ResearchPad - Critical Care https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Advanced Pulmonary and Cardiac Support of COVID-19 Patients: Emerging Recommendations From ASAIO—A “Living Working Document”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne619a3fa-c388-40ab-bb7e-9d3f01fcd77d

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 is an emerging viral pathogen responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Based on preliminary clinical reports, hypoxic respiratory failure complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death. Further, septic shock, late-onset cardiac dysfunction, and multiorgan system failure are also described as contributors to overall mortality. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other modalities of mechanical cardiopulmonary support are increasingly being utilized in the treatment of respiratory and circulatory failure refractory to conventional management, their role and efficacy as support modalities in the present pandemic are unclear. We review the rapidly changing epidemiology, pathophysiology, emerging therapy, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19; and based on these data and previous experience with artificial cardiopulmonary support strategies, particularly in the setting of infectious diseases, provide consensus recommendations from ASAIO. Of note, this is a “living document,” which will be updated periodically, as additional information and understanding emerges.

]]>
<![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

]]>
<![CDATA[A review on modafinil: the characteristics, function, and use in critical care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N97441197-af13-405c-a595-e3cffe47334a

Abstract

In critically ill patients, sleep is generally interrupted. Some factors that lead to such sleep interruption include the intensive care unit (ICU) circumstance, primary medical disease itself, mental stress, and impacts of many drugs and other managements utilized to treat ICU patients. Another illness that may cause profound daytime somnolence is narcolepsy. Modafinil, methylphenidate and amphetamines are used as stimulants to treat symptoms, such as extreme daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and nocturnal sleep disruption. Such stimulants can increase awareness, improve perception and thinking, as well as assist in keeping people awake. The exact mechanism of action of modafinil is unclear. In vitro studies have demonstrated that binding of modafinil to the dopamine reuptake pump can prevent the reuptake of dopamine, resulting in a boost in extracellular dopamine. Modafinil is a racemic compound containing l and d isomers. Peak plasma concentrations of the drug occur at 2–4 h after administration; therefore, the absorption of modafinil is considered fast. Modafinil is properly distributed in tissues by binding to plasma proteins moderately. Despite the likely role of modafinil in improving cognition and arousal in critically ill patients, the available data on the use of modafinil in the ICU setting is limited. The aim of the study was to review the novel usage of modafinil for alleviation of fatigue, excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), and/or depression in critically ill patients.

]]>
<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2ef6d816-f9f6-4f19-8aa6-41e1e79e8c4a

Background

Opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) may occur following the reduction or discontinuation of opioid analgesics. In critically ill pediatric patients, OWS is a common and clinically significant condition. However, OWS in adult patients has not been assessed in detail. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of OWS in mechanically ventilated patients treated in an adult intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods

This study was a retrospective evaluation of data from patients treated in the medical ICU for > 3 days and who received only one type of opioid analgesic. OWS was assessed over a 24 hours period from discontinuation or reduction (by > 50%) of continuous opioid infusion. OWS was defined as the presence of ≥ 3 central nervous system or autonomic nervous system symptoms.

Results

In 126 patients treated with remifentanil (n = 58), fentanyl (n = 47), or morphine (n = 21), OWS was seen in 31.0%, 36.2%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively (P = 0.078). The most common symptom was a change in respiratory rate (remifentanil, 94.4%; fentanyl, 76.5%; morphine, 100%). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model showed that OWS was negatively associated with morphine treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037–0.743) and duration of opioid infusion (HR, 0.566; 95% CI, 0.451–0.712).

Conclusion

OWS is not uncommon in mechanically ventilated adult patients who received continuous infusion of opioids for > 3 days. The use of morphine may be associated with a decreased risk of OWS.

]]>
<![CDATA[Relationship between Use of Rehabilitation Resources and ICU Readmission and ER Visits in ICU Survivors: the Korean ICU National Data Study 2008-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N34d8441b-cb47-4aa2-bd6b-af7f2e6bfcef

Background

Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit.

Results

During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not (P < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy (P < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88).

Conclusion

In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit.

]]>
<![CDATA[Initial Clinical Impressions of the Critical Care of COVID-19 Patients in Seattle, New York City, and Chicago.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2a571675-7cc1-43ca-a327-5ecc71078148

Since the first recognition of a cluster of novel respiratory viral infections in China in late December 2019, intensivists in the United States have watched with growing concern as infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus―now named Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19)―have spread to hospitals in the United States. Because COVID-19 is extremely transmissible and can progress to a severe form of respiratory failure, the potential to overwhelm available critical care resources is high and critical care management of COVID-19 patients has been thrust into the spotlight. COVID-19 arrived in the United States in January and, as anticipated, has dramatically increased the usage of critical care resources. Three of the hardest-hit cities have been Seattle, New York City, and Chicago with a combined total of over 14,000 cases as of March 23, 2020.

In this special article, we describe initial clinical impressions of critical care of COVID-19 in these areas, with attention to clinical presentation, laboratory values, organ system effects, treatment strategies, and resource management. We highlight clinical observations that align with or differ from already published reports. These impressions represent only the early empiric experience of the authors and are not intended to serve as recommendations or guidelines for practice, but rather as a starting point for intensivists preparing to address COVID-19 when it arrives in their community.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association of weaning preparedness with extubation outcome of mechanically ventilated patients in medical intensive care units: a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7206b26f-7976-4083-b76a-7f64164faba8

Background

Assessment of preparedness of weaning has been recommended before extubation for mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to understand the association of a structured assessment of weaning preparedness with successful liberation.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated patients with acute respiratory failure who experienced an extubation trial at the medical intensive care units of a medical center and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between those patients with successful and failed extubation. A composite score to assess the preparedness of weaning, the WEANSNOW score, was generated consisting of eight components, including Weaning parameters, Endotracheal tube, Arterial blood gas analysis, Nutrition, Secretions, Neuromuscular-affecting agents, Obstructive airway problems and Wakefulness. The prognostic ability of the WEANSNOW score for extubation was then analyzed.

Results

Of the 205 patients included, 138 (67.3%) patients had successful extubation. Compared with the failure group, the success group had a significantly shorter duration of MV before the weaning attempt (11.2 ± 11.6 vs. 31.7 ± 26.2 days, p < 0.001), more with congestive heart failure (42.0% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.020), and had different distribution of the types of acute respiratory failure (p = 0.037). The failure group also had a higher WEANSNOW score (1.22 ± 0.85 vs. 0.51 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and worse Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (93.9 ± 63.8 vs. 56.3 ± 35.1, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a WEANSNOW Score = 1 or higher (OR = 2.880 (95% CI [1.291–6.426]), p = 0.010) and intubation duration >21 days (OR = 7.752 (95% CI [3.560–16.879]), p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased probability of extubation failure.

Conclusion

Assessing the pre-extubation status of intubated patients in a checklist-based approach using the WEANSNOW score might provide valuable insights into extubation failure in patients in a medical ICU for acute respiratory failure. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the practice of assessing weaning preparedness.

]]>
<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

]]>
<![CDATA[Multiple criteria decision analysis approach to consider therapeutic innovations in the emergency department: The methoxyflurane organizational impact in acute trauma pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48fe9543-bf7a-4bb3-b7f3-098351efee5f

Background

Acute trauma pain is poorly managed in the emergency department (ED). The reasons are partly organizational: ED crowding and rare trauma care pathways contribute to oligoanalgesia. Anticipating the organizational impact of an innovative care procedure might facilitate the decision-making process and help to optimize pain management.

Methods

We used a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach to consider the organizational impact of methoxyflurane (self-administered) in the ED, introduced alone or supported by a trauma care pathway. A MCDA experiment was designed for this specific context, 8 experts in emergency trauma care pathways (leading physicians and pharmacists working in French urban tertiary hospitals) were recruited. The study involved four steps: (i) Selection of organizational criteria for evaluating the innovation’s impact; (ii) assessment of the relative weight of each criterion; (iii) choice of appropriate scenarios for exploring the organizational impact of MEOX under various contexts; and (iv) software-assisted simulation based on pairwise comparisons of the scenarios. The final outcome measure was the expected overall organizational impact of methoxyflurane on a 0-to-100 scale (score >50: positive impact).

Results

Nine organizational criteria were selected. "Mean length of stay in the ED" was the most weighted. Methoxyflurane alone obtained 59 as a total score, with a putative positive impact for eight criteria, and a neutral effect on one. When a trauma care pathway was introduced concomitantly, the impact of methoxyflurane was greater overall (score: 75) and for each individual criterion.

Conclusions

Our model highlighted the putative positive organizational impact of methoxyflurane in the ED—particularly when supported by a trauma care pathway—and the relevance of expert consensus in this particular pharmacoeconomic context. The MCDA approach could be extended to other research fields and healthcare challenges in emergency medicine.

]]>
<![CDATA[Stepwise stroke recognition through clinical information, vital signs, and initial labs (CIVIL): Electronic health record-based observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0f0adfcb-3c92-4db3-bdce-cd884fd183e7

Background

Stroke recognition systems have been developed to reduce time delays, however, a comprehensive triaging score identifying stroke subtypes is needed to guide appropriate management. We aimed to develop a prehospital scoring system for rapid stroke recognition and identify stroke subtype simultaneously.

Methods and findings

In prospective database of regional emergency and stroke center, Clinical Information, Vital signs, and Initial Labs (CIVIL) of 1,599 patients suspected of acute stroke was analyzed from an automatically-stored electronic health record. Final confirmation was performed with neuroimaging. Using multiple regression analyses, we determined independent predictors of tier 1 (true-stroke or not), tier 2 (hemorrhagic stroke or not), and tier 3 (emergent large vessel occlusion [ELVO] or not). The diagnostic performance of the stepwise CIVIL scoring system was investigated using internal validation. A new scoring system characterized by a stepwise clinical assessment has been developed in three tiers. Tier 1: Seven CIVIL-AS3A2P items (total score from –7 to +6) were deduced for true stroke as Age (≥ 60 years); Stroke risks without Seizure or psychiatric disease, extreme Sugar; “any Asymmetry”, “not Ambulating”; abnormal blood Pressure at a cut-off point ≥ 1 with diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 56.4%. Tier 2: Four items for hemorrhagic stroke were identified as the CIVIL-MAPS indicating Mental change, Age below 60 years, high blood Pressure, no Stroke risks with cut-point ≥ 2 (sensitivity 47.5%, specificity 85.4%). Tier 3: For ELVO diagnosis: we applied with CIVIL-GFAST items (Gaze, Face, Arm, Speech) with cut-point ≥ 3 (sensitivity 66.5%, specificity 79.8%). The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and require a prospective validation of the CIVIL scoring system.

Conclusions

The CIVIL score is a comprehensive and versatile system that recognizes strokes and identifies the stroke subtype simultaneously.

]]>
<![CDATA[Clinical Characteristics of Patients Who Died of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf8abd39c-acfe-4bd2-acd0-34b481fbcb47

This case series describes the characteristics of a cohort of patients who died of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.

]]>
<![CDATA[Effect of Intensivist Communication in a Simulated Setting on Interpretation of Prognosis Among Family Members of Patients at High Risk of Intensive Care Unit Admission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9bd7ed53-e3d8-4c25-a06e-4ca4cd7b2ba6

Key Points

Question

Do intensivist communication patterns affect the way family members understand their loved one’s prognosis in the intensive care unit?

Findings

In this randomized trial of 302 family members of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving long-term oxygen therapy, participants were asked to imagine their family member was in the intensive care unit, and the participants were presented video vignettes of an intensivist who expected a patient to die answering the prognostic question “What do you think is most likely to happen?” Participants who viewed videos of the intensivist using indirect or redirection language perceived the intensivist to be more optimistic than participants who viewed a video of the intensivist answering the question directly.

Meaning

These findings suggest that family members interpret physicians’ indirect responses to questions about prognosis as more optimistic than direct responses.

]]>
<![CDATA[Perceptions of the technical staff of professional teams regarding injury prevention in Spanish national futsal leagues: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb05ed454-4e98-4196-af90-08016e923efb

Futsal is a sport with increasing popularity and level of performance, both in male and female categories. Also, there are several injuries along a season, so it is needed to know how to reduce this burden. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of technical staff on injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures, and the strategies used by them within professional male and female futsal teams. A cross-sectional study was designed during the 2017–2018 season. A total of 32 futsal teams involved in male and female Spanish national futsal leagues completed, through an online survey platform, a questionnaire about injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures. Findings showed that: (a) most teams reported enough human resources, but insufficient material and time resources, (b) the main risk factors detected were previous injuries, strength deficits and dehydration, (c) functional movement patterns, flexibility tests and self-report questionnaires were the most applied tests for detecting injury risks in their players and (d) most of the main preventive measures used by technical staff matched with the best valued by them. Technical staff defined properly the main risk factors in futsal performance, as well as they applied preventive strategies with scientific support. The information provided in this research could be of interest for sport scientists and technical staff when designing more accurate and efficient injury prevention programs in futsal.

]]>
<![CDATA[Critical Care of the Liver Transplant Recipient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6f948311-a324-4923-ab3a-5dd9d4d1de47

Patient survival following orthotopic liver transplantation has greatly increased following improvements in surgical technique, anesthetic care, and immunosuppression. The critical care of the liver transplant recipient has paralleled these improvements, largely thanks to input from multidisciplinary teams and institution-specific protocols guiding management and care. This article provides an overview of the approach to critical care of the postoperative adult liver transplant recipient outlining common issues faced by the intensivist. Approaches to extubation and hemodynamic assessment are described. The provision of appropriate immunosuppression, infection prophylaxis, and nutrition is addressed. To aid prompt diagnosis and treatment, intensivists must be aware of postoperative complications of bleeding, primary nonfunction, delayed graft function, vascular thromboses, biliary complications, rejection, and organ dysfunction.

]]>
<![CDATA[Would you like to participate in this trial? The practice of informed consent in intrapartum research in the last 30 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na45ec8a9-d35b-4ecd-a654-0f10371697fd

Background

Informed consent is the cornerstone of the ethical conduct and protection of the rights and wellbeing of participants in clinical research. Therefore, it is important to identify the most appropriate moments for the participants to be informed and to give consent, so that they are able to make a responsible and autonomous decision. However, the optimal timing of consent in clinical research during the intrapartum period remains controversial, and currently, there is no clear guidance.

Objective

We aimed to describe practices of informed consent in intrapartum care clinical research in the last three decades, as reported in uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention trials.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of the studies included in the Cochrane review entitled “Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis” published in 2018. All the reports included in the Cochrane network meta-analysis were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, except for those reported in languages other than English, French or Spanish. We extracted and synthesized data on the time each of the components of the informed consent process occurred.

Results

We assessed data from 192 studies, out of 196 studies included in the Cochrane review. The majority of studies (59.9%, 115 studies) reported that women were informed about the study, without specifying the timing. When reported, most studies informed women at admission to the facility for childbirth. Most of the studies reported that consent was sought, but only 59.9% reported the timing, which in most of the cases, was at admission for childbirth. Among these, 32 studies obtained consent in the active phase of labour, 17 in the latent phase and in 10 studies the labour status was unknown. Women were consented antenatally in 6 studies and in 8 studies the consent was obtained indistinctly during antenatal care or at admission. Most of the studies did not specified who was the person who sought the informed consent.

Conclusion

Practices of informed consent in trials on use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage showed variability and substandard reporting. Informed consent sought at admission for childbirth was the most frequent approach implemented in these trials.

]]>
<![CDATA[Assessment of Variability in End-of-Life Care Delivery in Intensive Care Units in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7c6d4181-ee47-4543-bffe-44416cae372b

Key Points

Question

Do intensive care units in the United States provide high-quality end-of-life care?

Findings

In this cohort study of 1536 decedents within a national quality improvement collaborative, end-of-life care delivery varied widely between intensive care units. There were 3 mutually exclusive unit-level patterns of end-of-life care delivery observed, which suggest meaningful differences in the experience of dying for patients cared for in higher-performing and lower-performing units.

Meaning

To improve care for all patients who die in an intensive care unit, future research should target unit-level variation and investigate the latent characteristics of high-performing units that promote high-quality end-of-life care.

]]>
<![CDATA[Dose–response characteristics of noninvasive ventilation in acute respiratory failure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N243c0d7e-9ae3-417b-94e1-b798949ab3c1

Acute noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a well-established therapy for acute respiratory failure but the dose–response characteristics of this therapy have not been defined. The aim of this study was to define this dose–response relationship.

This study was a retrospective review of patients receiving NIV for acute respiratory failure in a tertiary hospital respiratory high-dependency unit between July 2012 and June 2017. Mask-on time (rather than the period that NIV was in use) as the “dose” was compared with hospital survival as the “response”.

654 patients were included, 594 (91%) with hypercapnic respiratory failure (HCRF). NIV was used for a median (interquartile range (IQR)) duration of 2.74 (1.51–4.73) days and median (IQR) mask-on time was 34 (18–60) h (56.1% (41.2–69.5%) of treatment time). There was evidence of a dose–response relationship in the HCRF group up to a ceiling of 24 h mask-on time, but not in the hypoxaemic respiratory failure (HRF) group. There was a difference in survival with as little as 2 h mask-on time (92% compared with 73%; p<0.001). Patients requiring NIV for 80–100% of therapy time had lower survival.

We conclude that there is evidence of a dose–response relationship between cumulative NIV usage (mask-on time) and survival from as little as 2 h to a ceiling of ∼24 h in HCRF, but not in HRF.

]]>
<![CDATA[A new finite element based parameter to predict bone fracture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N73efbb2c-4546-457e-9797-023764c15f47

Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) is currently the most widely adopted non-invasive clinical technique to assess bone mineral density and bone mineral content in human research and represents the primary tool for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. DXA measures areal bone mineral density, BMD, which does not account for the three-dimensional structure of the vertebrae and for the distribution of bone mass. The result is that longitudinal DXA can only predict about 70% of vertebral fractures. This study proposes a complementary tool, based on Finite Element (FE) models, to improve the DXA accuracy. Bone is simulated as elastic and inhomogeneous material, with stiffness distribution derived from DXA greyscale images of density. The numerical procedure simulates a compressive load on each vertebra to evaluate the local minimum principal strain values. From these values, both the local average and the maximum strains are computed over the cross sections and along the height of the analysed bone region, to provide a parameter, named Strain Index of Bone (SIB), which could be considered as a bone fragility index. The procedure is initially validated on 33 cylindrical trabecular bone samples obtained from porcine lumbar vertebrae, experimentally tested under static compressive loading. Comparing the experimental mechanical parameters with the SIB, we could find a higher correlation of the ultimate stress, σULT, with the SIB values (R2adj = 0.63) than that observed with the conventional DXA-based clinical parameters, i.e. Bone Mineral Density, BMD (R2adj = 0.34) and Trabecular Bone Score, TBS (R2adj = -0.03). The paper finally presents a few case studies of numerical simulations carried out on human lumbar vertebrae. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, SIB could be used—together with BMD and TBS—to improve the fracture risk assessment and support the clinical decision to assume specific drugs for metabolic bone diseases.

]]>
<![CDATA[The Association between Supraphysiologic Arterial Oxygen Levels and Mortality in Critically Ill Patients. A Multicenter Observational Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na43ef492-ddd1-4121-a69b-085d46fffef7

Rationale: There is conflicting evidence on harm related to exposure to supraphysiologic PaO2 (hyperoxemia) in critically ill patients.

Objectives: To examine the association between longitudinal exposure to hyperoxemia and mortality in patients admitted to ICUs in five United Kingdom university hospitals.

Methods: A retrospective cohort of ICU admissions between January 31, 2014, and December 31, 2018, from the National Institute of Health Research Critical Care Health Informatics Collaborative was studied. Multivariable logistic regression modeled death in ICU by exposure to hyperoxemia.

Measurements and Main Results: Subsets with oxygen exposure windows of 0 to 1, 0 to 3, 0 to 5, and 0 to 7 days were evaluated, capturing 19,515, 10,525, 6,360, and 4,296 patients, respectively. Hyperoxemia dose was defined as the area between the PaO2 time curve and a boundary of 13.3 kPa (100 mm Hg) divided by the hours of potential exposure (24, 72, 120, or 168 h). An association was found between exposure to hyperoxemia and ICU mortality for exposure windows of 0 to 1 days (odds ratio [OR], 1.15; 95% compatibility interval [CI], 0.95–1.38; P = 0.15), 0 to 3 days (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04–1.74; P = 0.02), 0 to 5 days (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.07–2.13; P = 0.02), and 0 to 7 days (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.11–2.72; P = 0.02). However, a dose–response relationship was not observed. There was no evidence to support a differential effect between hyperoxemia and either a respiratory diagnosis or mechanical ventilation.

Conclusions: An association between hyperoxemia and mortality was observed in our large, unselected multicenter cohort. The absence of a dose–response relationship weakens causal interpretation. Further experimental research is warranted to elucidate this important question.

]]>
<![CDATA[Pre-hospital use of capnography during emergency sedation analgesia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd926a563-dbde-47be-8b98-11442d83d035

Background: Providing optimal patient care in the challenging, uncontrolled, and sometimes hostile pre-hospital environment may require the use of potent analgesics and sedatives. During pre-hospital emergencies, narcotics or sedatives administered for sedation, anxiolysis, or analgesia to allow the patient to tolerate unpleasant procedures, such as traction splint application, can result in cardiovascular and respiratory adverse events.1 Early recognition of poor oxygenation may prevent unnecessary patient hypoxia. The European Society of Anaesthesiology and the American Society of Anaesthesiologist mandate continuous capnography, in addition to standard monitoring which include pulse oximetry, 4-lead ECG, blood pressure, and heart rate measurements.1,2 Capnography refers to the non-invasive measurement of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaled breath. Monitoring respiratory status provides early warning, thereby allowing clinicians to intervene before the onset of respiratory depression, potentially leading to bradypnoea, apnoea, hypoxia, and death.3 In addition, late identification of respiratory failure may lead to unnecessary endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, increasing risk of protracted hospital stay and associated hospital-acquired infections.

Oxygenation and ventilation must be measured in both intubated and spontaneously breathing patients. While clinical indicators like chest rise or the plethysmography-derived respiratory rate can be used, monitoring the capnographic waveform for hypopnoeic and bradypnoeic patterns provides the clinician with a quick, accurate indication of acute adverse respiratory events.4 In two randomized trials, patients monitored with capnography in addition to standard of care, experienced significantly fewer episodes of hypoxia than those monitored without capnography.3,5 Hamad Medical Corporation Ambulance Service (HMCAS) in Qatar introduced a new clinical practice guideline (CPG) for safe sedation and monitoring in August 2017, mandating the routine use of capnography for all sedated patients. Safe sedation is achieved when the patient's oxygenation, ventilation, or haemodynamic status is not negatively impacted by the sedation procedure. Methods: The study aimed to describe trends in the use of capnography and other monitoring modalities for patients receiving Ketamine, Fentanyl, or Midazolam. Retrospective quantitative analysis of an existing HMCAS medical records database linked to a Business Intelligence (BI) tool enabled direct analysis on the tool and via a linked Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet, reviewing all emergency cases from 1st January 2017 to 31st December 2018. Frequency analysis and measures of central tendency was applied to the relevant clinical variables. All patient and practitioner identifiable data fields were redacted and not reported on. Results: Oxygen saturation (SpO2) and blood pressure monitoring was used on all patients (n = 5157, 100%), 4-lead ECG was placed on 3710 (72%) patients, while capnography was used on 4096 patients (79%, range = 39% to 99%). Capnography usage steadily improved over the 24-month period, especially for patients receiving Fentanyl (Figure 1). Conclusion: There was a significant improvement in the use of capnography during monitoring of patients that received Fentanyl, Ketamine, or Midazolam, with the most significant improvement for patients receiving Fentanyl alone. Further studies are required to determine the impact of this improvement on actual adverse event frequency.

]]>