ResearchPad - Clinical Biochemistry https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Diagnosis and Monitoring of Hepatic Injury. II. Recommendations for Use of Laboratory Tests in Screening, Diagnosis, and Monitoring]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N43a27889-6c89-4555-921a-2654792ebada

Abstract

Purpose: To review information on the use of laboratory tests in screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of acute and chronic hepatic injury.

Data Sources and Study Selection: A MEDLINE search was performed for key words related to hepatic diseases, including acute hepatitis, chronic hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and etiologic causes. Abstracts were reviewed, and articles discussing use of laboratory tests selected for review. Additional articles were selected from the references.

Guideline Preparation and Review: Drafts of the guidelines were posted on the Internet, presented at the AACC Annual Meeting in 1999, and reviewed by experts. Areas requiring further amplification or literature review were identified for further analysis. Specific recommendations were made based on analysis of published data and evaluated for strength of evidence and clinical impact.

Recommendations: Although many specific recommendations are made in the guidelines, only some summary recommendations are listed here. In acute hepatic injury, prothrombin time and, to a lesser extent, total bilirubin are the best indicators of severity of disease. Although ALT is useful for detecting acute and chronic hepatic injury, it is not related to severity of acute hepatic injury and only weakly related to severity of chronic hepatic injury. Specific tests of viral markers should be the initial differential tests in both acute and chronic hepatic injury; when positive, they are also useful for monitoring recovery from hepatitis B and C.

]]>
<![CDATA[A microfluidic chip with a staircase pH gradient generator, a packed column and a fraction collector for chromatofocusing of proteins]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b59ace4463d7e792f619096

Abstract

A microfluidic device for pH gradient chromatofocusing is presented, which performs creation of a micro‐column, pH gradient generation, and fraction collection in a single device. Using a sieve micro‐valve, anion exchange particles were packed into a microchannel in order to realize a solid‐phase absorption column. To fractionate proteins according to their isoelectric points, elution buffer solutions with a stepwise pH gradient were prepared in 16 parallel mixing reactors and flowed through the micro‐column, wherein a protein mixture was previously loaded. The volume of the column is only 20 nL, hence it allows extremely low sample consumption and fast analysis compared with a conventional system. We demonstrated separation of two proteins, albumin–fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (FITC‐BSA) and R‐Phycoerythrin (R‐PE), by using a microcolumn of commercial charged polymeric particles (Source 15Q). The microfluidic device can be used as a rapid diagnostic tool to analyse crude mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids and determine adsorption/desorption characteristics of various biochemical products, which can be helpful for scientific fundamental understanding as well as instrumental in various industrial applications, especially in early stage screening and process development.

]]>
<![CDATA[Iron and the Breastfed Infant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b599af8463d7e77ce8a4a2b

The first 6 months of life is a crucial time in meeting iron needs. The purpose of this review is to examine iron in mother’s milk and whether or not it meets the physiological needs of the growing infant. Key issues include iron content and iron transport from the mammary gland as well as when and what foods should be added to the solely breastfed infant. We examine these topics in light of new molecular biology findings in the mammary gland.

]]>
<![CDATA[Sleep deprivation disrupts the lacrimal system and induces dry eye disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b58925f463d7e4bbcb756ea

Sleep deficiency is a common public health problem associated with many diseases, such as obesity and cardiovascular disease. In this study, we established a sleep deprivation (SD) mouse model using a ‘stick over water’ method and observed the effect of sleep deficiency on ocular surface health. We found that SD decreased aqueous tear secretion; increased corneal epithelial cell defects, corneal sensitivity, and apoptosis; and induced squamous metaplasia of the corneal epithelium. These pathological changes mimic the typical features of dry eye. However, there was no obvious corneal inflammation and conjunctival goblet cell change after SD for 10 days. Meanwhile, lacrimal gland hypertrophy along with abnormal lipid metabolites, secretory proteins and free amino-acid profiles became apparent as the SD duration increased. Furthermore, the ocular surface changes induced by SD for 10 days were largely reversed after 14 days of rest. We conclude that SD compromises lacrimal system function and induces dry eye. These findings will benefit the clinical diagnosis and treatment of sleep-disorder-related ocular surface diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Biochemical properties of cholesterol aldehyde secosterol and its derivatives]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4cd4f1463d7e0fba429df5

Elevated levels of cholesterol aldehyde, 3β-hydroxy-5-oxo-5,6-secocholestan-6-al (secosterol-A, also called 5,6-secosterol), and its aldolization product (secosterol-B) have been detected in human atherosclerotic plaques and tissues samples of brains affected by neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Lewy body dementia suggesting that increased formation of these compounds may be associated with inflammation-related diseases. Secosterol-A and secosterol-B, and also further oxidized products seco-A-COOH and seco-B-COOH induce several pro-inflammatory activities in vitro. Accumulating evidences demonstrate that the covalent bindings of these secosterols to target proteins seem to be critical to trigger their pro-inflammatory activities. One of the molecular mechanisms of protein adduct formations is that aldehydic function of secosterol-A and secosterol-B is reactive and form Schiff bases with ε- or N-terminal amino groups of proteins. In other cases, it is recently suggested that Michael acceptor moiety formed by the dehydration of not only secosterol-A and secosterol-B but also seco-A-COOH may react with nucleophilic site on target proteins. In this review, I summarize and provide an overview of formation mechanism of secosterols in in vitro and in vivo, patho- or physiological concentrations in biological and clinical samples, and molecular mechanisms of pro-inflammatory activities of secosterols.

]]>
<![CDATA[Synthetic Lignan Secoisolariciresinol Diglucoside (LGM2605) Reduces Asbestos-Induced Cytotoxicity in an Nrf2-Dependent and -Independent Manner]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4cd52f463d7e0fba429df6

Asbestos exposure triggers inflammatory processes associated with oxidative stress and tissue damage linked to malignancy. LGM2605 is the synthetic lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) with free radical scavenging, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties in diverse inflammatory cell and mouse models, including exposure to asbestos fibers. Nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) activation and boosting of endogenous tissue defenses were associated with the protective action of LGM2605 from asbestos-induced cellular damage. To elucidate the role of Nrf2 induction by LGM2605 in protection from asbestos-induced cellular damage, we evaluated LGM2605 in asbestos-exposed macrophages from wild-type (WT) and Nrf2 disrupted (Nrf2/) mice. Cells were pretreated with LGM2605 (50 µM and 100 µM) and exposed to asbestos fibers (20 µg/cm2) and evaluated 8 h and 24 h later for inflammasome activation, secreted cytokine levels (interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-18 (IL-18), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)), cytotoxicity and cell death, nitrosative stress, and Nrf2-regulated enzyme levels. Asbestos exposure induced robust oxidative and nitrosative stress, cell death and cytotoxicity, which were equally mitigated by LGM2605. Inflammasome activation was significantly attenuated in Nrf2−/− macrophages compared to WT, and the protective action of LGM2605 was seen only in WT cells. In conclusion, in a cell model of asbestos-induced toxicity, LGM2605 acts via protective mechanisms that may not involve Nrf2 activation.

]]>
<![CDATA[A Real-Time Thermal Self-Elimination Method for Static Mode Operated Freestanding Piezoresistive Microcantilever-Based Biosensors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4c7eb2463d7e0c20d25f2a

Here, we provide a method and apparatus for real-time compensation of the thermal effect of single free-standing piezoresistive microcantilever-based biosensors. The sensor chip contained an on-chip fixed piezoresistor that served as a temperature sensor, and a multilayer microcantilever with an embedded piezoresistor served as a biomolecular sensor. This method employed the calibrated relationship between the resistance and the temperature of piezoresistors to eliminate the thermal effect on the sensor, including the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and bimorph effect. From experimental results, the method was verified to reduce the signal of thermal effect from 25.6 μV/°C to 0.3 μV/°C, which was approximately two orders of magnitude less than that before the processing of the thermal elimination method. Furthermore, the proposed approach and system successfully demonstrated its effective real-time thermal self-elimination on biomolecular detection without any thermostat device to control the environmental temperature. This method realizes the miniaturization of an overall measurement system of the sensor, which can be used to develop portable medical devices and microarray analysis platforms.

]]>
<![CDATA[Setting the IMPACT (IMProve Access to Clinical Trial data) Observatory baseline]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7a3e5d5eed0c484eab77b

Introduction

The aim of the IMPACT (IMProving Access to Clinical Trial data) Observatory is to assess the transformation of clinical trials (CT) related to the evolution of sharing of CT data. The objective of this study is to establish a baseline for monitoring CT data sharing by the Observatory.

Materials and methods

In this scoping review we searched for publications that address sharing, dissemination, transparency or reuse of CT data published prior to December 31st 2000. Two authors screened titles and abstracts of 1204 records received by Medline searches and added 47 publications from direct discovery. Four researchers extracted, coded, and analyzed the predefined information from 102 selected papers.

Results

We found a growing recognition of the importance of data sharing prior to 2001. However, there were numerous obstacles including the ambiguity of the concept of data sharing, the absence of specific terminology and the lack of an “open” culture. By the end of 2000, data, metadata, and evidence based medicine were defined. Data sharing, registries, databases and re-analyses of individual patient data (IPD) emerged. The use of systematic reviews and IPD meta-analysis in decision making was promoted. Most arguments for broader data sharing came from oncology, paediatrics, rare diseases, AIDS, pregnancy, perinatal medicine, and media reporting related scandals.

Conclusions

Our findings indicate that the year 2000 could be used as a baseline for monitoring the evolution of CT data sharing as basic prerequisites were set in place, including greater understanding that CT data sharing is essential for decision making and the advancements of the Internet.

]]>
<![CDATA[Biochemia Medica appoints new Editor-in-Chief and new Senior Editor]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7a3e7d5eed0c484eab78d ]]> <![CDATA[Critical effects of long non-coding RNA on fibrosis diseases]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bf7808fd5eed0c484e71d48

The expression or dysfunction of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) is closely related to various hereditary diseases, autoimmune diseases, metabolic diseases and tumors. LncRNAs were also recently recognized as functional regulators of fibrosis, which is a secondary process in many of these diseases and a primary pathology in fibrosis diseases. We review the latest findings on lncRNAs in fibrosis diseases of the liver, myocardium, kidney, lung and peritoneum. We also discuss the potential of disease-related lncRNAs as therapeutic targets for the clinical treatment of human fibrosis diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pigment epithelium-derived factor from ARPE19 promotes proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells in serum-free medium]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b4741a9463d7e6ce64d585a

Clinical expansion of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is hampered by the lack of knowledge regarding how to prevent MSC apoptosis and promote their proliferation in serum-free medium. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that human umbilical cord MSCs (HUCMSCs) underwent apoptosis in the serum-free medium. When HUCMSCs were co-cultured with retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE19), however, HUCMSCs exhibited normal growth and morphology in serum-free medium. Their colony formation was promoted by the conditioned medium (CM) of ARPE19 cells on Matrigel. Proteomics analysis showed that pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) was one of the most abundant extracellular proteins in the ARPE19 CM, whereas enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed that large amounts of PEDF was secreted from ARPE19 cells. Adding anti-PEDF-blocking antibodies to the co-culture of HUCMSCs with ARPE19 cells increased apoptosis of HUCMSCs. Conversely, treatment with PEDF significantly reduced apoptosis and increased proliferation of HUCMSCs in serum-free medium. PEDF was further demonstrated to exert this anti-apoptotic effect by inhibiting P53 expression to suppress caspase activation. In vivo studies demonstrated that co-injection of HUCMSCs with ARPE19 cells in immunocompromised NOD-SCID mice also increased survival and decreased apoptosis of HUCMSCs. PEDF also showed no negative effect on the mesoderm differentiation capability of HUCMSCs. In conclusion, this study is the first to demonstrate that PEDF promotes HUCMSC proliferation and protects them from apoptosis by reducing p53 expression in the serum-free medium. This study provides crucial information for clinical-scale expansion of HUCMSCs.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Importance of Haematological and Biochemical Findings in Patients with West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b3e3310463d7e44234bb54c

Summary

Background

West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease (WNND) occurs in less than 1% of infected people. Leukocytosis with lymphocytopenia, mild anaemia, thrombocytopenia, elevated liver and muscle enzymes and hyponatremia are occasionally present in patients with WNND. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings resemble other viral neuroinfections. The purpose of this study is to pre sent some of the most important laboratory findings of our patients with WNND and to evaluate their correlation with fatal outcome.

Methods

The study included 161 patients with WNND. Their blood and CSF samples were cytobiochemically analysed and the obtained variables were then tested for predictive significance of the disease outcome, or used for differentiation between two clinical syndromes (encephalitis vs meningitis).

Results

West Nile encephalitis was present in 127 (78.9%) patients and West Nile meningitis was diagnosed in 34 (21.1%) cases. Leukocytosis was found in 45.9% patients. CRP level higher than 100 mg/L was registered only in those with encephalitis (p=0.020). CSF leukocyte count was 146±171 per microlitre, with slight lymphocytic predominance (mean 52%). Hypoglycorrhachia was registered in 9.3% of our patients with WNND. Twenty-eight (17.4%) patients died and all of them had encephalitis. Independent predictors of fatal outcome in WNND were serum CRP > 100 mg/L (p=0.011) and CSF proteins > 1 g/L (p=0.002).

Conclusions

WNND usually affects older males. Prolonged neutrophilic predominance in CSF can occasionally be present, as well as hypoglycorrhachia. Patients with encephalitis, high serum CRP and high CSF protein level have a higher risk of fatal outcome.

]]>
<![CDATA[Correlation Between Glycated Hemoglobin and Homa Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Prediction of Beta-Cell Function from Glycated Hemoglobin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a2d5eed0c484371c30

Summary

Background

The present study aimed to determine the most efficient insulin resistance function related to glycemic control expressed as glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). The other aim is to derive equations for the prediction of beta cell functions containing HbA1c as a parameter in addition to fasting glucose and insulin.

Methods

T2DM Patients were grouped according to the following: (1) degree of control (good, fair, and poor control) and (2) insulin resistance as observed in obtained data and significant differences revealed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of related parameters (insulin resistance = HOMA2IR, beta-cell function = HOMA%B, and insulin sensitivity = HOMA%S) among groups. Correlations and forecasting regression analysis were calculated.

Results

HbA1c was found to be correlated with insulin resistance parameters in T2DM subgroups. This correlation was also significantly correlated with HOMA%B and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in fair and poor control groups. Regression analysis was used to predict the forecasting equations for HOMA%B. The best applicable equations were derived for healthy control (HOMA2%B=−1.76*FBG+5.00*Insulin+4.69*HbA1c+189.84) and poor control groups (HOMA2%B=0.001* FBG+0.5*Insulin-8.67*HbA1c+101.96). These equations could be used to predict β-cell function (HOMA%B) after FBG, insulin and HbA1c values were obtained for healthy and poor control groups. In the good and fair control groups, the applicability of the HOMA model fails to yield appropriate results.

Conclusions

Beta-cell function is correlated with QUICKI and HbA1c and could be predicted properly from HbA1c, insulin, and glucose in the healthy and poor control groups. New regression equations were established that involve HbA1c.

]]>
<![CDATA[Oxidized Low Density Lipoprotein and High Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Non-Diabetic, Pre-Diabetic and Diabetic Patients in the Acute Phase of the First Myocardial Infarction Treated by Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd9049dd5eed0c484371a49

Summary

Background

Oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) are elevated in diabetes mellitus (DM) and associated with accelerated atherosclerosis. Little is known about their dynamics in the acute phase of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially in relation to the presence of DM and pre-diabetes (pre-DM). This study aimed to analyze time-dependent changes in ox-LDL and hs-CRP regarding the presence of pre-DM and DM in STEMI patients treated by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI).

Methods

In 103 consecutive patients with the first anterior STEMI ox-LDL and hs-CRP were measured before pPCI, on day 2 and day 7 after pPCI.

Results

Patients were classified into: non-diabetics, pre-diabetics and diabetics. In each group the maximal ox-LDL concentration was found on admission, decreased on day 2 and reached the lowest values on day 7 (p<0.001). Diabetics had the highest ox-LDL concentrations compared to pre-diabetics and non-diabetics (on admission: p=0.028, on day 2: p=0.056, on day 7: p=0.004). hs-CRP concentration rose from admission, reached its peak on day 2 and decreased on day 7, in each group (p<0.001). Significant differences in hs-CRP concentrations were found between non-diabetics and pre-diabetics on admission (p=0.018) and day 2 (p=0.026). In a multivariate analysis DM was an independent determinant of high ox-LDL concentrations. Both ox-LDL and hs-CRP significantly correlated with Killip class, left ventricular ejection fraction, NT-proBNP and peak troponin I.

Conclusions

In patients with the first STEMI treated by pPCI there were significant differences in ox-LDL and hs-CRP concentrations between non-diabetics, pre-diabetics and diabetics. Ox-LDL and hs-CRP concentrations were related to heart failure parameters.

]]>
<![CDATA[Brain Injury Alters Ectonucleotidase Activities and Adenine Nucleotide Levels in Rat Serum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a4d5eed0c484371d5e

Summary

Background

Cortical stab injury (CSI) induces changes in the activity, expression and cellular distribution of specific ectonucleotidases at the injury site. Also, several experimentally induced neuropathologies are associated with changes in soluble ectonucleotidase activities in the plasma and serum, whilst various insults to the brain alter purine compounds levels in cerebrospinal fluid, but also in serum, indicating that insults to the brain may induce alterations in nucleotides release and rate of their hydrolysis in the vascular system. Since adenine nucleotides and adenosine regulate diverse cellular functions in the vascular system, including vascular tone, platelet aggregation and inflammatory responses of lymphocytes and macrophages, alterations of ectonucleotidase activities in the vascular system may be relevant for the clinical outcome of the primary insult.

Methods

We explored ectonucleotidase activities using specific enzyme assays and determined adenine nucleotides concentrations by the UPLC method in the rat serum after cortical stab injury.

Results

At 4-h post-injury, ATP and AMP hydrolysis increased by about 60% and 40%, respectively, while phosphodiesterase activity remained unchanged. Also, at 4-h post-injury a marked decrease in ATP concentration and more than 2-fold increase in AMP concentration were recorded.

Conclusions

CSI induces rapid up-regulation of nucleotide catabolizing soluble ectonucleotidases in rat serum, which leads to the observed shift in serum nucleotide levels. The results obtained imply that ectonucleotidases and adenine nucleotides participate in the communication between the brain and the vascular system in physiological and pathological conditions and thereby may be involved in the development of various human neuropathologies.

]]>
<![CDATA[Associations of Resistin Levels with Resistin Gene Polymorphism and Metabolic Syndrome in Thais]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a9d5eed0c484371fc7

Summary

Background

Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clinical constellation comprising risk factors associated with developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Resistin has been suggested as a linkage between obesity, inflammation and type 2 diabetes. This study aimed to investigate resistin concentrations and hematological-biochemical parameters in MS subjects and controls, and to determine whether two resistin gene (RETN) polymorphisms (−420C>G & +299G>A) are linked to resistin levels and MS among Thais.

Methods

This case-control study was performed with 322 Thai volunteers: 160 MS subjects and 162 controls. Anthropometric parameters and hematological-biochemical variables were determined. The RETN −420C>G (rs1862513) and +299G>A (rs3745367) polymorphisms were genotyped by PCR-RFLP technique.

Results

The resistin levels of the MS group were significantly higher than those of the control group. Resistin levels were positively correlated with anthropometric parameters and WBC count in the MS group. According to RETN −420C>G polymorphism, MS subjects with the G allele (CG/GG) (3.9 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin concentrations than in subjects with the CC genotype (2.4 μg/L); with regard to RETN +299G>A polymorphism, carriers with the A allele (GA/AA) (3.8 μg/L) had significantly higher resistin levels than subjects with the GG genotype (2.7 μg/L), after adjusting for potential covariates. However, the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms were not found to be associated with MS, hematological-biochemical parameters and anthropometric variables.

Conclusions

These findings suggest resistin levels are linked with MS and the RETN −420C>G and +299G>A polymorphisms have impacted the circulating resistin concentrations. However, these two RETN polymorphisms probably do not influence susceptibility to MS among Thais.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of L-carnitine Supplementation on Circulating C-reactive Protein Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904abd5eed0c484372088

Summary

Background

C-reactive protein (CRP) has been proposed as a risk marker and risk factor of cardiovascular disease. There have been a number of clinical reports suggesting that supplementation with L-carnitine can modulate systemic inflammation and lower circulating CRP concentrations, but the results have not been consistent.

Methods

A comprehensive literature search in Medline, Scopus and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed in December 2012 to identify clinical trials investigating the impact of oral L-carnitine supplementation on serum/plasma CRP concentration. A random effect method was used to calculate the combined effect size.

Results

Six studies comprising 541 cases and 546 controls met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of included trials revealed a significant reduction of circulating CRP concentrations in subjects under L-carnitine intervention compared to the control treatment. The calculated combined weighted mean reduction in CRP concentrations was −0.39 mg/L [95% CI (−0.62 – −0.16)]. This effect size estimate was found to be robust and remained unaffected by the removal of each single study.

Conclusions

The overall findings of the present meta-analysis support the clinically relevant benefit of L-carnitine supplementation in lowering the circulating levels of CRP.

]]>
<![CDATA[»Treatment Resistance« Enigma Resolved by Pharmacogenomics − A Case Study of Clozapine Therapy in Schizophrenia / Enigma »Terapo-Rezistence« Razrešena Uz Pomoć Farmakogenomike - Prikaz Slućaja Terapije Klozapinom U Shizofreniji]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd9049fd5eed0c484371ad3

Summary

The introduction of antipsychotic medication in the 1950s forever changed the outlook on the treatment of schizophrenia, although there is still a large proportion of patients who do not reach functional recovery. At least 30% of patients do not respond to clozapine, the tricyclic dibenzodiazepine with complex pharmacological actions, which was proven to be more effective than any other antipsychotic in the treatment of schizophrenia. According to most of the therapeutic guidelines for schizophrenia, clozapine is the third line therapy for patients who did not respond to other antipsychotics. Large inter-individual variability exists for clozapine bioavailability and plasma steady-state concentrations and clearance. Clozapine is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 oxidase enzyme family (CYP450). Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2), which is polymorphically expressed in humans, is the main enzyme of clozapine metabolism. This case report addresses the influence of CYP1A2*1F genetic polymorphism on clozapine metabolism, explains the primary non-response of a young patient with schizophrenia due to increased gene expression in homozygous genotype *1F/*1F (increased metabolism of clozapine) and underlies the importance of personalizing schizophrenia treatment by means of genetic and other molecular tools, at least in the cases of »treatment resistance«.

]]>
<![CDATA[Homologous Recombination Repair Polymorphisms and the Risk for Osteosarcoma]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5bd904a0d5eed0c484371b67

Summary

Background

DNA repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining genome stability, and genetic variability in DNA repair genes may contribute to cancer susceptibility. Our aim was to evaluate the influence of polymorphisms in the homologous recombination repair genes XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN on the risk for osteosarcoma.

Methods

In total, 79 osteosarcoma cases and 373 controls were genotyped for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in XRCC3, RAD51, and NBN. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of these SNPs with risk for osteosarcoma.

Results

None of the investigated SNPs was associated with risk for osteosarcoma in the whole cohort of patients, however, in patients diagnosed before the age of thirty years XRCC3 rs861539 C>T and NBN rs1805794 G>C were associated with significantly decreased risk for osteosarcoma (P=0.047, OR=0.54, 95% CI=0.30–0.99 and P=0.036, OR=0.42, 95% CI=0.19–0.94, respectively). Moreover, in the carriers of a combination of polymorphic alleles in both SNPs risk for osteosarcoma was decreased even more significantly (Ptrend=0.007). The risk for developing osteosarcoma was the lowest in patients with no wild-type alleles for both SNPs (P=0.039, OR=0.31, 95% CI=0.10–0.94).

Conclusions

Our results suggest that polymorphisms in homologous recombination repair genes might contribute to risk for osteosarcoma in patients diagnosed below the age of thirty years.

]]>
<![CDATA[Laryngeal Granuloma – Benefit in Treatment with Zinc Supplementation? / Larinksni Granulom - Korist Od Terapije Preparatima Cinka]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b37d439463d7e71ed68e7aa

Summary

Laryngeal granulomas present as contact and postintubation ulcers and granulomas. Essentially, a contact granuloma is a pseudotumor of the lateral wall of the posterior glottis. The most common etiological factor is voice abuse, with predisponing factors such as reflux disease. Postintubation ulcers and granulomas, although of different etiology, according to all the other traits belong to this clinical entity. The therapy of choice is conservative treatment. Surgical laser excision is indicated for resistant cases and those whose size is causing respiratory distress. Treatment of laryngeal granulomas with zinc supplementation is reported in the literature as one of the forms of conservative treatment, and we wanted to consider it in this review. Zinc is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in many biochemical reactions and is considered very important for wound healing.

]]>