ResearchPad - Clinical Psychology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Gambling disorder-related illegal acts: Regression model of associated factors]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b42bdf8463d7e1c4ced9944

Background and aims

Gambling disorder-related illegal acts (GDRIA) are often crucial events for gamblers and/or their entourage. This study was designed to determine the predictive factors of GDRIA.

Methods

Participants were 372 gamblers reporting at least three DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria. They were assessed on the basis of sociodemographic characteristics, gambling-related characteristics, their personality profile, and psychiatric comorbidities. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the relevant predictors of GDRIA and their relative contribution to the prediction of the presence of GDRIA.

Results

Multivariate analysis revealed a higher South Oaks Gambling Scale score, comorbid addictive disorders, and a lower level of income as GDRIA predictors.

Discussion and conclusion

An original finding of this study was that the comorbid addictive disorder effect might be mediated by a disinhibiting effect of stimulant substances on GDRIA. Further studies are necessary to replicate these results, especially in a longitudinal design, and to explore specific therapeutic interventions.

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<![CDATA[A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba6cedd40307c3c8c139356

Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”.

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<![CDATA[Is video gaming, or video game addiction, associated with depression, academic achievement, heavy episodic drinking, or conduct problems?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ba6cee040307c3c8c139357

Background and aims: While the relationships between video game use and negative consequences are debated, the relationships between video game addiction and negative consequences are fairly well established. However, previous studies suffer from methodological weaknesses that may have caused biased results. There is need for further investigation that benefits from the use of methods that avoid omitted variable bias. Methods: Two wave panel data was used from two surveys of 1,928 Norwegian adolescents aged 13 to 17 years. The surveys included measures of video game use, video game addiction, depression, heavy episodic drinking, academic achievement, and conduct problems. The data was analyzed using first-differencing, a regression method that is unbiased by time invariant individual factors. Results: Video game addiction was related to depression, lower academic achievement, and conduct problems, but time spent on video games was not related to any of the studied negative outcomes. Discussion: The findings were in line with a growing number of studies that have failed to find relationships between time spent on video games and negative outcomes. The current study is also consistent with previous studies in that video game addiction was related to other negative outcomes, but it made the added contribution that the relationships are unbiased by time invariant individual effects. However, future research should aim at establishing the temporal order of the supposed causal effects. Conclusions: Spending time playing video games does not involve negative consequences, but adolescents who experience problems related to video games are likely to also experience problems in other facets of life.

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<![CDATA[Sensitive Spectroscopic Detection of Large and Denatured Protein Aggregates in Solution by Use of the Fluorescent Dye Nile Red]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7cba66463d7e2027cafb92

The fluorescent dye Nile red was used as a probe for the sensitive detection of large, denatured aggregates of the model protein β-galactosidase (E. coli) in solution. Aggregates were formed by irreversible heat denaturation of β-galactosidase below and above the protein’s unfolding temperature of 57.4°C, and the presence of aggregates in heated solutions was confirmed by static light scattering. Interaction of Nile red with β-galactosidase aggregates led to a shift of the emission maximum (λmax) from 660 to 611 nm, and to an increase of fluorescence intensity. Time-resolved fluorescence and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements showed that Nile red detected large aggregates with hydrodynamic radii around 130 nm. By steady-state fluorescence measurements, it was possible to detect 1 nM of denatured and aggregated β-galactosidase in solution. The comparison with size exclusion chromatography (SEC) showed that native β-galactosidase and small aggregates thereof had no substantial effect on the fluorescence of Nile red. Large aggregates were not detected by SEC, because they were excluded from the column. The results with β-galactosidase demonstrate the potential of Nile red for developing complementary analytical methods that overcome the size limitations of SEC, and can detect the formation of large protein aggregates at early stages.

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<![CDATA[Signs of developmental stuttering up to age eight and at 12 plus]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5b7c764b463d7e1a1973f5f9

Clinicians who are familiar with the general DSM-IV-TR scheme may want to know how to identify whether a child does, or (equally importantly) does not, stutter and what differences there are in the presenting signs for children of different ages. This article reviews and discusses topics in the research literature that have a bearing on these questions. The review compared language, social–environmental and host factors of children who stutter across two age groups (up to age eight and 12 plus). Dysfluency types mainly involved repetition of one or more whole function words up to age eight whereas at age 12 plus, dysfluency on parts of content words often occurred. Twin studies showed that environmental and host factors were split roughly 30/70 for both ages. Though the disorder is genetically transmitted, the mode of transmission is not known at present. At the earlier age, there were few clearcut socio-environmental influences. There were, however, some suggestions of sensory (high incidence of otitis media with effusion) and motor differences (high proportion of left-handed individuals in the stuttering group relative to norms) compared to control speakers. At age 12 plus, socio-environmental influences (like state anxiety) occurred in the children who persist, but were not evident in the children who recover from the disorder. Brain scans at the older age show some replicable abnormality in the areas connecting motor and sensory areas in speakers who stutter. The topics considered in the discussion return to the question of how to identify whether a child does or does not stutter. The review identifies extra details that might be considered to improve the classification of stuttering (e.g. sensory and motor assessments). Also, some age-dependent factors and processes are identified (such as change in dysfluency type with age). Knowing the distinguishing features of the disorder allows it to be contrasted with other disorders which show superficially similar features. Two or more disorders can co-occur for two reasons: comorbidity, where the child has two identifiable disorders (e.g. a child with Down Syndrome whose speech has been properly assessed and classed as stuttering). Ambiguous classifications, where an individual suffering from one disorder meets the criteria for one or more other disorders. One way DSM-IV-TR deals with the latter is by giving certain classification axes priority over others. The grounds for such superordinacy seem circular as the main role for allowing this appears to be to avoid such ambiguities.

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<![CDATA[Commentary on: Are we overpathologizing everyday life? A tenable blueprint for behavioral addiction research]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5af43e7e463d7e7e42b90d8c

Background and Aims

Survey-based studies often fail to take into account the predictive value of a test, in other words, the probability of a person having (or not having) the disease when scoring positive (or negative) on the given screening test.

Methods

We re-visited the theory and basic calculations of diagnostic accuracy.

Results

In general, the lower the prevalence the worse the predictive value is. When the disorder is relatively rare, a positive test finding is typically not useful in confirming its presence given the high proportion of false positive cases. For example, using the Compulsive Buying Scale (Faber & O’Guinn, 1992) three in four people classified as having compulsive buying disorder will in fact not have the disorder.

Conclusions

Screening tests are limited to serve as an early detection “gate” and only clinical (interview-based) studies are suitable to claim that a certain behaviour is truly “pathological”.

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<![CDATA[Compulsive Sexual Behavior: A Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5aeb9fd7463d7e2dfdbce39b

Background and Aims

Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is a common disorder featuring repetitive, intrusive and distressing sexual thoughts, urges and behaviors that negatively affect many aspects of an individual’s life. This article reviews the clinical characteristics of CSB, cognitive aspects of the behaviors, and treatment options.

Methods

We reviewed the literature regarding the clinical aspects of CSB and treatment approaches.

Results

The literature review of the clinical aspects of CSB demonstrates that there is likely a substantial heterogeneity within the disorder. In addition, the treatment literature lacks sufficient evidence-based approaches to develop a clear treatment algorithm.

Conclusions

Although discussed in the psychological literature for years, CSB continues to defy easy categorization within mental health. Further research needs to be completed to understand where CSB falls within the psychiatric nosology.

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<![CDATA[Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn't?]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad9561b463d7e223275f03a

Abstract

Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance.

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<![CDATA[Detecting associations between behavioral addictions and dopamine agonists in the Food & Drug Administration's Adverse Event database]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad86d2e463d7e3e43e2bd3b

Background/Aims: Studies have reported higher prevalences of four behavioral addictions (binge eating, compulsive shopping, hypersexuality, and pathological gambling) in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s disease relative to non-dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s. However, recent case-control and epidemiological studies suggest that prevalences of behavioral addictions in dopamine agonist-treated Parkinson’s may be similar to background population rates. This study tests that hypothesis by examining the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) for evidence of these associations, taking into account the potential impact of publicity on reporting rates. Methods: FAERS reports in 2004 (pre-publicity for all but pathological gambling) and 2007 (post-publicity for all four behaviors) were analyzed. A threshold consisting of ≥3 cases, proportional reporting ratio ≥2, and χ2 with Yates’ correction ≥4 was used to detect signals (drug-associated adverse reactions) involving any of five dopamine agonists and any of four behavioral addictions. Results: No reports containing compulsive shopping and no signal for binge eating and dopamine agonists were found in either year. A weak signal was found for hypersexuality in 2004, with a stronger signal in 2007. A robust signal was found for pathological gambling in 2004, with a more robust signal in 2007. Discussion/Conclusions: These results suggest that publicity may increase reporting rates in the FAERS. Findings for binge eating, compulsive shopping, and hypersexuality suggest that prevalences of these behaviors among those treated with dopamine agonists may be similar to background population rates and thus may not reflect an adverse safety signal. Further investigation of the relationship between dopamine agonists and behavioral addictions is warranted.

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<![CDATA[Pain interference, gambling problem severity, and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of adults]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad8146d463d7e159f2afd5e

Background and aims: A paucity of studies has examined the association between gambling and pain interference. We examined differences in the associations of gambling problem severity and psychiatric disorders among a nationally representative sample of adults with varying levels of pain interference. Methods: Chi-square tests and logistic regression analyses were performed on National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions data from 41,987 adult respondents (48% men; 52% women), who were categorized according to two levels of pain interference (i.e., no or low pain interference [NLPI] or moderate or severe pain interference [MSPI]) and three levels of gambling problem severity (i.e., non-gamblers or low-frequency gamblers [NG], low-risk or at-risk gamblers [LRG], and problem or pathological gamblers [PPG]). Results: MSPI respondents exhibited higher rates of PPG than NLPI respondents. Categories of Axis I disorders and clusters of mood, anxiety and substance-use disorders showed similarly strong associations with problem-gambling severity in MSPI and NLPI groups. Similarly strong associations between Axis II disorders (and each cluster – A, B and C) and problem-gambling severity were also observed in MSPI and NLPI groups. Exploratory analyses suggested potentially stronger relationships between PPG and dysthymia, panic disorder, and dependent personality disorder and LRG and specific phobia in NLPI compared to MSPI respondents. Discussion and conclusions: While MSPI is associated with PPG, largely similar patterns of associations across pain-interference levels were observed between problem-gambling severity and Axis I and Axis II psychiatric disorders.

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<![CDATA[Laboratory Profiles of Treatment-Seeking Subjects With Concurrent Dependence on Cannabis and Other Substances: A Comparative Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad62278463d7e508ba5b54d

Background:

Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in India and worldwide. It is considered to have a minimal effect on physical health.

Objectives:

The aim of this study was to compare the laboratory profiles of treatment-seeking patients who were cannabis dependent, and drug users who concurrently use other substances, with non-users.

Materials and Methods:

Medical records of patients, whose urine was tested for the detection of cannabis within the last year, were considered for the study. The inclusion criteria for the study group were; co-morbid diagnosis of cannabis dependence according to DSM-IV TR criteria, positive urine drug screen for cannabis, and at least one biochemical or hematological examination report during the treatment period. The subjects who underwent all of the above mentioned tests, but who were negative for any psychoactive substance with no past or current history of substance use, were placed in the control group.

Results:

A total of 51 subjects fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study group and 30 subjects were considered as controls. There was no significant difference found between the demographic profiles of the subject and control groups. The mean duration of cannabis use in the patients was 9.53 ± 8.06 years. Serum levels of; bilirubin, SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), total protein, alkaline phosphatase, ESR, and eosinophil counts, were raised in; 13.7%, 15.6%, 33.3%, 17.6%, 37.2%, 75% and 5.8% of subjects, respectively. The relative monocyte count was lower than normal in 92% of cases. Physical complaints were reported in 98% of subjects. The two groups showed significant differences in serum alkaline phosphatase [t (79) = 6.5, P ≤ 0.01], TLC [t (79) = 2.36, P = 0.03] and hemoglobin levels [t (79) = 5.50, P ≤ 0.01].

Conclusions:

Abnormal laboratory parameters were observed in patients with cannabis dependence. The study emphasizes the need for regular physical examinations and laboratory investigations for cannabis users.

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<![CDATA[Retraction Notice]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad4042c463d7e2d19c6a1b6 ]]> <![CDATA[Combining Attention Training with Internet-Based Cognitive-Behavioural Self-Help for Social Anxiety: A Randomised Controlled Trial]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad0c21d463d7e3b52ed628e

Guided Internet-based cognitive-behavioural self-help (ICBT) has been proven to be effective for social anxiety disorder (SAD) by several independent research groups. However, as the proportion of clinical significant change has room for improvement, new treatments should be developed and investigated. A novel treatment is attention bias modification (ABM). This study aimed at evaluating the combination of ABM and ICBT. We compared two groups, one group receiving ICBT and ABM targeting attentional avoidance and the other group receiving ICBT and control training. ABM and control training tasks were both based on the dot-probe paradigm. A total of 133 participants, diagnosed with SAD, were randomised to these two groups. The attention training group (N = 66) received 2 weeks of daily attention training followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. The control group (N = 67) received 2 weeks of daily control training, also followed by 9 weeks of ICBT. Social anxiety measures as well as the attention bias were assessed at pre-assessment, at week 2, and at post-treatment. Results showed no significant differences between the attention training group and the control group. Both groups improved substantially on social anxiety symptoms from pre- to post-assessment (dwithin = 1.39–1.41), but showed no change in attention processes (dwithin = 0.10–0.17). In this trial, the attention modification training failed to induce differential change in attention bias. Results demonstrate that the applied ABM procedure with its focus on the reduction of attentional avoidance was ineffective in the Internet-based setting. The results do not suggest that adding ABM targeting attentional avoidance to ICBT results in better outcomes than ICBT alone.

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<![CDATA[Characteristics of worry in Generalized Anxiety Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ad03010463d7e67b9d6e2f6

Background & objectives

Groups of clients and community volunteers with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and clients with Panic Disorder were compared to a group with elevated worry but without GAD on a range of measures, to identify individual differences beyond a high propensity to worry.

Method

Participants completed standardised questionnaires and a behavioural worry task that assesses frequency and severity of negative thought intrusions.

Results

Relative to high worriers, clients with GAD had higher scores on trait anxiety, depression, more negative beliefs about worry, a greater range of worry topics, and more frequent and severe negative thought intrusions. Relative to community volunteers with GAD, clients in treatment reported poorer attentional control. Compared to clients with Panic Disorder, clients with GAD had higher trait anxiety, propensity to worry, negative beliefs and a wider range of worry content.

Conclusions

Results confirmed expectations of group differences based on GAD diagnostic criteria, but also revealed other differences in mood, characteristics of worry, and perceived attentional control that may play a role in the decision to seek treatment.

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<![CDATA[Facial Skin Segmentation Using Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5acbe294463d7e350a62a3b0

Nowadays, analyzing human facial image has gained an ever-increasing importance due to its various applications. Image segmentation is required as a very important and fundamental operation for significant analysis and interpretation of images. Among the segmentation methods, image thresholding technique is one of the most well-known methods due to its simplicity, robustness, and high precision. Thresholding based on optimization of the objective function is among the best methods. Numerous methods exist for the optimization process and bacterial foraging optimization (BFO) is among the most efficient and novel ones. Using this method, optimal threshold is extracted and then segmentation of facial skin is performed. In the proposed method, first, the color facial image is converted from RGB color space to Improved Hue-Luminance-Saturation (IHLS) color space, because IHLS has a great mapping of the skin color. To perform thresholding, the entropy-based method is applied. In order to find the optimum threshold, BFO is used. In order to analyze the proposed algorithm, color images of the database of Sahand University of Technology of Tabriz, Iran were used. Then, using Otsu and Kapur methods, thresholding was performed. In order to have a better understanding from the proposed algorithm; genetic algorithm (GA) is also used for finding the optimum threshold. The proposed method shows the better results than other thresholding methods. These results include misclassification error accuracy (88%), non-uniformity accuracy (89%), and the accuracy of region's area error (89%).

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<![CDATA[Substance Use Disorders Assessed Using the Kreek-McHugh-Schluger-Kellogg (KMSK) Scale in an Urban Low-Income and Predominantly African American Sample of Primary Care Patients]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ac2c74d463d7e64a4db6a19

The Kreek–McHugh–Schluger–Kellogg (KMSK) scale was developed to quantify self-exposure to opiates, cocaine, alcohol, and tobacco. The original study was limited by a relatively small sample that was not representative of general clinical populations, and did not include marijuana exposure. For the current study, participants were recruited from primary care outpatient clinics in an urban public hospital. The primary measure was the KMSK scale. The Structured Interview for Diagnosis for DSM-IV (SCID) was used as the “gold standard” for substance dependence diagnoses, and the results of KMSK assessments were evaluated using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis. The sample (n = 439) was predominantly African American (90.6%), with mean age (±SD) of 43.1 ± 12.8 years. ROC analyses found that the optimal cutoff scores for alcohol dependence were the same as suggested previously (11), while they were lower for cocaine dependence (10 vs. 11) and opiate dependence (4 vs. 9). The analysis suggested a cutoff score of 8 for marijuana. The KMSK performed well in the current study as a brief tool for evaluating dependence on alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and opiates in this nonpsychiatric clinic sample of predominantly poor urban African Americans. (Am J Addict 2011;20:292–299)

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<![CDATA[Clarifying boundaries of binge eating disorder and psychiatric comorbidity: A latent structure analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5ac1e207463d7e4ad7e9689e

Binge eating disorder (BED) presents with substantial psychiatric comorbidity. This latent structure analysis sought to delineate boundaries of BED given its comorbidity with affective and anxiety disorders. A population-based sample of 151 women with BED, 102 women with affective or anxiety disorders, and 259 women without psychiatric disorders was assessed with clinical interviews and self-report questionnaires. Taxometric analyses were conducted using DSM-IV criteria of BED and of affective and anxiety disorders. The results showed a taxonic structure of BED and of affective and anxiety disorders. Both taxa co-occurred at an above-chance level, but also presented independently with twice-as-large probabilities. Within the BED taxon, diagnostic co-occurrence indicated greater general psychopathology, lower social adaptation, and greater premorbid exposure to parental mood and substance disorder, but not greater eating disorder psychopathology. Eating disorder psychopathology discriminated individuals in the BED taxon from individuals in the affective and anxiety disorders taxon. Diagnostic criteria of BED were more indicative of the BED taxon than were criteria of affective and anxiety disorders. The results show that at the latent level, BED was co-occurring with, yet distinct from, affective and anxiety disorders and was not characterized by an underlying affective or anxiety disorder.

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<![CDATA[Pediatric Bipolar Disorder]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5abcf06c463d7e5f10f56cf2

Clinicians are less sensitive in considering the diagnosis of mania in children because of the variations in clinical presentation and because of the high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders. More often than the elated and expansive mood, irritability and significant aggression may be the presenting symptoms in these cases. One such case report is discussed highlighting the clinical aspects of pediatric bipolar disorder.

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<![CDATA[Socio-demographic Factors of Geriatric Depression]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5abbe007463d7e2c823108ec

Background:

Depression is a common mental health problem in geriatric population and the overall prevalence rate of depression in this age group varies between 10 and 20%.

Objective:

To study the socio-demographic factors associated with depression in geriatric population.

Materials and Methods:

A systematic review was done on 74 community-based mental health surveys on depression in geriatric population, which were conducted in the continents of Asia, Europe, Australia, North America, and South America. All the studies were conducted between 1955 and 2005. The researchers had included only community-based cross-sectional surveys and some prospective studies that had not excluded depression on baseline. These studies were conducted on homogenous community of geriatric population in the world, who were selected by simple random sampling technique. A qualitative analysis was conducted to study the socio-demographic factors of depression.

Results and Conclusion:

The two non-modifiable risk factors found to be significantly associated with depression in geriatric population were “older age group” and “female gender”. However, the potentially modifiable risk factors for depression in the geriatric population were identified as low socioeconomic status, loss of spouse, living alone, chronic co-morbidities, cognitive impairment, bereavement and restricted activities of daily living (ADL).

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