ResearchPad - Critical Care https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Advanced Pulmonary and Cardiac Support of COVID-19 Patients: Emerging Recommendations From ASAIO—A “Living Working Document”]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Ne619a3fa-c388-40ab-bb7e-9d3f01fcd77d

The severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 is an emerging viral pathogen responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID)-19 pandemic resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Based on preliminary clinical reports, hypoxic respiratory failure complicated by acute respiratory distress syndrome is the leading cause of death. Further, septic shock, late-onset cardiac dysfunction, and multiorgan system failure are also described as contributors to overall mortality. Although extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and other modalities of mechanical cardiopulmonary support are increasingly being utilized in the treatment of respiratory and circulatory failure refractory to conventional management, their role and efficacy as support modalities in the present pandemic are unclear. We review the rapidly changing epidemiology, pathophysiology, emerging therapy, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19; and based on these data and previous experience with artificial cardiopulmonary support strategies, particularly in the setting of infectious diseases, provide consensus recommendations from ASAIO. Of note, this is a “living document,” which will be updated periodically, as additional information and understanding emerges.

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<![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

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<![CDATA[Association between Cardiac Arrest Time and Favorable Neurological Outcomes in Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Targeted Temperature Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N09d8d741-90b4-4dde-8c98-335591aecfee

Background

Patients who achieve a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with prolonged cardiac arrest have been recognized to have a poor prognosis. This might lead to reluctance in the provision of post-resuscitation care. Hence, we evaluated the impact of cardiac arrest time on neurologic outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients.

Methods

This cross-sectional study used a hospital-based nationwide registry of OHCAs in Korea between 2012 and 2016. All witnessed OHCA patients aged ≥ 15 years and treated with targeted temperature management were included. We collected the time from collapse to sustained ROSC, which was defined as the downtime. The primary outcome was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent factors for primary outcome in patients with downtime > 30 minutes.

Results

Overall, neurologically favorable outcome rates were 30.5% in 1,963 patients. When the downtime was stratified into categories of 0–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and > 60 minutes according to 10-minute intervals, neurologically favorable outcome rates were 58.2%, 52.3%, 37.3%, 24.6%, 14.1%, 17.4%, and 16.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with downtime > 30 minutes, age 51–70 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50–11.49), age ≤ 50 years (OR, 13.16; 95% CI, 6.06–28.57), shockable rhythm (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 2.71–5.68), bystander resuscitation (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.27–2.55), cardiac cause (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.69–7.25), percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.18–2.81), and downtime ≤ 40 minutes (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.42–2.88) were associated with favorable neurological outcomes.

Conclusion

In patients with prolonged downtime, predicting favorable neurologic outcome may be multifactorial. The cutoff value for downtime is not the only determining factor to provide post-resuscitation care.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Triage Modifications Using Vital Signs in Pediatric Triage: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N025bd8af-3fc2-4318-8650-1a25dc8bb6c6

Background

Previous studies on inter-rater reliability of pediatric triage systems have compared triage levels classified by two or more triage providers using the same information about individual patients. This overlooks the fact that the evaluator can decide whether or not to use the information provided. The authors therefore aimed to analyze the differences in the use of vital signs for triage modification in pediatric triage.

Methods

This was an observational cross-sectional study of national registry data collected in real time from all emergency medical services beyond the local emergency medical centers (EMCs) throughout Korea. Data from patients under the age of 15 who visited EMC nationwide from January 2016 to December 2016 were analyzed. Depending on whether triage modifications were made using respiratory rate or heart rate beyond the normal range by age during the pediatric triage process, they were divided into down-triage and non-down-triage groups. The proportions in the down-triage group were analyzed according to the triage provider's profession, mental status, arrival mode, presence of trauma, and the EMC class.

Results

During the study period, 1,385,579 patients' data were analyzed. Of these, 981,281 patients were eligible for triage modification. The differences in down-triage proportions according to the profession of the triage provider (resident, 50.5%; paramedics, 47.7%; specialist, 44.9%; nurses, 44.2%) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The triage provider's professional down-triage proportion according to the medical condition of the patients showed statistically significant differences except for the unresponsive mental state (P = 0.502) and the case of air transport (P = 0.468).

Conclusion

Down-triage proportion due to abnormal heart rates and respiratory rates was significantly different according to the triage provider's condition. The existing concept of inter-rater reliability of the pediatric triage system needs to be reconsidered.

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<![CDATA[Sensitivity of Continuous Electroencephalography to Detect Ictal Activity After Cardiac Arrest]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N344751d9-3247-48ba-9cca-070f5f424491

Key Points

Question

Does continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring improve detection of epileptiform events associated with neurological outcome or potentially treatable seizure among patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest compared with brief intermittent EEG?

Findings

In this cohort study including 759 patients who were resuscitated from cardiac arrest, continuous monitoring for nearly 48 hours was needed to achieve 95% sensitivity for prognostic epileptiform events; compared with brief intermittent EEG, continuous monitoring did not improve prediction of outcome at hospital discharge. Potentially treatable seizures were uncommon and rarely detected by brief intermittent monitoring.

Meaning

Compared with continuous EEG, brief intermittent EEG is insensitive for detection of potentially treatable seizures after cardiac arrest but may be sufficient to guide multimodality prediction of outcome at hospital discharge.

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<![CDATA[Azithromycin Treatment vs Placebo in Children With Respiratory Syncytial Virus–Induced Respiratory Failure]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf700c81e-c0fe-45c8-b0f9-37bac5092305

Key Points

Question

Is azithromycin (AZM) safe, and does it reduce nasal and endotracheal matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) levels in children with respiratory syncytial virus–induced respiratory failure?

Findings

In this randomized phase 2 clinical trial that included 48 children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit with respiratory syncytial virus lung disease who required positive pressure ventilation, AZM was safe. No difference in nasal MMP-9 levels was observed between treatment group, but in those who required mechanical ventilation and received a high dose of AZM, endotracheal active and total MMP-9 levels were lower on day 3 of treatment.

Meaning

In this study, high doses of AZM were safe, reduced endotracheal MMP-9 levels in patients receiving mechanical ventilation, and potentially improved outcomes in critically ill children with respiratory syncytial virus infections.

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<![CDATA[A review on modafinil: the characteristics, function, and use in critical care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N97441197-af13-405c-a595-e3cffe47334a

Abstract

In critically ill patients, sleep is generally interrupted. Some factors that lead to such sleep interruption include the intensive care unit (ICU) circumstance, primary medical disease itself, mental stress, and impacts of many drugs and other managements utilized to treat ICU patients. Another illness that may cause profound daytime somnolence is narcolepsy. Modafinil, methylphenidate and amphetamines are used as stimulants to treat symptoms, such as extreme daytime sleepiness, cataplexy and nocturnal sleep disruption. Such stimulants can increase awareness, improve perception and thinking, as well as assist in keeping people awake. The exact mechanism of action of modafinil is unclear. In vitro studies have demonstrated that binding of modafinil to the dopamine reuptake pump can prevent the reuptake of dopamine, resulting in a boost in extracellular dopamine. Modafinil is a racemic compound containing l and d isomers. Peak plasma concentrations of the drug occur at 2–4 h after administration; therefore, the absorption of modafinil is considered fast. Modafinil is properly distributed in tissues by binding to plasma proteins moderately. Despite the likely role of modafinil in improving cognition and arousal in critically ill patients, the available data on the use of modafinil in the ICU setting is limited. The aim of the study was to review the novel usage of modafinil for alleviation of fatigue, excessive daytime somnolence (EDS), and/or depression in critically ill patients.

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2ef6d816-f9f6-4f19-8aa6-41e1e79e8c4a

Background

Opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) may occur following the reduction or discontinuation of opioid analgesics. In critically ill pediatric patients, OWS is a common and clinically significant condition. However, OWS in adult patients has not been assessed in detail. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of OWS in mechanically ventilated patients treated in an adult intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods

This study was a retrospective evaluation of data from patients treated in the medical ICU for > 3 days and who received only one type of opioid analgesic. OWS was assessed over a 24 hours period from discontinuation or reduction (by > 50%) of continuous opioid infusion. OWS was defined as the presence of ≥ 3 central nervous system or autonomic nervous system symptoms.

Results

In 126 patients treated with remifentanil (n = 58), fentanyl (n = 47), or morphine (n = 21), OWS was seen in 31.0%, 36.2%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively (P = 0.078). The most common symptom was a change in respiratory rate (remifentanil, 94.4%; fentanyl, 76.5%; morphine, 100%). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model showed that OWS was negatively associated with morphine treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037–0.743) and duration of opioid infusion (HR, 0.566; 95% CI, 0.451–0.712).

Conclusion

OWS is not uncommon in mechanically ventilated adult patients who received continuous infusion of opioids for > 3 days. The use of morphine may be associated with a decreased risk of OWS.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between Use of Rehabilitation Resources and ICU Readmission and ER Visits in ICU Survivors: the Korean ICU National Data Study 2008-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N34d8441b-cb47-4aa2-bd6b-af7f2e6bfcef

Background

Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit.

Results

During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not (P < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy (P < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88).

Conclusion

In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit.

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<![CDATA[Initial Clinical Impressions of the Critical Care of COVID-19 Patients in Seattle, New York City, and Chicago.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2a571675-7cc1-43ca-a327-5ecc71078148

Since the first recognition of a cluster of novel respiratory viral infections in China in late December 2019, intensivists in the United States have watched with growing concern as infections with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus―now named Coronavirus Disease of 2019 (COVID-19)―have spread to hospitals in the United States. Because COVID-19 is extremely transmissible and can progress to a severe form of respiratory failure, the potential to overwhelm available critical care resources is high and critical care management of COVID-19 patients has been thrust into the spotlight. COVID-19 arrived in the United States in January and, as anticipated, has dramatically increased the usage of critical care resources. Three of the hardest-hit cities have been Seattle, New York City, and Chicago with a combined total of over 14,000 cases as of March 23, 2020.

In this special article, we describe initial clinical impressions of critical care of COVID-19 in these areas, with attention to clinical presentation, laboratory values, organ system effects, treatment strategies, and resource management. We highlight clinical observations that align with or differ from already published reports. These impressions represent only the early empiric experience of the authors and are not intended to serve as recommendations or guidelines for practice, but rather as a starting point for intensivists preparing to address COVID-19 when it arrives in their community.

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<![CDATA[Association of weaning preparedness with extubation outcome of mechanically ventilated patients in medical intensive care units: a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7206b26f-7976-4083-b76a-7f64164faba8

Background

Assessment of preparedness of weaning has been recommended before extubation for mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to understand the association of a structured assessment of weaning preparedness with successful liberation.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated patients with acute respiratory failure who experienced an extubation trial at the medical intensive care units of a medical center and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between those patients with successful and failed extubation. A composite score to assess the preparedness of weaning, the WEANSNOW score, was generated consisting of eight components, including Weaning parameters, Endotracheal tube, Arterial blood gas analysis, Nutrition, Secretions, Neuromuscular-affecting agents, Obstructive airway problems and Wakefulness. The prognostic ability of the WEANSNOW score for extubation was then analyzed.

Results

Of the 205 patients included, 138 (67.3%) patients had successful extubation. Compared with the failure group, the success group had a significantly shorter duration of MV before the weaning attempt (11.2 ± 11.6 vs. 31.7 ± 26.2 days, p < 0.001), more with congestive heart failure (42.0% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.020), and had different distribution of the types of acute respiratory failure (p = 0.037). The failure group also had a higher WEANSNOW score (1.22 ± 0.85 vs. 0.51 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and worse Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (93.9 ± 63.8 vs. 56.3 ± 35.1, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a WEANSNOW Score = 1 or higher (OR = 2.880 (95% CI [1.291–6.426]), p = 0.010) and intubation duration >21 days (OR = 7.752 (95% CI [3.560–16.879]), p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased probability of extubation failure.

Conclusion

Assessing the pre-extubation status of intubated patients in a checklist-based approach using the WEANSNOW score might provide valuable insights into extubation failure in patients in a medical ICU for acute respiratory failure. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the practice of assessing weaning preparedness.

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<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Multiple criteria decision analysis approach to consider therapeutic innovations in the emergency department: The methoxyflurane organizational impact in acute trauma pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48fe9543-bf7a-4bb3-b7f3-098351efee5f

Background

Acute trauma pain is poorly managed in the emergency department (ED). The reasons are partly organizational: ED crowding and rare trauma care pathways contribute to oligoanalgesia. Anticipating the organizational impact of an innovative care procedure might facilitate the decision-making process and help to optimize pain management.

Methods

We used a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach to consider the organizational impact of methoxyflurane (self-administered) in the ED, introduced alone or supported by a trauma care pathway. A MCDA experiment was designed for this specific context, 8 experts in emergency trauma care pathways (leading physicians and pharmacists working in French urban tertiary hospitals) were recruited. The study involved four steps: (i) Selection of organizational criteria for evaluating the innovation’s impact; (ii) assessment of the relative weight of each criterion; (iii) choice of appropriate scenarios for exploring the organizational impact of MEOX under various contexts; and (iv) software-assisted simulation based on pairwise comparisons of the scenarios. The final outcome measure was the expected overall organizational impact of methoxyflurane on a 0-to-100 scale (score >50: positive impact).

Results

Nine organizational criteria were selected. "Mean length of stay in the ED" was the most weighted. Methoxyflurane alone obtained 59 as a total score, with a putative positive impact for eight criteria, and a neutral effect on one. When a trauma care pathway was introduced concomitantly, the impact of methoxyflurane was greater overall (score: 75) and for each individual criterion.

Conclusions

Our model highlighted the putative positive organizational impact of methoxyflurane in the ED—particularly when supported by a trauma care pathway—and the relevance of expert consensus in this particular pharmacoeconomic context. The MCDA approach could be extended to other research fields and healthcare challenges in emergency medicine.

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<![CDATA[Stepwise stroke recognition through clinical information, vital signs, and initial labs (CIVIL): Electronic health record-based observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0f0adfcb-3c92-4db3-bdce-cd884fd183e7

Background

Stroke recognition systems have been developed to reduce time delays, however, a comprehensive triaging score identifying stroke subtypes is needed to guide appropriate management. We aimed to develop a prehospital scoring system for rapid stroke recognition and identify stroke subtype simultaneously.

Methods and findings

In prospective database of regional emergency and stroke center, Clinical Information, Vital signs, and Initial Labs (CIVIL) of 1,599 patients suspected of acute stroke was analyzed from an automatically-stored electronic health record. Final confirmation was performed with neuroimaging. Using multiple regression analyses, we determined independent predictors of tier 1 (true-stroke or not), tier 2 (hemorrhagic stroke or not), and tier 3 (emergent large vessel occlusion [ELVO] or not). The diagnostic performance of the stepwise CIVIL scoring system was investigated using internal validation. A new scoring system characterized by a stepwise clinical assessment has been developed in three tiers. Tier 1: Seven CIVIL-AS3A2P items (total score from –7 to +6) were deduced for true stroke as Age (≥ 60 years); Stroke risks without Seizure or psychiatric disease, extreme Sugar; “any Asymmetry”, “not Ambulating”; abnormal blood Pressure at a cut-off point ≥ 1 with diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 56.4%. Tier 2: Four items for hemorrhagic stroke were identified as the CIVIL-MAPS indicating Mental change, Age below 60 years, high blood Pressure, no Stroke risks with cut-point ≥ 2 (sensitivity 47.5%, specificity 85.4%). Tier 3: For ELVO diagnosis: we applied with CIVIL-GFAST items (Gaze, Face, Arm, Speech) with cut-point ≥ 3 (sensitivity 66.5%, specificity 79.8%). The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and require a prospective validation of the CIVIL scoring system.

Conclusions

The CIVIL score is a comprehensive and versatile system that recognizes strokes and identifies the stroke subtype simultaneously.

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<![CDATA[Clinical Characteristics of Patients Who Died of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nf8abd39c-acfe-4bd2-acd0-34b481fbcb47

This case series describes the characteristics of a cohort of patients who died of coronavirus disease 2019 in China.

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<![CDATA[Effect of Intensivist Communication in a Simulated Setting on Interpretation of Prognosis Among Family Members of Patients at High Risk of Intensive Care Unit Admission]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N9bd7ed53-e3d8-4c25-a06e-4ca4cd7b2ba6

Key Points

Question

Do intensivist communication patterns affect the way family members understand their loved one’s prognosis in the intensive care unit?

Findings

In this randomized trial of 302 family members of people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving long-term oxygen therapy, participants were asked to imagine their family member was in the intensive care unit, and the participants were presented video vignettes of an intensivist who expected a patient to die answering the prognostic question “What do you think is most likely to happen?” Participants who viewed videos of the intensivist using indirect or redirection language perceived the intensivist to be more optimistic than participants who viewed a video of the intensivist answering the question directly.

Meaning

These findings suggest that family members interpret physicians’ indirect responses to questions about prognosis as more optimistic than direct responses.

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<![CDATA[Perceptions of the technical staff of professional teams regarding injury prevention in Spanish national futsal leagues: a cross-sectional study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb05ed454-4e98-4196-af90-08016e923efb

Futsal is a sport with increasing popularity and level of performance, both in male and female categories. Also, there are several injuries along a season, so it is needed to know how to reduce this burden. The purpose of this study was to describe the perceptions of technical staff on injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures, and the strategies used by them within professional male and female futsal teams. A cross-sectional study was designed during the 2017–2018 season. A total of 32 futsal teams involved in male and female Spanish national futsal leagues completed, through an online survey platform, a questionnaire about injury risk factors, risk testing and preventive measures. Findings showed that: (a) most teams reported enough human resources, but insufficient material and time resources, (b) the main risk factors detected were previous injuries, strength deficits and dehydration, (c) functional movement patterns, flexibility tests and self-report questionnaires were the most applied tests for detecting injury risks in their players and (d) most of the main preventive measures used by technical staff matched with the best valued by them. Technical staff defined properly the main risk factors in futsal performance, as well as they applied preventive strategies with scientific support. The information provided in this research could be of interest for sport scientists and technical staff when designing more accurate and efficient injury prevention programs in futsal.

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<![CDATA[Critical Care of the Liver Transplant Recipient]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6f948311-a324-4923-ab3a-5dd9d4d1de47

Patient survival following orthotopic liver transplantation has greatly increased following improvements in surgical technique, anesthetic care, and immunosuppression. The critical care of the liver transplant recipient has paralleled these improvements, largely thanks to input from multidisciplinary teams and institution-specific protocols guiding management and care. This article provides an overview of the approach to critical care of the postoperative adult liver transplant recipient outlining common issues faced by the intensivist. Approaches to extubation and hemodynamic assessment are described. The provision of appropriate immunosuppression, infection prophylaxis, and nutrition is addressed. To aid prompt diagnosis and treatment, intensivists must be aware of postoperative complications of bleeding, primary nonfunction, delayed graft function, vascular thromboses, biliary complications, rejection, and organ dysfunction.

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<![CDATA[Would you like to participate in this trial? The practice of informed consent in intrapartum research in the last 30 years]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na45ec8a9-d35b-4ecd-a654-0f10371697fd

Background

Informed consent is the cornerstone of the ethical conduct and protection of the rights and wellbeing of participants in clinical research. Therefore, it is important to identify the most appropriate moments for the participants to be informed and to give consent, so that they are able to make a responsible and autonomous decision. However, the optimal timing of consent in clinical research during the intrapartum period remains controversial, and currently, there is no clear guidance.

Objective

We aimed to describe practices of informed consent in intrapartum care clinical research in the last three decades, as reported in uterotonics for postpartum haemorrhage prevention trials.

Methods

This is a secondary analysis of the studies included in the Cochrane review entitled “Uterotonic agents for preventing postpartum haemorrhage: a network meta-analysis” published in 2018. All the reports included in the Cochrane network meta-analysis were eligible for inclusion in this analysis, except for those reported in languages other than English, French or Spanish. We extracted and synthesized data on the time each of the components of the informed consent process occurred.

Results

We assessed data from 192 studies, out of 196 studies included in the Cochrane review. The majority of studies (59.9%, 115 studies) reported that women were informed about the study, without specifying the timing. When reported, most studies informed women at admission to the facility for childbirth. Most of the studies reported that consent was sought, but only 59.9% reported the timing, which in most of the cases, was at admission for childbirth. Among these, 32 studies obtained consent in the active phase of labour, 17 in the latent phase and in 10 studies the labour status was unknown. Women were consented antenatally in 6 studies and in 8 studies the consent was obtained indistinctly during antenatal care or at admission. Most of the studies did not specified who was the person who sought the informed consent.

Conclusion

Practices of informed consent in trials on use of uterotonics for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage showed variability and substandard reporting. Informed consent sought at admission for childbirth was the most frequent approach implemented in these trials.

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<![CDATA[Assessment of Variability in End-of-Life Care Delivery in Intensive Care Units in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7c6d4181-ee47-4543-bffe-44416cae372b

Key Points

Question

Do intensive care units in the United States provide high-quality end-of-life care?

Findings

In this cohort study of 1536 decedents within a national quality improvement collaborative, end-of-life care delivery varied widely between intensive care units. There were 3 mutually exclusive unit-level patterns of end-of-life care delivery observed, which suggest meaningful differences in the experience of dying for patients cared for in higher-performing and lower-performing units.

Meaning

To improve care for all patients who die in an intensive care unit, future research should target unit-level variation and investigate the latent characteristics of high-performing units that promote high-quality end-of-life care.

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