ResearchPad - Demography https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Low fitness at low latitudes: Wintering in the tropics increases migratory delays and mortality rates in an Arctic breeding shorebird]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nad782b28-9eed-4ea2-8565-75cb2279014d

Abstract

  1. Evolutionary theories of seasonal migration generally assume that the costs of longer migrations are balanced by benefits at the non‐breeding destinations.

  2. We tested, and rejected, the null hypothesis of equal survival and timing of spring migration for High Arctic breeding sanderling Calidris alba using six and eight winter destinations between 55°N and 25°S, respectively.

  3. Annual apparent survival was considerably lower for adult birds wintering in tropical West Africa (Mauritania: 0.74 and Ghana: 0.75) than in three European sites (0.84, 0.84 and 0.87) and in subtropical Namibia (0.85). Moreover, compared with adults, second calendar‐year sanderlings in the tropics, but not in Europe, often refrained from migrating north during the first possible breeding season. During northward migration, tropical‐wintering sanderlings occurred at their final staging site in Iceland 5–15 days later than birds wintering further north or south. Namibia‐wintering sanderlings tracked with solar geolocators only staged in West Africa during southward migration.

  4. The low annual survival, the later age of first northward migration and the later passage through Iceland during northward migration of tropical‐wintering sanderlings, in addition to the skipping of this area during northward but not southward migration by Namibia‐wintering sanderlings, all suggest they face issues during the late non‐breeding season in West Africa.

  5. Migrating sanderlings defy long distances but may end up in winter areas with poor fitness prospects. We suggest that ecological conditions in tropical West Africa make the fuelling prior to northward departure problematic.

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<![CDATA[Promoting resilience in adolescents: A new social identity benefits those who need it most]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c40f815d5eed0c484386fe5

The Social Identity Approach to Health holds that groups provide us with a sense of meaning and belonging, and that these identity processes have a significant positive impact on our health and wellbeing. Typically, research drawing from the social identity approach with adolescents has focused on the benefits of existing group memberships. Here, using a sail-training intervention, we investigated the impact of providing adolescents with a new group (i.e., a new social identity) on psychological resilience. Across two studies, we demonstrate the benefits of a new social identity, in terms of increases in psychological resilience, flow predominantly to those adolescents who report the lowest levels of resilience at the start of the voyage. We discuss our findings in relation to the social identity approach and adolescent identity development more generally.

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<![CDATA[An association between multiculturalism and psychological distress]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c12cf99d5eed0c484914a13

Amidst increasing focus on rising rates of substance abuse and suicide among white Americans and extending prior research on intergroup attitudes and health, this study examines a novel factor associated with psychological distress: disagreement with multiculturalism. Using the Portraits of American Life Study (N = 2,292), logistic regressions indicate that for Whites and Hispanics, increased likelihood of psychological distress (depression, hopelessness and worthlessness) is associated with stronger disagreement with multiculturalism, measured as “If we want to create a society where people get along, we must recognize that each ethnic group has the right to maintain its own unique traditions.” For Blacks, however, attitudes toward multiculturalism are not associated with psychological distress. Future research might determine if these results can be replicated, and if so, identify the causal mechanism(s) at work.

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<![CDATA[Ethnicity estimation using family naming practices]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5c0c047dd5eed0c48481c067

This paper examines the association between given and family names and self-ascribed ethnicity as classified by the 2011 Census of Population for England and Wales. Using Census data in an innovative way under the new Office for National Statistics (ONS) Secure Research Service (SRS; previously the ONS Virtual Microdata Laboratory, VML), we investigate how bearers of a full range of given and family names assigned themselves to 2011 Census categories, using a names classification tool previously described in this journal. Based on these results, we develop a follow-up ethnicity estimation tool and describe how the tool may be used to observe changing relations between naming practices and ethnic identities as a facet of social integration and cosmopolitanism in an increasingly diverse society.

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<![CDATA[Return Migration of Foreign Students]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5afb1cd9463d7e34a60ae50d

Using administrative panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in the Netherlands. We focus on how individual labour market changes and marriage formation influence their decision to leave. Our model allows for correlated unobserved heterogeneity across the migration, the labour market and the marriage formation processes. The large size of the data permits us to stratify the analysis by five groups based on the country of birth. The empirical analyses reveal that when students become unemployed they leave faster. The effect of finding a job on return is more ambiguous. For students from developed (including EU) countries it hardly affects their return, while students from less developed countries and Antilles/Surinam are more prone to leave after finding a job. Marriage in the Netherlands makes the students more prone to stay.

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<![CDATA[Projecting the Effect of Changes in Smoking and Obesity on Future Life Expectancy in the United States]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5aeb6078463d7e2a0cde7b09

We estimate the effects of declining smoking and increasing obesity on mortality in the United States over the period 2010–2040. Data on cohort behavioral histories are integrated into these estimates. Future distributions of body mass indices are projected using transition matrices applied to the initial distribution in 2010. In addition to projections of current obesity, we project distributions of obesity when cohorts are age 25. To these distributions, we apply death rates by current and age-25 obesity status observed in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–2006. Estimates of the effects of smoking changes are based on observed relations between cohort smoking patterns and cohort death rates from lung cancer. We find that changes in both smoking and obesity are expected to have large effects on U.S. mortality. For males, the reductions in smoking have larger effects than the rise in obesity throughout the projection period. By 2040, male life expectancy at age 40 is expected to have gained 0.83 years from the combined effects. Among women, however, the two sets of effects largely offset one another throughout the projection period, with a small gain of 0.09 years expected by 2040.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s13524-013-0246-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[The State Socialist Mortality Syndrome]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5abba7d7463d7e24ec9723b7

Death rates for working-age men in European state socialist countries deviated from general improvements in survival observed in the rest of Europe during the 20th century. The magnitude of structural labor force changes across countries correlates with lagged increases in death rates for men in the working ages. This pattern is consistent with a hypothesis that hyper-development of heavy industry and stagnation (even contraction) of the service sector created anomic conditions leading to unhealthy lifestyles and self-destructive behavior among men moving from primary-sector to secondary-sector occupations. Occupational contrasts within countries similarly show concentration of rising male death rates among blue collar workers. Collapse of state socialist systems produced rapid corrections in labor force structure after 1990, again correlated with a fading of the state socialist mortality syndrome in following decades.

Electronic supplementary material

The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11113-010-9192-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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<![CDATA[Child Mortality Estimation: A Global Overview of Infant and Child Mortality Age Patterns in Light of New Empirical Data]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989da74ab0ee8fa60b95ed2

Michel Guillot and colleagues did a systematic evaluation to assess what proportion of under-five mortality occurs below age one compared with at age one and above, to determine how much observed values deviate from so called “model age patterns” of under-five mortality

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<![CDATA[The Effect of Intravenous Immunoglobulin Combined with Corticosteroid on the Progression of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Meta-Analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=5989d9d1ab0ee8fa60b645cd

Background

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment is commonly used to treat Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with controversial therapeutic effect.

Methods

We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis through combining the published eligible studies to evaluate the effectiveness of IVIG on SJS and TEN treatment.

Results

A total of 26 studies were selected from public available databases. The combination of IVIG and corticosteroid markedly reduced the recovery time (by 1.63 days, 95% CI: 0.83–2.43, P < 0.001), compared with solo corticosteroid group. The favorable effects were greater in Asian (2.19, 95% CI: 1.41–2.97, P < 0.001), TEN (2.56, 95% CI: 0.35–4.77, P = 0.023) and high-dose IVIG treated individuals (1.78, 95% CI: 0.42–3.14, P = 0.010). The hospitalization length reduced by 3.19 days (95% CI: 0.08–6.30, P = 0.045), though the outcome was proven to be unstable. We found heterogeneities, which sources were probably regional factors. Besides, IVIG was inclined to decrease SJS/TEN mortality (SMR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.66–1.08, P = 0.178). This impact was possibly more profound when patients were treated with high dose IVIG (SMR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.50–1.08, P = 0.116), or when patients were diagnosed as TEN (SMR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.45–1.01, P = 0.058).

Conclusions

Our current meta-analysis suggests that IVIG combined with corticosteroid could reduce recovery time for SJS and TEN. This effect is greater among Asian patients. Whereas, its impact on reducing mortality is not significant.

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