ResearchPad - Dermatology https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[A Novel Effect of Acyclovir on Hair Growth in BALB/c Mice: A Promising Future for Finding a New Topical Drug for the Treatment of Hirsutism]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd052d5f9-e9d4-447b-83f6-7eed638e0445

Purpose

Hirsutism (ie, terminal hair growth on the face and body in a male-like pattern in women) is a common dermatological disorder in women, with psychosocial implications. Consequently, there is demand for finding novel pharmacological treatments and agents that can safely reduce hair growth. This study aimed to investigate the potential effect of topical acyclovir on hair growth in mice.

Methods

In this study, twenty-four female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into three groups in order to evaluate the hair growth-reducing effects of acyclovir (control group, vehicle group, and acyclovir group). Topical acyclovir 5% was applied on the shaved denuded skin of mice. Topical application onto the backs of the animals was performed twice daily for 28 consecutive days. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth in dorsal skin of animals were recorded. On day 28, horizontally cut biopsy samples were removed and the numbers of hair follicles were counted, and the diameter of hair follicles was measured under high-field microscopy by a specialist blinded to the treatments.

Results

Hair growth initiation time was significantly increased with acyclovir, as compared to control and vehicle groups. The time required for complete hair growth in control and vehicle groups were 18±0.68 and 19±1.41 days, respectively; however, the hair growth completion in acyclovir-treated animals was not observed at the end of the experiment. Furthermore, the length of hairs in treatment group was significantly shorter than the control group at the end of the study (P < 0.001). In histologic examination, the count and the diameter of hair follicles in deep subcutis were significantly decreased.

Conclusion

The results of this study, for the first time, showed that topical administration of acyclovir might have inhibitory effects on hair growth in experimental animals; however, further studies are required to understand its mechanism.

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<![CDATA[Asian Hair: A Review of Structures, Properties, and Distinctive Disorders]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N89530e38-2485-430d-a6e3-ef8eabceab58

Abstract

Asian hair is known for its straightness, dark pigmentation, and large diameter. The cuticle layer in Asians is thicker with more compact cuticle cells than that in Caucasians. Asian hair generally exhibits the strongest mechanical properties, and its cross-sectional area is determined greatly by genetic variations, particularly from the ectodysplasin A receptor gene. However, knowledge on Asian hair remains unclear with limited studies. This article aimed to review and summarize the characteristics and properties of Asian hair. It also aimed to discuss hair disorders including linear lupus panniculitis and pseudocyst of the scalp that occur distinctively in Asian populations.

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<![CDATA[An Analytical Comparison of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Regarding HIV/AIDS Among Medical and Non-Medical Students in Iran]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7f4ea961-ce5d-4f5c-93ff-7d9409dd85ea

Background and Objectives

Young people are the main group at risk of HIV/AIDS due to factors such as curiosity, peer pressure, lack of knowledge and skills, unsafe sexual behaviors, and drug abuse. The present study was conducted to compare the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among medical and non-medical students in Iran.

Methods

This cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study was conducted on a population consisting of the students of Shahid Beheshti University (SBU) and Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU). A total of 303 students were randomly selected from the two universities. Data were collected using a researcher-made HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and practice questionnaire. Data were then analyzed using the independent t-test, Mann–Whitney’s U-test, the ANOVA, and the Kruskal–Wallis test in SPSS-18. P<0.05 was set as the level of significance for all the tests.

Findings

The frequencies of marital status, education, smoking, alcohol and psychotropic substance use, employment status, and source of information differed significantly between the medical and non-medical students. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.019) regarding HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of their attitude toward HIV/AIDS (P=0.503). The results of the ANOVA revealed a significant correlation between marital status and practice (P=0.022), education and attitude (P=0.004), and smoking and knowledge (P=0.008) among the medical students. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference between the demographic variables and knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS among the non-medical students (P>0.005).

Conclusion

The present findings showed that designing and developing appropriate educational programs, offered through group media, scientific seminars, courses, lectures, and group discussions, can be effective in enhancing the students’ knowledge and changing their attitudes and should be incorporated into healthcare programs.

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<![CDATA[Protocol for a prospective, observational, longitudinal study in paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (PEDISTAD): study objectives, design and methodology]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N786f8934-a0bf-4989-8987-4aedf85f70d4

Introduction

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease often associated with atopic comorbidities and has significant impact on children and their families. There is a lack of robust and longitudinal long-term data on disease characteristics and typical clinical practice with currently available treatments in children with moderate-to-severe AD. Hence, an observational study is needed to evaluate AD characteristics and progression in paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe AD.

Methods and analysis

Pediatric Study in Atopic Dermatitis (PEDISTAD) is a prospective, observational, longitudinal study in paediatric patients with moderate-to-severe AD who are currently receiving systemic or topical treatment and whose disease is not adequately controlled by topical prescription therapies or for whom those therapies are not medically advisable. 1300 children at 100–150 sites in approximately 20 countries worldwide will be enrolled and followed for 5 years. AD therapy is at the discretion of the investigator. Data collected will include: AD disease characteristics and comorbidities; current therapy for AD and initiation of new treatments/changes in current treatment; patient-reported/caregiver-reported outcomes; days missed from school/work for the patient/caregiver; healthcare professional visits; safety and biomarkers.

Ethics and dissemination

This study is conducted in accordance with the principles established by the 18th World Medical Assembly and all subsequent amendments and the guidelines for Good Epidemiology Practice. Each individual country assures that ethics approval has been received and local regulatory requirements are met. Ethics approval has been obtained in all countries currently participating in PEDISTAD. Study data will be disseminated in manuscripts submitted to peer-reviewed medical journals as well as in abstracts submitted to congresses and in the resulting posters and presentations.

Trial registration number

NCT03687359; pre-results.

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<![CDATA[White Fibrous Papulosis of the Axillae and Neck]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N93b968c6-9d88-45c3-8e87-ce75d5895cd9

Fibroelastolytic papulosis of the neck (FEPN) consists of two disorders: white fibrous papulosis of the neck (WFPN) and pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis (PXE-PDE). The neck and supraclavicular areas are frequently involved; however, axillary involvement is significantly more rare, especially for white fibrous papulosis. Herein, we present an unusual case of white fibrous papulosis of the axillae, in addition to the neck, in a Caucasian woman.

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<![CDATA[Linear crusted papules in an infant]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nda17bc4a-2f7f-4d3a-bfd9-bf9b997cef77 ]]> <![CDATA[Cutaneous Pseudolymphoma As a Rare Adverse Effect of Medicinal Leech Therapy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N299a5340-b7cd-494b-b5fd-4f5f0b095fc4

Hirudotherapy (leech therapy) is one of the oldest practices in medical history, and nowadays it is used for several purposes in medicine. Salvage of flaps, wound healing, pain management, and treatment of varicose veins are among the common therapeutic applications of leeches. Complications associated with leech therapy include infections, bleeding, anemia, and allergic reaction. Cutaneous pseudolymphoma (benign proliferation of lymphoid cells in the skin) follows several underlying conditions. Although persistent arthropod bite reaction is one of the conditions associated with cutaneous pseudolymphoma, it has been rarely reported after medicinal leech therapy. Here we describe the case of a patient who presented with cutaneous pseudolymphoma after leech therapy as a rare cutaneous complication of hirudotherapy.

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<![CDATA[Tumid Lupus Erythematosus and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Report on Their Rare Coexistence]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd4eda7bd-9eaa-460e-a826-5fd6fe3e6c97

Tumid lupus erythematosus (TLE) is a rare variant of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. Clinically, it lacks typical changes found in discoid lupus and antinuclear antibodies (ANA) levels are elevated in only 10% of the patients. Coexistent systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has been reported to be rare, and literature shows only a few case reports. We present a case of coexistent tumid lupus and SLE. We present a case of a 48-year-old Caucasian female who presented with chronic facial rash, photosensitivity, intermittent oral ulcers, joint pain with morning stiffness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory studies showed positive ANA at 1:640, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive anticardiolipin immunoglobulin (Ig) G, anticardiolipin IgM, and anti-beta-2 glycoprotein IgM. Skin biopsy of the rash showed a superficial and deep dense lymphocytic infiltrate with mucin deposition, histopathology favoring tumid lupus. The patient was diagnosed with TLE with SLE and was started on hydroxychloroquine with improvement in her rash. Ultraviolet light and certain medications have been proven to play a role in the pathogenesis of tumid lupus. It usually responds to photoprotection, topical treatment, or oral antimalarial therapy.

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<![CDATA[Grading immunohistochemical markers p16INK4a and HPV E4 identifies productive and transforming lesions caused by low‐ and high‐risk HPV within high‐grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N08df9cc8-702b-4706-a9b3-c79d04269015

Summary

Objectives

Because current guidelines recognise high‐grade anal squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) and low‐grade SILs (LSILs), and recommend treatment of all HSILs although not all progress to cancer, this study aims to distinguish transforming and productive HSILs by grading immunohistochemical (IHC) biomarkers p16INK 4a (p16) and E4 in low‐risk human papillomavirus (lrHPV) and high‐risk (hr)HPV‐associated SILs as a potential basis for more selective treatment.

Methods

Immunostaining for p16 and HPV E4 was performed and graded in 183 biopsies from 108 HIV‐positive men who have sex with men. The causative HPV genotype of the worst lesion was identified using the HPV SPF10‐PCRDEIA‐LiPA25 version 1 system, with laser capture microdissection for multiple infections. The worst lesions were scored for p16 (0–4) to identify activity of the hrHPV E7 gene, and panHPV E4 (0–2) to mark HPV production and life cycle completion.

Results

There were 37 normal biopsies, 60 LSILs and 86 HSILs, with 85% of LSILs caused by lrHPV and 93% of HSILs by hrHPV. No normal biopsy showed E4, but 43% of LSILs and 37% of HSILs were E4 positive. No differences in E4 positivity rates were found between lrHPV and hrHPV lesions. Most of the lesions caused by lrHPV (90%) showed very extensive patchy p16 staining; p16 grade in HSILs was variable, with frequency of productive HPV infection dropping with increasing p16 grade.

Conclusions

Combined p16/E4 IHC identifies productive and nonproductive HSILs associated with hrHPV within the group of HSILs defined by the Lower Anogenital Squamous Terminology recommendations. This opens the possibility of investigating selective treatment of advanced transforming HSILs caused by hrHPV, and a ‘wait and see’ policy for productive HSILs.

What's already known about this topic?

  • For preventing anal cancer in high‐risk populations, all patients with high‐grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) are treated, even though this group of lesions is heterogeneous, the histology is variable and regression is frequent.

What does this study add?

  • By adding human papillomavirus (HPV) E4 immunohistochemistry to p16 INK4a (p16), and grading expression of both markers, different biomarker expression patterns that reflect the heterogeneity of HSILs can be identified.

  • Moreover, p16/E4 staining can separate high‐risk HPV‐associated HSILs into productive and more advanced transforming lesions, providing a potential basis for selective treatment.

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<![CDATA[Final congenital melanocytic naevi colour is determined by normal skin colour and unaltered by superficial removal techniques: a longitudinal study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Na22c363f-43fb-4a1b-a434-1ac6ed95b80f

Summary

Background

Spontaneous lightening of congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) has not been studied systematically. Final colour is considered an important outcome after superficial removal techniques such as curettage, dermabrasion or laser ablation, and is often compared with colour at birth.

Objectives

To quantify the natural history of CMN lightening over time, and explore phenotypic and genotypic predictors of colour change.

Methods

A longitudinal cohort study was undertaken of 110 patients with CMN (mean follow‐up 5·3 years). Accurate colour‐space measurements were taken from professional serial photographs of CMN and normal skin. Changes in colour over time were modelled using multiple logistic regression, against phenotypic and genotypic variables.

Results

Lightening of CMN was significantly associated with lighter normal skin colour (P < 0·001) and with MC1R variant alleles (red/blonde hair gene) (P < 0·001), but not with CMN colour in the first 3 months of life, NRAS genotype or projected adult size of CMN. Importantly, the final colours of adjacent treated and untreated areas of CMN were indistinguishable.

Conclusions

Final CMN colour in childhood is related to the genetically determined skin colour of the individual, is unrelated to the colour of CMN at birth, and is unaffected by superficial removal.

What's already known about this topic?

  • Final colour of congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) is considered an important outcome after superficial removal techniques such as curettage, dermabrasion or laser ablation, and is often compared with colour at birth.

  • The phenomenon of spontaneous lightening in CMN, in which naevi lighten gradually and sometimes dramatically during childhood, has been described but not systematically studied.

What does this study add?

  • Final CMN colour in childhood is significantly associated with the individual's normal skin colour, and with MC1R genotype, and is therefore genetically determined.

  • Final CMN colour is not predictable from CMN colour in the first 3 months of life.

  • Superficial removal techniques do not alter the final colour of CMN.

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<![CDATA[Increasing severity of atopic dermatitis is associated with a negative impact on work productivity among adults with atopic dermatitis in France, Germany, the U.K. and the U.S.A.]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd1d00dfa-40bb-4078-bbe3-7ad1e6399eb4

Summary

Background

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with high disease burden, with a significant physical and social impact. However, the association between disease severity and burden of disease, with work productivity and daily activities being one aspect, has not been well characterized.

Objectives

To investigate the impact of disease severity on work productivity and daily activities among adults with AD in Europe (France, Germany and the U.K.) and the U.S.A.

Methods

The survey panel participants for this cross‐sectional internet‐based survey on AD were sourced from the population‐based National Health and Wellness Survey (Europe 2016, U.S.A. 2015 and 2016). AD severity was determined by Patient‐Oriented Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (POSCORAD). Work productivity and work activity impairment were assessed using the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) – Specific Health Problem questionnaire for AD.

Results

The study survey was completed by 1098 respondents with moderate‐to‐severe AD and 134 with mild AD. Overall, the negative impact on work productivity (all WPAI items) was suggested to increase with increasing AD severity (POSCORAD) at the regional level (Europe and U.S.A.) and in the total sample. For overall work impairment due to AD, respondents with mild AD reported a mean of 2·4 h per week of potential work productivity lost, respondents with moderate AD 9·6 h and respondents with severe AD 19·0 h.

Conclusions

Higher AD severity was associated with a greater negative impact on work productivity in adults. This impact is a burden not only for the patient but also for society and may provide incentives for treatment optimization and more effective management of AD.

What's already known about this topic?

  • Atopic dermatitis (AD) is associated with a high disease burden.

  • AD has a negative impact on several aspects of health‐related quality of life, one of which is work productivity.

What does this study add?

  • By using a population of participants with AD recruited from the National Health and Wellness Survey, which collects broad and representative data from the general population, survey data could be obtained from U.S. and European populations of patients with AD.

  • The present study suggests an increasingly negative impact on work productivity with increasing severity of AD.

  • The data indicate no regional differences in the impact of AD severity on work productivity.

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<![CDATA[Awareness and experiences of cosmetic treatment providers with body dysmorphic disorder in Saudi Arabia]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5ba30790-9b1d-4904-ae3c-e9b929bfd50a

Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) is defined as a constant obsession with one’s external appearance and flaws, and it falls under the criteria of neuropsychiatric disorders. Individuals suffering from this disorder may seek unnecessary cosmetic procedures from cosmetic treatment providers such as dermatologists or plastic surgeons. Cosmetic treatments have become readily available, which has led to an influx of undiagnosed BDD patients electing to undergo such treatments. Therefore, physicians should have the clinical knowledge about BDD to diagnose and manage these cases to avoid psychological and physical harm to these patients. However, there were no studies conducted in our region to assess the awareness of BDD among physicians who provide cosmetic treatments with regards to their attitude toward such cases and how they would manage it. This study aims to assess the awareness of Body Dysmorphic Disorder among Saudi physicians who provide cosmetic treatments. We conducted an observational cross-sectional study among physicians practicing in hospitals and cosmetic clinics in Riyadh and Jeddah city (Saudi Arabia), who perform cosmetic procedures, namely dermatologists, plastic surgeons, and otorhinolaryngologists. A paper-based questionnaire consisting of multiple-choice questions was distributed among them. The total number of participants was 155 physicians: 113 (72.9%) males and 42 (27.1%) females. Eighty-two (52.9%) participants reported that they have been familiar with the diagnostic criteria of BDD for a long time and ninety-nine (63.8%) reported being familiar with the clinical picture of BDD. Sixty-three (40.6%) participants estimated the prevalence of BDD cases seen in cosmetic practice to range from 1%-5%, and most agreed on an equal prevalence of BDD among female and male patients. Half of the participants (n = 76) (49%) reported that they sometimes share knowledge about BDD with patients whom they suspect to suffer from this condition. In conclusion, cosmetic treatment providers in Saudi Arabia are aware of BDD, but we have identified a discrepancy between the self-reported participant knowledge of diagnostic criteria and their ability to accurately estimate the prevalence of BDD cases seen in clinical practice.

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<![CDATA[Therapeutic failure with itraconazole in sporotrichosis due to bariatric surgery]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N87401aa0-bde0-4629-a081-b0aaa21515d2

Sporotrichosis is a deep mycosis of subacute or chronic evolution, caused by the dimorphic fungus of the genus Sporothrix. The treatment is carried out with antifungal orally or intravenously. Therapeutic success can be affected by several factors, such as altered gastrointestinal physiology by surgery. More and more patients are submitted to bariatric surgeries and the literature for the alterations of the absorption of medications in this context is very scarce. We intend to contribute to a better understanding with this case report of cutaneous-lymphatic sporotrichosis in a patient after bariatric surgery without response to itraconazole treatment, even at high doses.

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<![CDATA[Histopathological changes in epithelium of hair follicles and acrosyringium caused by measles in child]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N647b6762-6612-4ccc-b752-9177564e492a

Some epidermal alterations in measles has been described, such as keratinocytes apoptotic, parakeratosis, giant-cell formation, intranuclear and cytoplasmic inclusions, dyskeratosis, spongiosis, and intracellular edema. The authors report for the first time in human a case of measles with the presence of multinucleated giant cells in the hair follicle and dyskeratosis in acrosyringium.

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<![CDATA[Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis in non-exposed skin]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5eb960be-457a-45fb-82b4-70731ad5cd80

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis is an acquired elastic tissue disorder clinically similar to pseudoxanthoma elasticum in the absence of systemic involvement. Histopathologically, special staining of elastic fibers demonstrates a total or partial band-like loss of elastic fibers in the papillary dermis. Although ultraviolet radiation seems to be one of the main etiological factors in this entity, we report a case of pseudoxanthoma elasticum-like papillary dermal elastolysis on the neck of a woman who wore hijab.

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<![CDATA[Dermoscopic pattern of Kyrle's disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N26a9698c-6e7a-4b6d-9533-90b814127f5a

The clinical diagnosis of Kyrle's disease may sometimes be challenging, due to the clinical similarity of lesions to other pruritic dermatosis. Although the dermoscopy is being increasingly used in daily practice, there is insufficient data in literature describing the dermoscopic patterns of Kyrle's disease, since only one report has been published to date. Herein we report our dermoscopic observation with additional diagnostic tips in a case who was diagnosed with Kyrle's disease histopathologically.

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<![CDATA[Investigating the potential use of an ionic liquid (1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide) as an anti-fungal treatment against the amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N5c2fa054-4262-4dfe-83a3-c606a06f5241

The disease chytridiomycosis, caused by the pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has contributed to global amphibian declines. Bd infects the keratinized epidermal tissue in amphibians and causes hyperkeratosis and excessive skin shedding. In individuals of susceptible species, the regulatory function of the amphibian’s skin is disrupted resulting in an electrolyte depletion, osmotic imbalance, and eventually death. Safe and effective treatments for chytridiomycosis are urgently needed to control chytrid fungal infections and stabilize populations of endangered amphibian species in captivity and in the wild. Currently, the most widely used anti-Bd treatment is itraconazole. Preparations of itraconazole formulated for amphibian use has proved effective, but treatment involves short baths over seven to ten days, a process which is logistically challenging, stressful, and causes long-term health effects. Here, we explore a novel anti-fungal therapeutic using a single application of the ionic liquid, 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-NTf2), for the treatment of chytridiomycosis. BMP-NTf2 was found be effective at killing Bd in vitro at low concentrations (1:1000 dilution). We tested BMP-NTf2 in vivo on two amphibian species, one that is relatively tolerant of chytridiomycosis (Pseudacris regilla) and one that is highly susceptible (Dendrobates tinctorius). A toxicity trial revealed a surprising interaction between Bd infection status and the impact of BMP-NTf2 on D. tinctorius survival. Uninfected D. tinctorius tolerated BMP-NTf2 (mean ± SE; 96.01 ± 9.00 μl/g), such that only 1 out of 30 frogs died following treatment (at a dose of 156.95 μL/g), whereas, a lower dose (mean ± SE; 97.45 ± 3.52 μL/g) was not tolerated by Bd-infected D. tinctorius, where 15 of 23 frogs died shortly upon BMP-NTf2 application. Those that tolerated the BMP-NTf2 application did not exhibit Bd clearance. Thus, BMP-NTf2 application, under the conditions tested here, is not a suitable option for clearing Bd infection in D. tinctorius. However, different results were obtained for P. regilla. Two topical applications of BMP-NTf2 on Bd-infected P. regilla (using a lower BMP-NTf2 dose than on D. tinctorius, mean ± SE; 9.42 ± 1.43 μL/g) reduced Bd growth, although the effect was lower than that obtained by daily doses of itracanozole (50% frogs exhibited complete clearance on day 16 vs. 100% for itracanozole). Our findings suggest that BMP-NTf2 has the potential to treat Bd infection, however the effect depends on several parameters. Further optimization of dose and schedule are needed before BMP-NTf2 can be considered as a safe and effective alternative to more conventional antifungal agents, such as itraconazole.

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<![CDATA[Antibiotic use for Australian Aboriginal children in three remote Northern Territory communities]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N999fa4e6-a15c-456a-862e-2e1ce88316a9

Objective

To describe antibiotic prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children aged <2 years living in three remote Northern Territory communities.

Design

A retrospective cohort study using electronic health records.

Setting

Three primary health care centres located in the Katherine East region.

Participants

Consent was obtained from 149 mothers to extract data from 196 child records. There were 124 children born between January 2010 and July 2014 who resided in one of the three chosen communities and had electronic health records for their first two years of life.

Main outcome measures

Antibiotic prescription rates, factors associated with antibiotic prescription and factors associated with appropriate antibiotic prescription.

Results

There were 5,675 Primary Health Care (PHC) encounters for 124 children (median 41, IQR 25.5, 64). Of the 5,675 PHC encounters, 1,542 (27%) recorded at least one infection (total 1,777) and 1,330 (23%) had at least one antibiotic prescription recorded (total 1,468). Children had a median five (IQR 2, 9) prescriptions in both their first and second year of life, with a prescription rate of 5.99/person year (95% CI 5.35, 6.63). Acute otitis media was the most common infection (683 records, 38%) and Amoxycillin was the most commonly prescribed antibiotic (797 prescriptions, 54%). Of the 1,468 recorded prescriptions, 398 (27%) had no infection recorded and 116 (8%) with an infection recorded were not aligned with local treatment guidelines.

Conclusion

Prescription rates for Australian Aboriginal children in these communities are significantly higher than that reported nationally for non-Aboriginal Australians. Prescriptions predominantly aligned with treatment guidelines in this setting where there is a high burden of infectious disease.

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<![CDATA[A Case of Drug-induced Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N6adb3e4d-0384-4754-a5a4-7f7e55a5517c

Linear immunoglobulin A (IgA) bullous dermatosis (LABD) presents as a rare autoimmune disease that can either occur spontaneously or induced by certain drugs, the most common of which is vancomycin. LABD is a subepidermal blistering disease that is diagnosed by detecting linear IgA bands along the basement membrane. We present a case of a 59-year-old man with worsening blistering skin rash who was treated with vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam for pneumonia.

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<![CDATA[Sexual Function in Patients Suffering from Sacrococcygeal Pilonidal Sinus Disease]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N494cb214-2617-4bd4-b11a-3235198dc713

Introduction

Sexual function is one of the aspects upon which quality of life (QoL) is based. Although previous studies have evaluated the influence of sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus disease (SPSD) on QoL, no data are available on the influence of SPSD on sexual function in a highly active sexual population based on the age range. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether SPSD has a negative impact on sexual function and whether this is influenced by the surgical treatment of SPSD.

Methods 

Sexual function was pre- and postoperatively assessed by the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS; score range 0-48), subdivided into the sexual embarrassment (SE; score range 0-24) and sexual self-focus subscale (SFF; score range 0-24). The higher the score, the higher is the sexual dysfunction. Patients were also asked whether SPSD influenced their sexual functioning.

Results 

A total of 88 male patients who underwent surgical treatment for SPSD were included in the study. The mean (±SD) preoperative SSCS score was 14.5±9.1 and 13.9±8.4 two weeks postoperatively (p=0.394). Six and twelve weeks after surgery, there was a significant reduction to 12.2±9.0 (p=0.002) and 12.3±8.8 (p=0.013), respectively. SE decreased from 5.5±5.1 preoperatively to 5.1±4.6 (p=0.258), 4.2±4.7 (p=0.004) and 4.0±4.6 (p=0.013) two, six, and twelve weeks after surgery. For SFF, there was a decrease from 9.0±5.0 to 8.9±4.9 (p=0.717), 7.8±5.2 (p=0.004) and 8.2±5.3 (p=0.168), respectively. Preoperatively, 70% of the patients totally or partially disagreed that SPSD influenced their sexual functioning, and this increased to 80% of the patients 12 weeks after surgery.

Conclusion 

This prospective study showed a significant decrease in sexual dysfunction, both six and twelve weeks after surgery, compared to preoperatively in patients suffering from SPSD.

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