol Metab, January 2015, 100(1):141–148

<![CDATA[MON-238 A Diagnostic “Headache” in a Pregnant Woman with Diabetes Insipidus: Blame the Placenta or the Pituitary?]]>



Diabetes insipidus (DI) occurs in 1/30,000 pregnancies and can be difficult to recognize due to normal peripartum physiology. The most common etiology is excess production of placental vasopressinase, which degrades maternal anti-diuretic hormone. Although rare, hypothalamic and pituitary disorders must also be considered in pregnant patients presenting with DI. We present the case of a pregnant woman presenting with diabetes insipidus and pituitary apoplexy.

Clinical case

We were called to see a 33 year old female with polyuria and polydipsia on post-partum day #2. She had presented to the ED at 29.4 weeks of her 5th pregnancy (G5P4) with an unrelenting headache, nausea, and vomiting for 12 hours. She was tachycardic, hypertensive, and had no focal neurologic deficits. Fetal evaluation was reassuring. Admission labs included serum sodium of 147 mEq/L (n 136-145), serum potassium 2.8 mEq/L (n 3.4-4.4), and urine specific gravity of 1.003 (n 1.005-1.030). Glycemic parameters, renal function, and hepatic function were normal. She remained tachycardic despite vigorous IV fluid administration. Overnight into hospital day #3 she began to have uterine contractions with fetal decelerations, and betamethasone was given. It was noted that she had produced 8L of urine over the preceding 24 hours. Serum sodium was 159 mEq/L with urine osmolality of 78 mOsmol/kg (n 300-900). A presumptive diagnosis of gestational DI was made and 2 mcg of subcutaneous DDAVP was given. Shortly thereafter she delivered a healthy infant. Maternal blood loss was minimal. Over the next 12 hours her urine became concentrated and her serum sodium decreased, but by the next morning she re-developed dilute polyuria.

At the time of our evaluation, her headache had resolved and she had no focal neurologic deficits. She had no apparent signs of glucocorticoid or thyroxine deficiency but had not begun to lactate. Biochemical evaluation included early morning cortisol of 4.6 ug/dL (n 3.5-18.3), TSH 0.46 uIU/mL (n 0.35-4.94), free T4 0.76 ng/dL (n 0.70-1.48), and prolactin 26.6 ng/mL (n 5.2-26.5). Pituitary MRI showed a mildly enlarged gland with central T1 hyperintensity, consistent with apoplexy. A regimen of hydrocortisone and DDAVP was initiated.


Pituitary apoplexy is uncommon during pregnancy but is potentially life-threatening for the mother and fetus if it goes unrecognized. The significant physiologic growth of the pituitary during pregnancy may increase the risk of apoplexy. A severe headache is the most common symptom and may be accompanied by signs of pituitary dysfunction. Although diabetes insipidus is more often caused by placental physiology, pituitary apoplexy must also be considered in a pregnant woman who has concurrent neurologic symptoms.

<![CDATA[MON-480 Isolated Hyperthyroxinemia - Does Everyone Needs Treatment?]]>


Background: Raised free thyroxine (T4) with normal thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels should be identified and interpreted with caution. Some of these conditions do not need treatment. We present three cases with similar biochemical abnormalities from three different causes.

Case 1: A 62-year-old clinically asymptomatic lady was referred to us with Free T4 34.9 pmol/L (10.0 – 24.0 pmol/L), TSH 0.81 mU/L (0.2 – 5.0 mu/L) and negative TSH receptor antibodies (<0.9 IU/L). She was trialled on antithyroid drugs for 6 months. Her Free T4 stayed elevated between 29.0 – 35.0 pmol/L with normal TSH. We worked up for assay interference by running tests on two analysers, Roche Cobas e801 and Siemens ADIVA Centaur CP, both yielded similar results. Alpha1 glycoprotein subunits and SHBG were normal with clinical euthyroid status making TSHoma less likely. Serum protein electrophoresis did not detect any abnormal albumin. We were unable to perform equilibrium dialysis due to non-availability of facility at our centre. Due to strong clinical suspicion and family history of thyroid dysfunction that never needed a treatment, we tested her genetically for familial dysalbumineic hyperthyroxinemia (FDH) using mutation surveyor and fluorescent sequence analysis showed her to be heterozygous for c.725G>A ALB variant confirming diagnosis of FDH.

Case 2: A 65-year-old clinically asymptomatic lady, was referred to us with Free T4 28.8 pmol/L (10.0 – 24.0 pmol/L) and TSH 2.50 mU/L (0.2 – 5.0 mu/L). Given inappropriately normal TSH levels, we repeated her TFTs using 3 different analysers, Roche cobas e801, Siemens ADIVA centaur CP and Abbot ARCHITECT i1000SR. Roche and Siemens assays yielded similar results, however Abbot assay showed normal thyroid function tests with TSH 1.01 mu/L (0.4-5.0 mu/L) and free T4 18.7pmol/L (9.0-19.0 pmol/L), confirming assay interference. As Siemens and Roche uses streptavidin-biotin immobilizing system while Abbot uses a magnetic bead-based capture system, the abnormal results could be due to biotin interference.

Case 3: A 65-year-old lady, clinically asymptomatic was referred to us with Free T4 29.2 pmol/L (10.0 – 24.0 pmol/L) and TSH 1.59 mU/L (0.2 – 5.0 mu/L), 3 months after stopping amiodarone, which she took for 3 weeks for atrial fibrillation. This was thought to be due to amiodarone, owing to its long half-life of 58 days. We repeated thyroid function tests in 3 months from first clinical encounter i.e. 6 months after stopping amiodarone that showed Free T4 24.2pmol/L and TSH 2.30 mU/L and repeated further 3 months later that were normal, confirming amiodarone induced abnormal biochemical profile requiring no treatment.

Conclusion: Hyperthyroxinaemia with normal TSH need to be interpreted with caution as illustrated above. Some of them do not need treatment and inappropriate interpretation can potentially cause anxiety for the patient and harm due to unnecessary treatment.

<![CDATA[SUN-163 Metastatic Spindle Cell Sarcoma Unmasked by Bilateral Adrenal Hemorrhage Resulting in Adrenal Insufficiency]]>



Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is rare and can be life-threatening when bilateral AH causes adrenal insufficiency (AI). Risk factors include trauma, stress, sepsis, anticoagulant and antiplatelet use, hematologic disorders, and underlying adrenal tumors. We describe a patient whose bilateral AH led to a diagnosis of an underlying malignancy and caused AI.

Clinical case:

A 71-year-old man with well-controlled HIV presented with fatigue, weight loss, and acute lower abdominal pain.

Four months prior to presentation, he underwent hip arthroplasty. His post-operative course was complicated by multiple pulmonary emboli and a new left 11.6 x 7.3 x 8.9 cm cystic retroperitoneal lesion with a density of 29 Hounsfield units on CT, thought to be a pancreatic pseudocyst or adrenal or retroperitoneal hemorrhage. Since the size remained stable on repeat CT three days later, he was discharged on rivaroxaban. On the day of presentation, he acutely developed severe abdominal and back pain. CT scan revealed a new 8.0 x 7.8 x 7.8 cm right adrenal collection and increased size of the prior left adrenal lesion to 13.1 x 10.6 x 13.0 cm. MRI confirmed bilateral adrenal masses with intralesional AH, as well as numerous peritoneal and retroperitoneal implants not noted on prior imaging.

He remained stable and was managed non-operatively. Sodium (Na) and potassium (K) ranged 134-138 mmol/L (135-145) and 3.7-4.3 mmol/L (3.5-5.1), respectively. On presentation, morning cortisol and ACTH were 11 ug/dL and 27 ng/L (6-50), respectively, with an undetectable aldosterone and PRA 0.65 ng/mL/hr (0.25-5.8). Subsequent ACTH levels were 71 and 102 ng/L, and cortisol levels were 12 and 14 ug/dL. ACTH-stimulated cortisol was 15 ug/dL and free cortisol was 0.88 ug/dL. Plasma metanephrines were normal. Hydrocortisone was started and anticoagulation was held indefinitely. Biopsy of a retroperitoneal implant revealed metastatic spindle cell sarcoma.

Three weeks later, given a persistently low Na of 134 mmol/L and increased K of 4.7 mmol/L, although blood pressure and heart rate were normal, he was empirically started on fludrocortisone. He followed up with oncology and was started on palliative chemotherapy.

Clinical lessons:

AH should prompt evaluation for an underlying etiology. In our patient, we suspect he already had a unilateral adrenal metastasis causing the initial unilateral AH, as he had no other risk factor. Four months later, the subsequent bilateral AH was likely caused by further metastatic spread and exacerbated by anticoagulation therapy.

This case also suggests that AH may preferentially affect the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex and cause glucocorticoid deficiency, a phenomenon which has been noted on prior case reports. Our patient only needed hydrocortisone replacement initially, followed by fludrocortisone replacement three weeks later.

<![CDATA[MON-903 Sporadic Phaeochromocytoma, Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumour and a Sacral Hibernoma: A Case Report]]>


Most phaeochromocytomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are sporadic in nature however the presence of multiple neuroendocrine tumours raises the suspicion of a hereditary endocrinopathy. Hibernomas, benign tumours that morphologically resemble brown fat, do not possess a clear aetiology and a link with other neuroendocrine tumours remains unclear. We report an unusual case of a concurrent sporadic phaeochromocytoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine tumour and a sacral hibernoma. A 61 year old female presented with a 3 month history of abdominal pain which led to the discovery of a lesion in her right adrenal gland and a soft tissue mass at the pancreatic tail on a CT Abdomen. The adrenal lesion was biochemically suggestive of a phaeochromocytoma (plasma normetanephrine 4930 pmol/L, plasma 3-methoxytyramine 580 pmol/L, urinary noradrenaline 5564 pmol/day, urinary dopamine 4720 nmol/day). A 68Ga-DOTATATE-PET-CT scan revealed DOTATATE avid lesions in the right adrenal gland, tail of pancreas and right sacral ala. Following preoperative medical therapy, the patient underwent a right adrenalectomy and a resection of the distal pancreatic lesion.Histopathology confirmed a phaeochromocytoma with no conscipicouous mitotic activity, and the pancreatic tail lesion was consistent with a well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumour (NET) (Ki-67 score <3%). Following normalisation of the serum catecholamines, a biopsy of the sacral lesion was undertaken, which returned positive for a hibernoma. Genetic testing revealed no identifiable genetic mutations.This case reports the synchronous presence of a phaeochromocytoma, pancreatic NET and sacral hibernoma with no identifiable genetic mutation. To date, the association between hibernomas and neuroendocrine tumours has not been fully established, but a few case reports suggest a possible association between MEN1 and hibernomas.

<![CDATA[SUN-288 Atypical Teratoid Rhabdoid Tumor of the Sellar Region: An Unusual Cause of Hypopituitarism]]>


Background: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid (AT/RT) tumor of the sellar region is an extremely rare malignant tumor in adults. To date, there are no definitive guidelines for optimal treatment and the prognosis of this tumor is poor. The pituitary insufficiency was rarely mentioned in previous literature and might be overlooked.

Clinical case: A 43 years old female presented to our clinic with severe periorbital pain. The magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a 1.5x1.5x 3 cm sellar mass which showed inhomogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration. Hormonal work up showed 8AM cortisol of 1.86 mcg/dL, free T4 1.0 (0.8–1.8 ng/dL), TSH 0.05 (0.3 - 4.1 uIU/ml), FSH 6.0 (1.6–9.3 IU/L), LH 1.8 (2.4–9.3 IU/L), estradiol <18.35 (80–790 pmole/L), IGF-1 96.6 (50.6–263.7 ng/ml), prolactin 56.6 ng/ml.

She underwent transsphenoidal surgery with tumor removal. The pathological result showed a mixture of pleomorphic spindle cell, oval shape tumor and poorly differentiated cell. The tumor was negative for INI1 (SMARCB1) compatible with AT/RT WHO grade IV. She developed pan hypopituitarism after surgery. She received 6 courses of 5950 cGy/25 fractions cranial irradiation and 6 courses of ifosfamide, cisplatin and etoposide. She completed the treatment regimen without significant toxicity. She continued hormonal replacement for panhypopituitarism and is still being followed at our clinic for 4 years without tumor progression or other complications.

In previously reported cases, all of the sellar AT/RT were female with a median age of 45 years old (range 20–61). The clinical presentations are rapidly enlarged sellar mass with compressive symptoms to the adjacent structures. The radiological findings of sellar AT/RT are non-specific. The diagnosis is based on histopathological findings. Presence of rhabdoid cells on histopathology and polyphenotypic immunopositivity for epithelial, mesenchymal, and neuroectodermal markers along with loss of expression of SMARCB1/INI1 help in establishing a diagnosis of AT/RT.

Currently, there are no definitive guidelines for optimal treatment. Multimodality treatment consisted of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy are the mainstays of treatment of the AT/RT. Of the 16 adults reported in the literature, 9 patients survived more than 12 months resulted in 47% of one-year survival rate. To our knowledge, this case is the sellar AT/RT with the longest survival to date.

Conclusion: AT/RT is one of the most aggressive tumors in the sellar area. Due to its aggressiveness, hypopituitarism is anticipated. Our patient had postoperative secondary adrenal insufficiency, secondary hypothyroid and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Apart from multimodality treatment required for tumor control, pituitary hormones should be evaluated preoperatively to prevent perioperative mortality and long-term improvement in the quality of life.

<![CDATA[SUN-516 Unplanned Pregnancy Post Thyroid RAI Ablation]]>


A patient’s pregnancy and fetus are at an increased risk for complications secondary to history of recent RAI ablation and maternal secondary hypothyroidism.

A 31 year old female with a recent history of miscarriage presented with abnormal thyroid function tests and was history of low dose levothyroxine use. She complained of a 3 month history of extreme fatigue, palpitations and 18 pound weight loss at the time of presentation. Her thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin was 9.21 IU/L (0-0.55), free thyroxine 6.2ng/dL (0.9-1.8), free triiodothyronine 20.04 pg/mL (1.8-4.6) with a suppressed TSH 0.01 uIU/ml (0.27 - 4.2). She was started on methimazole. Her 24 hour radioactive iodine uptake was 60% and she subsequently underwent radioactive iodine-131 ablation in capsule form. She failed the ablation after 7 months and remained on methimazole during that duration. Her second radioactive iodine uptake was 58% and she underwent a second RAI ablation. Her TSH was 50 uIU/ml and her free thyroxine was 0.1 ng/dl. She was started on levothyroxine for replacement. Patient unexpectedly became pregnant approximately six weeks after her radioactive iodine treatment.

Studies have shown that with the exception of miscarriages, there is no evidence that exposure to radioiodine affects the outcome of subsequent pregnancies and offspring. Although the number of children born of mothers exposed to radioiodine is relatively small, the present data indicates that there is no reason for patients exposed to radioiodine to avoid pregnancy. The only adverse effect observed in the study series is an increased incidence of miscarriages in women exposed to therapeutic radioiodine during the year which preceded conception. The fetus would be at risk due to maternal hypothyroidism.

Discussion: Radioactive iodine exposure does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage or abnormal subsequent pregnancies.

Conclusion: Pregnancies achieved after exposure to radioactive iodine treatment do not appear to be at increased risk for negative outcomes. Nevertheless, it is recommended that pregnancy be avoided for 1 year following radioactive iodine therapy to allow reproductive function to normalize.

<![CDATA[SAT-379 Giant Parathyroid Adenoma]]>


Giant parathyroid adenoma

Background: Primary hyperparathyroidism is the most common cause of hypercalcemia. On ultrasound PTH adenomas are typically homogenous, hypoechoic, oval or bean-shaped with peripheral vascularity.

Clinical Case: A 60 year old woman with a history of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis presented with fatigue, worsening depression, body aches of 3 months duration. Labs showed a serum calcium 11.1 mg/dl (normal range 8.5–10.1 mg/dl), PTH 114.3 pg/ml (normal range 12–88 pg/ml), 25 OH Vitamin D 11 ng/ml (normal range above 29 ng/ml), alkaline phosphatase 137IU/L (normal range 27–120 IU/L), spot urine calcium 34.8 mg/dl, spot urine creatinine 92.1 mg/dl (estimated 24 hour urine calcium 415 mg/dl). She was started on Vitamin D 1000 IU daily. A PTH scan with SPECT/CT showed a right parathyroid adenoma and possible thyroid nodules. A neck ultrasound demonstrated a left 1.5 cm thyroid nodule and a right 3cm lesion. She underwent FNA of the left thyroid nodule and pathology was suggestive of a benign follicular nodule. She underwent parathyroid gland exploration with resection of the right lesion which was a 3.5 x 2.5 x 1.4 cm right superior 5.68 gm PTH adenoma. Postoperatively her serum calcium normalized to 10.1 mg/dl, PTH was 8.4 pg/ml, 25 OH vitamin D was 15 ng/ml. Her Vitamin D dose was increased.

Clinical Lessons: A normal parathyroid gland typically weighs 30–60 mg and is 3–4 mm in size. The differential diagnosis for large parathyroid lesions is parathyroid carcinoma vs giant parathyroid adenoma. Although there is not a definitive size cutoff to define giant parathyroid adenomas, a size greater than 3.5 gm has been used (1). On ultrasound giant parathyroid adenomas are homogenous with smooth borders whereas parathyroid carcinomas are large lobulated heterogeneous hypoechoic lesions (2). A depth/width ratio on ultrasound may be the ultrasound parameter with greatest discriminatory capacity as a depth/width ratio greater than or equal to 1 had 94% sensitivity and 95% specificity for parathyroid carcinoma (2). Whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for the development of large parathyroid glands is controversial as there has been conflicting data on this (1,3). Because there is no serum calcium level that distinguishes parathyroid carcinoma from a parathyroid adenoma neck ultrasound may be a helpful tool in evaluating these patients.


1. Spanhemier PM, Stoltze AJ, Howe JR, et al. Do giant PTH adenomas represent a distinct clinical entity? Surgery. 2013 Oct; 154(4):714–719.

2. Hara H, Igarashi A, Yano Y, et al. Ultrasonagraphic features of PTH carcinoma. Endocr J. 2001 April 48(2):213–217.

3. Rao DS, Honasoge M, Divine GW, et al. Effect of vitamin D nutrition on PTH adenoma weight: pathogenetic and clinical implications. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Mar 85(3): 1054–1058.

<![CDATA[SUN-483 A Retrospective Diagnosis of Malignant Struma Ovarii After Discovery of Pulmonary Metastases]]>


Background: Malignant struma ovarii is a rare ovarian tumor that is histologically identical to differentiated thyroid carcinoma.1 We present a case of a struma ovarii that was recognized as being malignant only after the discovery of pulmonary metastases.

Clinical Case: A 29 year old female presented to the hospital with acute right lower abdominal pain, suspicious for ovarian torsion. She underwent urgent right salpingoopherectomy and pathology demonstrated a mature cystic teratoma with benign struma ovarii. Two years later, a CT of the abdomen incidentally revealed bilateral pulmonary nodules. Review of the imaging showed that these pulmonary nodules were also present two years prior, and had since become larger. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was performed and lung biopsy was positive for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The patient then underwent total thyroidectomy which revealed a 0.3 x 0.3 cm infiltrative papillary thyroid cancer, follicular variant, without lymphovascular invasion. Thyroglobulin level decreased from 169 ng/mL pre-operatively to 80 ng/mL post-operatively, but then continued to be variable ranging from 56 to 252 ng/mL (1.6-50 ng/mL). Thyroglobulin antibodies remained negative.

Pathology from right ovary was re-reviewed at a second institution and found to be consistent with highly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with characteristic nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

A diagnostic whole body I-131 scan showed uptake within the thyroid bed, bilateral lung nodules, left distal thigh and right mid thigh. These thigh lesions were not visualized on lower extremity ultrasound. After dosimetry was performed, the patient received radioactive iodine-131 200 mCI. Post-therapy scan six days later demonstrated uptake in the thyroid bed, bilateral lungs and bilateral thighs. About five months later, thyroglobulin level had decreased to 0.4 ng/mL with a suppressed TSH. A repeat CT chest demonstrated that the lung nodules had all decreased in size, largest from 0.5 cm to 0.3 cm.

Conclusion: Careful examination of struma ovarii pathology should be performed to evaluate for malignant features since benign appearing histology can present diagnostic difficulty.2 In this case, thyroglobulin level was lower than reported in previous cases; however, sites of metastases were responsive to radioactive iodine therapy indicating well differentiated disease and a favorable prognosis.

References: 1. Goffredo P, Sawka AM, Pura J, Adam MA, Roman SA, Sosa JA. Malignant Struma Ovarii: A Population-Level Analysis of a Large Series of 68 Patients. Thyroid. 2015:25(2): 211-216.

2. Roth LM, Miller AW, Talerman A. Typical Thyroid-Type Carcinoma Arising in Struma Ovarii: A Report of 4 Cases and Review of Literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008:27(4): 496-506.

<![CDATA[MON-345 Hypercalcemia After Placement of Antibiotic-Loaded Calcium Sulfate Beads]]>


Calcium sulfate beads are used to fill bone voids in bone loss and nonunion, as well as in the management of bone and joint infections.1 Specifically, Stimulan® is an absorbed form of antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads which delivers high local antibiotic concentrations for treatment of infection, but has also been associated with hypercalcemia in 5.4% of cases.1 Despite the significant morbidity associated with hypercalcemia, there is little published literature describing this important complication.

In our institution, five patients hospitalized between March 2019 and September 2019 with normal baseline calcium levels developed hypercalcemia as a complication of Stimulan® placement. Typically, 10 to 60 cc of Stimulan® were inserted in each surgery, with the exception of 120cc in one surgery. Three patients required a second surgery with antibiotic bead placement, and hypercalcemia occurred with both initial and subsequent surgeries. The onset of hypercalcemia varied from post-operative day one to four. The peak corrected calcium was 10.7-16.1 mg/dL which corresponded to ionized calcium of 1.57 to >2.20 mmol/L (normal 1.09-1.29 mmol/L). The patient with the highest bead volume had the highest calcium. Calcium peaked on post-operative days three to five. Patients were treated with intravenous fluids, furosemide, calcitonin and anti-resorptives including denosumab and zoledronic acid. Four patients required hemodialysis. Three patients required dialysis for symptomatic hypercalcemia and in one patient the indication was multifactorial. Calcium typically normalized by post-operative day 14 to 21, but hypercalcemia duration was unknown in two patients (one died; one had hypercalcemia on hospital discharge).

As illustrated in our cases, patients who develop hypercalcemia after their initial antibiotic bead placement may be at risk for recurrent hypercalcemia if additional surgeries use antibiotic beads. Higher bead volume may be associated with more significant hypercalcemia.1 Although previous cases have reported milder hypercalcemia, our cases demonstrate that hypercalcemia can be more severe and prolonged, necessitating dialysis in addition to traditional therapies. 1-3


1.Kallala R, Harris WE, Ibrahim M, Dipane M, McPherson E. Use of Stimulan absorbable calcium sulphate beads in revision lower limb arthroplasty: Safety profile and complication rates. Bone Joint Res. 2018 Nov 3;7(10):570-579.

2.Kallala R, Haddad FS. Hypercalcaemia following the use of antibiotic-eluting absorbable calcium sulphate beads in revision arthroplasty for infection. Bone Joint J. 2015 Sep;97-B(9):1237-41.

3.Carlson Jr. CR, Markulis E, Thompson E, Havill J. A novel case of hypercalcemia following the use of calcium sulfate beads. Nephrol Open J. 2015; 1(1): 17-19.

<![CDATA[Bronchogenic cysts mimicking thymoma in the anterior mediastinum]]>


Bronchogenic cysts are commonly located in the middle mediastinal compartment as fluid‐filled cysts and thymoma is one of the most common neoplasms in the anterior mediastinum in adult cases. For two cases of asymptomatic, incidentally discovered anterior mediastinal soft tissue mass in adults, we planned to perform complete thymectomy with minimally invasive techniques based on the guidelines of International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group. Their pathological finding revealed cystic lesions lined by ciliated epithelium and this supported the diagnosis of bronchogenic cyst rather than thymic neoplasm. We report the two cases of resected bronchogenic cysts which were in the unusual location of anterior mediastinum with uncommon radiological feature.

<![CDATA[MON-256 A Late-Onset Case of Sheehan’s Syndrome Presenting as Life Threatening Adrenal Insufficiency]]>



Sheehan’s syndrome or postpartum pituitary necrosis, is an important but rare cause of hypopituitarism, caused due to severe postpartum hemorrhage. Seen more commonly in the developing world, it is less common in developed countries due to advanced obstetric practices. It can present acutely but more frequently has an insidious course (onset 10-20 years later) with variable hormonal deficiencies. Here, we report a late-onset case of Sheehan’s syndrome, 24 years after the incident event, presenting as life threatening adrenal failure.


A 48-year-old female with no significant past medical history was admitted to the hospital after being found unresponsive at home. She had not seen a physician for many years. She complained of weakness and lethargy for a week and recently established care with a primary care physician. The patient was severely hypotensive in the emergency department and had an elevated temperature of 101°F. Physical examination showed no significant abnormalities. CBC and metabolic panel were not significantly altered. CSF analysis and CSF/blood cultures were negative for any infection. TSH was 4.29 mIU/mL (0.27-4.20) but the total and free T4 (fT4) were severely low at 1.1 mcg/mL (4.6-12) and 0.24 ng/dL (0.93-1.70) respectively. On further questioning, patient reported severe postpartum hemorrhage 24 years ago, needing multiple units of blood transfusion. This was followed by inability to lactate and menstruate but was never worked up as she had not seen any physician all these years. Pituitary hormonal panel was obtained, demonstrating multiple hormonal deficiencies with fT4 severely low at 0.24 ng/dL, ACTH of 2.6 pg/mL (7.2-63.3), prolactin (PRL) 1 ng/mL (4.8-23.3) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) low at 10 ng/mL (56-194). Cortisol level was elevated in the hospital due to administration of high dose IV steroids but a morning cortisol level obtained 1 week prior by her primary was 1.5 mcg/dL (10-20). Estradiol levels were low with FSH and LH levels inappropriately normal. MRI of the pituitary was obtained which showed an empty sella turcica. Patient was diagnosed as late-onset Sheehan’s syndrome. She was started on hormone replacement with hydrocortisone followed by levothyroxine and had marked improvement in her symptoms. She continues to do well.


Our patient presented late due to lack of medical care and awareness. A great number of patients with Sheehan’s diseasae go undiagnosed due to subtle clinical presentations, thus delaying treatment. It is imperative to diagnose this condition timely with appropriate obstetric/gynecological history and clinical suspicion to avoid late manifestations of the disease, especially adrenal crisis. Patients at risk need long term follow-up. Early treatment is necessary to improve quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

<![CDATA[SUN-155 A Complex Case of Adrenal Insufficiency Associated with NLRP1 Gene Mutation in a Patient with Myopathy and Mitochondrial Cytopathy]]>


Most cases of Addison’s disease are due to an autoimmune response, with the most commonly associated genes belonging to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. Genome wide association studies have shown a significant association of variants of Nuclear Localization Leucine-Rich-Repeat Protein 1 (NLRP1) with Addison’s disease. NLRP1 protein is involved in the assembly of inflammasome which promotes the secretion of interleukin-1β, interleukin-18 and downstream inflammatory responses to regulate inflammation. With underlying myopathy and mitochondrial disease, coexisting adrenal insufficiency may be challenging to identify. A 36-year-old female presented for evaluation of fatigue, myalgia, and dyspnea for several years. She carried a diagnosis of asthma, myopathy, gastroparesis requiring a gastric stimulator, and recently diagnosed adrenal insufficiency secondary to long term fluticasone use. Beside low blood pressure of 91/64 millimetres of mercury, physical exam was unremarkable. Lab findings were significant for dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) of 7.0 micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL), Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) of 7.2 picograms per milliliter and cortisol of 1.4 mcg/dL. Adrenal insufficiency was confirmed with cosyntropin stimulation test. Methacholine challenge test showed worsening asthma. She was managed with empiric stress dose steroids when indicated. Muscle fatigue progressed despite taking ubiquinol, B100 and carnitine. She was further evaluated with muscle biopsy that showed type two fiber atrophy. Muscle coenzyme Q10 was 0.08 mcg/dL, and citrate synthase was 50% of normal, insufficient for electron transport complex I. Whole exome sequencing showed mutations in NLRP1 in addition to Myosin Heavy Chain 2 (MYH2) and Sodium voltage-gated Channel alpha subunit 4 (SCN4a) both of which are associated with myopathy. She was then started on a short-acting glucocorticoid regimen. While her adrenal insufficiency was initially thought to be secondary to inhaled steroids, subsequent mutation analysis suggested that she was prone to autoimmunity. This case illustrates the association of adrenal insufficiency with NLRP1 mutation. Furthermore, the symptoms of adrenal insufficiency and myopathy can overlap making it difficult to delineate. While so far most studies have dealt with mitochondrial myopathies due to deletions or point mutations in the mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), a new field of investigation is that of syndromes due to mutations in the nuclear DNA.

<![CDATA[SAT-498 Graves’-Associated Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: An Uncommon Condition]]>


Introduction Graves’ disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes excess thyroid hormone (T4 and T3). T4 is converted into T3 (active hormone) in the peripheral tissues by the deiodinase enzyme. T3 has an effect on the cardiac electrical system as well as myocyte contractility. Excess T3 can result in cardiac arrythmias as well as ventricular dysfunction (heart failure). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a subtype of nonischemic cardiomyopathy related to severe physiologic or mental stress. Excess catecholamine levels have been reported to cause this disease as well. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy has rarely been reported in Graves’-associated thyrotoxicosis.

Case report 55-year-old female who presented to the ED with palpitations and difficulty breathing. She had been seen by her PCP within the past two weeks with complaint of recent 30 lb weight. TSH was noted to be < 0.001 and a neck ultrasound revealed a diffusely enlarged, hypervascular thyroid. She was referred for outpatient endocrinology consultation for further workup. Prior to her initial endocrinology appointment, she developed palpitations and shortness of breath. She did not have any known family history of thyroid disease or other autoimmune conditions. She drinks 1-2 glasses of wine per week and quit smoking in 2017. Physical exam on admission revealed a heart rate of 133 bpm and a blood pressure of 145/93, normal temperature, and normal respirations. Thyroid was diffusely enlarged and without nodularity. No evidence of orbitopathy. Heart was tachycardic but without murmur. Lungs clear. Abdomen soft, nontender. No significant peripheral edema or pretibial rash. No neurological dysfunction. Labs revealed TSH < 0.001, Free T4 > 7.77, Free T3 12.0, TRAb 44.4%, TSI 433%, Anti-TPO 614, high-sensitivity troponin of 112. EKG showed nonspecific infero-lateral T wave changes, rate 123. Echocardiogram demonstrated left ventricular apical hypokinesis but preserved basilar contractility. Ejection fraction was estimated at 40-45%. Nuclear stress test did not reveal any indication of myocardial hypoperfusion.

Discussion/Conclusion Takotsubo cardiomyopathy can mimic acute myocardial infarction both clinically as well as on EKG/serum biomarkers. Troponin levels are typically elevated as a result of myocardial stretch and subsequent troponin “leak”. Echocardiogram demonstrates apical ballooning of the left ventricle, and by definition coronary arteries will be free of significant occlusive disease. A small number of cases have been reported in association with endocrine conditions including thyrotoxicosis due to Graves’ disease. The majority of cases associated with thyrotoxicosis will resolve spontaneously with 1-3 weeks. Treatment consists of medication to decrease cardiac preload as well as afterload (ACE inhibitor, beta blocker, diuresis as needed), similar to medical treatment of other nonischemic cardiomyopathies.

<![CDATA[MON-376 Head to Toe Hyperparathyroidism - Impending Hyperparathyroid Crisis and Subsequent Crystal Arthropathies]]>


The myriad of presentations associated with PHP are well established, however gout is not commonly associated with this disease. Additionally, it is unusual to see multiple threatening and potentially debilitating complications occur concurrently in one patient.

An asymptomatic elderly male with hypertension presented to the PCP for the first time and was found on routine blood work to have a serum creatinine of 4.03 mg/dl, a serum calcium of 12.1mg/dl, and a PTH of 831.7ng/L. Subsequent Tc-99 Sestamibi scanning suggested that the source was both a single right inferior parathyroid adenoma and an ectopic mediastinal adenoma. At the initial encounter the patient’s hypercalcemia was treated with IV fluid resuscitation and calcitonin then subsequently cinacalcet. Renal ultrasound at that time showed normal sized kidneys with several cysts, and phosphate levels ranged from 2.0-3.9 mg/dl (range 2.5-4.5mg/dl. The patient’s serum calcium was controlled at 10.44mg/dl, and his renal function improved to a serum creatinine of 3.08mg/dl. Prior to discharge patient developed acute left knee pain, and was found to have an inflammatory arthritis, with urate crystals seen. The patient was diagnosed with an acute gout flare, which responded well to colchicine and was discharged. The patient eventually underwent parathyroidectomy, which showed a large 4cm left superior parathyroid as well as a large right superior parathyroid gland extending into the mediastinum. Pathology was consistent with parathyroid hyperplasia. After surgery, the patient developed hungry bone syndrome, with an admitting serum level calcium of 6.05mg/dl, serum magnesium of 2.00mg/dl, serum phosphorus of 2.8mg/dl, and serum potassium of 5.1mg/dl, with clinical features of tetany and weakness that resolved after two days with calcium and calcitriol administration. He again had an acute monoarticular arthritis prior to discharge that had both urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in the joint fluid and again responded well to colchicine and glucocorticoids. He was eventually discharged on vitamin D and calcium supplementation, with cinacalcet and colchicine.

This case illustrates the multiple clinical teaching points that exist in primary hyperparathyroidism, including both types of presentation and potential complications. It also expresses the need to be vigilant of some rarer clinical features, such as potential hyperparathyroid crisis and multiple enlarged parathyroid glands. Physicians should also be wary of both gout and CPPD, as well as complications that occur post parathyroidectomy such as hungry bone syndrome.

<![CDATA[MON-911 Debilitating Neuropsychiatry Symptoms in Pancreatic Insulinoma Co-Secreting Serotonin and IGF-1]]>



Insulinoma is the most common type of functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). Polyhormonal secretions from the NET, giving rise to distinct clinical symptoms such as carcinoid symptoms are rare. Clinical Case: We report a 68-year-old woman who presented with four months history of recurrent diaphoresis, palpitations, tremors and chest tightness. These were associated with episodic paroxysms of flushing and diarrhoea. The physical examination was unremarkable. She was a well-nourished woman with BMI of 28 kg/m2. Initial laboratory tests ruled out any renal, liver abnormalities with normal cortisol and thyroid function test. Further evaluation confirms insulin mediated hypoglycaemia with low random blood sugar 2.5 mmol/l (4.4-7.8) and failure to suppress C-peptide, 1092 pmol/L (298-2350) and insulin levels, 12.7 mU/L (3-25). Urine 5-HIAA was markedly elevated 2430.37 µmol/day (3.66-42.89) with borderline elevation of serum chromogranin A level 122 ng/mL (27-94). IGF-1 was also raised at 416 ug/L (91-282). Two months later she presented with new onset of delirium, incoherence, agitation and restlessness independent of her hypoglycaemic events. These symptoms deteriorated and fluctuates throughout the day with period of normalcy in between. This has led to requirement of a full time caregiver for her. Cranial CT excluded any brain pathology. We are faced with a diagnostic challenge to localize the primary lesion as radiological imaging so far were normal. GALLIUM-68 PET CT showed physiological uptake in the uncinate process of the pancreas (SUVmax 14.4). Endoscopic ultrasound of the pancreas was normal. An intra-arterial calcium stimulation test with hepatic venous sampling (ASVS) confirms a lesion at the head of pancreas with two times increment of insulin from baseline at the gastroduodenal artery distribution. Despite elimination of hypoglycaemic events with Diazoxide 100mg twice daily, her neuropsychiatric symptoms persisted. We postulate that this might be from excessive peripheral production of serotonin by the pancreatic carcinoid tumour or a niacin deficiency state because of metabolic diversion of its precursor, tryptophan. Conclusion:

This case highlights the occurrence of debilitating neuropsychiatry manifestations in a likely neuroendocrine tumour arising from the head of pancreas secreting insulin, serotonin and IGF-1.

<![CDATA[SUN-905 A Case of Adrenal Cushings a Primary Hyperparathyroidism]]>


We present the case of a 31 year old female referred with weight gain, secondary amenorrhea, facial plethora and buffalo hump x6-9/12. Background medical history of caesarean section. She was on no regular medications. She rarely consumed alcohol. There was no relevant family history.

She experienced secondary amenorrhea x6/12. Her menarche was at the age of 14 and had regular periods thereafter. She had gained 13kg over the previous 9/12. Examination revealed an intrascapular fat pad, abdominal striae and facial plethora. Her BP was 150/87.

Initial investigations were as follows: Overnight DST: Cortisol 642 nmol/L, DHEAS <0.4 µmol/L, hCG <1 U/L, TSH 0.71 mIU/L, FT4 15.1 pmol/L, Prolactin 380 mIU/L, IGF-I 152 µg/L, FSH 4.4 IU/L, LH 3.0 IU/L, oestradiol <100 pmol/L, 17-OH Progesterone <1.0 nmol/L. She then underwent a low dose 48 hour dexamethasone suppression test the results showed: Cortisol Day 1(time 0) 704 nmol/L, Day 2 (time 24 hours) 702nmol/L, Day 3 (time 48 hours) 703 nmol/L and paired ACTH 1.4ng/L.

She was admitted from clinic with BP 189/107 and was started on metyrapone and ramipril. On this admission her bloods showed calcium 2.70 mmol/L, iPTH 113.5 ng/L, 25 (OH) D27nmol/L. Ct abdomen and pelvis revealed a 3.3x2.2 cm right adrenal lesion with hounsfeld units <10 and unremarkable left adrenal. ARR, plasma metanephrines and HbA1c were all normal. The case was discussed at MDM and referred for retroperitoneal laprascopic right adrenalectomy. She was discharged day 2 post op off anti hypertensives and on hydrocortisone 10mg/5mg/5mg. Histology confirmed adrenocortical adenoma and Ki67 <5%.

Synacthen test done one month post operatively showed time 0 cortisol 35 nmol/L, time 30 cortisol 56 nmol/L, time 60 cortisol 60 nmol/L and time 0 ACTH 51 ng/L. Post operatively her menses returned.

When vitamin D replete, we re-evaluated her hypercalcemia. This revealed 2.77 mmol/L, iPTH 100.7ng/L, calcium: creatinine ratio 0.72 mmol/mol. She had an ultrasound neck and sestamibi which both lateralised to right lower lobe of thyroid. A synacthen test was repeated which revealed time 0 cortisol 183 nmol/L and ACTH 44 ng/L, time 30 cortisol 258 nmol/L and time 60 cortisol 302 nmol/L. She was referred for 4 gland exploration with intra operative PTH. Her baseline intra operative PTH was 193 ng/L and her 10 minute post excision value was 55 ng/L which demonstrates a 65% drop in concentration and intra operative PTH returned to within the reference interval.

The histology was atypical displaying extension of the tumour through the capsule and possible vascular extension. Ki 67 was <2%. It has been sent to St. Guy’s and Thomas’ for a second opinion. Her calcium and iPTH returned to normal post operatively. MEN1 and CDKN1B genes were negative. We’re awaiting gene sequencing on the following - RET, CDC73, CASR, CDKNIA, CDKN2C AND CDKN2B. This case represents a case of multiple endocrinopathies with no found genetic link.