ResearchPad - Emergency https://www.researchpad.co Default RSS Feed en-us © 2020 Newgen KnowledgeWorks <![CDATA[Bi-Level ventilation decreases pulmonary shunt and modulates neuroinflammation in a cardiopulmonary resuscitation model]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nfc29e3d5-af29-453c-bdc8-d5378300b77b

Background

Optimal ventilation strategies during cardiopulmonary resuscitation are still heavily debated and poorly understood. So far, no convincing evidence could be presented in favour of outcome relevance and necessity of specific ventilation patterns. In recent years, alternative models to the guideline-based intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) have been proposed. In this randomized controlled trial, we evaluated a bi-level ventilation approach in a porcine model to assess possible physiological advantages for the pulmonary system as well as resulting changes in neuroinflammation compared to standard measures.

Methods

Sixteen male German landrace pigs were anesthetized and instrumented with arterial and venous catheters. Ventricular fibrillation was induced and the animals were left untreated and without ventilation for 4 minutes. After randomization, the animals were assigned to either the guideline-based group (IPPV, tidal volume 8–10 ml/kg, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0) or the bi-level group (inspiratory pressure levels 15–17 cmH2O/5cmH2O, respiratory rate 10/min, FiO21.0). Mechanical chest compressions and interventional ventilation were initiated and after 5 minutes, blood samples, including ventilation/perfusion measurements via multiple inert gas elimination technique, were taken. After 8 minutes, advanced life support including adrenaline administration and defibrillations were started for up to 4 cycles. Animals achieving ROSC were monitored for 6 hours and lungs and brain tissue were harvested for further analyses.

Results

Five of the IPPV and four of the bi-level animals achieved ROSC. While there were no significant differences in gas exchange or hemodynamic values, bi-level treated animals showed less pulmonary shunt directly after ROSC and a tendency to lower inspiratory pressures during CPR. Additionally, cytokine expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha was significantly reduced in hippocampal tissue compared to IPPV animals.

Conclusion

Bi-level ventilation with a constant positive end expiratory pressure and pressure-controlled ventilation is not inferior in terms of oxygenation and decarboxylation when compared to guideline-based IPPV ventilation. Additionally, bi-level ventilation showed signs for a potentially ameliorated neurological outcome as well as less pulmonary shunt following experimental resuscitation. Given the restrictions of the animal model, these advantages should be further examined.

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<![CDATA[The Impact of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Simulation Training on Medical Student Self-reported Outcomes]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb0e2abb3-0d35-4627-bf9d-6cacab18d4de

Introduction: Simulation has become a well-recognized and innovative tool in medical education. While there has been tremendous growth of simulation curricula at the level of graduate medical education, there have been few studies looking at simulation as a learning tool for undergraduate medical education. The goal of this study was to determine if high-fidelity simulation training impacts medical student perception of knowledge and confidence regarding comprehension and application of advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) algorithms.

Methods: This is a prospective observational survey study of third and fourth year medical students who participated in an ACLS simulation training during their emergency medicine rotation between January 2018 and October 2018. Cases covered several ACLS topics including unstable bradycardia, supraventricular tachycardia and ventricular tachycardia. After each session, students received a short survey to assess their simulation experience pertaining to knowledge and comfort levels with ACLS topics before and after the simulation experience.

Results: A total of 89 students were included in the study with 86.5% of those being fourth year students. There was a significant increase in both knowledge (pre-training 3.17 vs. 4.11 post-training, p<0.001) and comfort scores (pre-training 2.54 vs. 3.74 post-training, p<0.001) after the ACLS simulation training. Overall, 77.5% of students reported an increase in knowledge and 83.1% reported an increase in confidence after the training session. 

Conclusions: The study revealed a statistically significant increase in both perceived knowledge and comfort and confidence of medical students after high-fidelity simulation using ACLS scenarios.

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<![CDATA[Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection After Lumbar Puncture]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N186d9125-0c1e-470d-bfc5-9fec941039f6

We hereby present a case of iatrogenic dissection of the superior mesenteric artery dissection in a 63-year-old female undergoing a lumbar puncture (LP). She presented with severe diffused abdominal pain accompanied by lower back pain, nausea and vomiting a few hours after undergoing an LP due to ongoing headaches. Abdominal CT showed evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was then transferred to another facility and while in route received one unit of packed red blood cellsdue to drop in hemoglobin levels from 15 to 11 gm/dl. Physicians should consider the possibility of arterial variations and the level at which spinal tap is performed during interventions. Acute abdominal pain is a significant, common complaint that should be appropriately investigated.

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<![CDATA[Crush Injury-induced Finger Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd7791da9-fd87-4639-85d4-4959a9e105c6

Isolated finger compartment syndrome is an uncommon condition and is not well-documented. It is usually associated with pain, decreased sensation, and intra-compartmental swelling. We present the case of a finger fracture after a crush injury that developed compartment syndrome, which responded well after surgical fixation and midline skin incision for digital decompression.

A 20-year-old male with a history of a 200 lb crush-injury to the left index finger 24 hours prior presented to the emergency department with decreased sensation and range of motion, deformity, increasing pallor, and severe pain. Radiographs demonstrated a middle phalanx fracture of the index finger. Digital decompression of the index finger through a radial approach, along the middle line, and open reduction internal fixation of the middle phalanx improved perfusion almost immediately.

The patient continued to improve at his one-week, 12-week, and six-month follow-up appointments, with a normal neurovascular exam, a capillary refill of less than two seconds, and, ultimately, he was able to make a full composite fist.

Though finger compartment syndrome is uncommon, it should be suspected in cases where the patient demonstrates hallmark clinical signs and symptoms. Compartment syndrome is a clinical diagnosis that requires urgent diagnosis and intervention and must be suspected regardless of the anatomic location of the injury.

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<![CDATA[Accuracy of Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) III Score in Predicting Mortality Outcomes in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Karachi]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N749992a6-3581-400c-96fb-d8bcc87888f8

Background

With the advancements in medicine and increasing access to modern technology, pediatric intensive care units (PICU) are becoming a vital part of any health care setting. PICUs play a key role in saving the life of young patients. Various scales have been designed by researchers to aid in predicting the mortality of a patient admitted in PICU. Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) and Pediatric Index of Mortality (PIM) are among the most commonly used scales. Calculating the risk of mortality enables the physicians to classify the patients and helps in identifying which patients require more urgent care and resources. 

Methods

A hospital-based prospective study was carried out at PICU in a tertiary care hospital in Karachi from December 2017 to June 2019. All patients between the age of one month and 12 years were included in our study after informed consent from parents/guardians. A standard questionnaire was used and the PRISM III score was calculated at 24 hours of admission. All necessary investigations were carried out, and all statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS v.23 (IBM, Armonk, NY).

Results

A total of 407 patients were included in our study with the majority being males (54.5%). The mean age was 27±33 months. The mean duration of stay of patients in PICU was 80.15±36.58 hours. The mortality rate in our study was 37.35 % (n=152). The need for mechanical ventilation, use of inotropic drugs, higher temperatures, and low Glasgow Coma Scale scores were associated with poor survival. It was noted that as the PRISM III score increased, the mortality rate also increased. In our study, we found that PRISM III had good predictive power in our population. The area under the curve was 0.903±0.016 (p<0.001, 95% confidence interval: 0.872-0.934).

Conclusions

PRISM III score showed excellent accuracy and predictive ability in our population. There was no significant difference in observed and expected mortality rates in our study. In a resource-limited setting, the prediction models highlight the cases where more medical attention is required and also enable the physicians to assess the prognosis of the patient so adequate measures can be taken beforehand.

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<![CDATA[Evolution of emergency medical services in the Kingdom of Bahrain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0260c294-ff02-4929-87e7-6a606c1b4507

Emergency medical services (EMS) is crucial to any healthcare system, especially in urban countries. The Kingdom of Bahrain has always strived to develop healthcare services throughout the Kingdom including EMS. Like any other country, the Kingdom has gone through several stages in the provision of EMS. This article will focus on the development of EMS in the Kingdom and its evolution from a scattered hospital-based system to a unified system, which ensures ease of access for the population and speed of delivery to the healthcare facilities. The major focus will be the most recent national project which is the National Ambulance.

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<![CDATA[Association between Cardiac Arrest Time and Favorable Neurological Outcomes in Witnessed Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients Treated with Targeted Temperature Management]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N09d8d741-90b4-4dde-8c98-335591aecfee

Background

Patients who achieve a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with prolonged cardiac arrest have been recognized to have a poor prognosis. This might lead to reluctance in the provision of post-resuscitation care. Hence, we evaluated the impact of cardiac arrest time on neurologic outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients.

Methods

This cross-sectional study used a hospital-based nationwide registry of OHCAs in Korea between 2012 and 2016. All witnessed OHCA patients aged ≥ 15 years and treated with targeted temperature management were included. We collected the time from collapse to sustained ROSC, which was defined as the downtime. The primary outcome was a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent factors for primary outcome in patients with downtime > 30 minutes.

Results

Overall, neurologically favorable outcome rates were 30.5% in 1,963 patients. When the downtime was stratified into categories of 0–10, 11–20, 21–30, 31–40, 41–50, 51–60, and > 60 minutes according to 10-minute intervals, neurologically favorable outcome rates were 58.2%, 52.3%, 37.3%, 24.6%, 14.1%, 17.4%, and 16.7%, respectively (P < 0.001). In patients with downtime > 30 minutes, age 51–70 years (odds ratio [OR], 5.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.50–11.49), age ≤ 50 years (OR, 13.16; 95% CI, 6.06–28.57), shockable rhythm (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 2.71–5.68), bystander resuscitation (OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.27–2.55), cardiac cause (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.69–7.25), percutaneous coronary intervention (OR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.18–2.81), and downtime ≤ 40 minutes (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.42–2.88) were associated with favorable neurological outcomes.

Conclusion

In patients with prolonged downtime, predicting favorable neurologic outcome may be multifactorial. The cutoff value for downtime is not the only determining factor to provide post-resuscitation care.

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<![CDATA[Factors Associated with Triage Modifications Using Vital Signs in Pediatric Triage: a Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study in Korea]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N025bd8af-3fc2-4318-8650-1a25dc8bb6c6

Background

Previous studies on inter-rater reliability of pediatric triage systems have compared triage levels classified by two or more triage providers using the same information about individual patients. This overlooks the fact that the evaluator can decide whether or not to use the information provided. The authors therefore aimed to analyze the differences in the use of vital signs for triage modification in pediatric triage.

Methods

This was an observational cross-sectional study of national registry data collected in real time from all emergency medical services beyond the local emergency medical centers (EMCs) throughout Korea. Data from patients under the age of 15 who visited EMC nationwide from January 2016 to December 2016 were analyzed. Depending on whether triage modifications were made using respiratory rate or heart rate beyond the normal range by age during the pediatric triage process, they were divided into down-triage and non-down-triage groups. The proportions in the down-triage group were analyzed according to the triage provider's profession, mental status, arrival mode, presence of trauma, and the EMC class.

Results

During the study period, 1,385,579 patients' data were analyzed. Of these, 981,281 patients were eligible for triage modification. The differences in down-triage proportions according to the profession of the triage provider (resident, 50.5%; paramedics, 47.7%; specialist, 44.9%; nurses, 44.2%) was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The triage provider's professional down-triage proportion according to the medical condition of the patients showed statistically significant differences except for the unresponsive mental state (P = 0.502) and the case of air transport (P = 0.468).

Conclusion

Down-triage proportion due to abnormal heart rates and respiratory rates was significantly different according to the triage provider's condition. The existing concept of inter-rater reliability of the pediatric triage system needs to be reconsidered.

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<![CDATA[A Mysterious Case of Recurrent Acute Hyperammonemic Encephalopathy]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N3ec571c8-5898-446e-a0ef-a6433bd88d55

Ammonia is a well-recognized neurotoxin. Awareness about hyperammonemia, in the absence of liver cirrhosis, may help in lifesaving, prompt diagnosis, and treatment. We present a case of a 53-year-old male who presented to the emergency department (ED) with altered mental status (AMS). He was unresponsive with occasional eye opening. Initial labs were normal except for mildly elevated blood alcohol level. Serum ammonia levels were very high (305 umol/L). He improved with lactulose. He had similar admissions later on. Urine orotic acid levels were high confirming ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency. Noncirrhotic hyperammonemia as a cause of AMS remains a diagnosis of exclusion requiring high index suspicion. Very few cases of late inborn errors of urea cycle disorders (UCDs) have been reported in the literature. Our case highlights the importance of early diagnosis of UCDs and that outcome can be excellent if treated aggressively. Once identified, adult-onset forms of the UCDs have a good prognosis-largely due to the initiation of preventative measures and earlier recognition of exacerbations.

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<![CDATA[Developing ClerkCast: An Emergency Medicine Clerkship Needs Assessment Project]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nd955ebfa-a8d6-44fa-b914-adfa9cd6bcfd

Introduction and Objectives: For Canadian medical students completing their emergency medicine (EM) clerkship rotation, developing an approach to undifferentiated patients can be difficult. Open educational resources (OERs) are a convenient solution, but faculty authored materials may not meet students’ needs. There is a lack of EM OERs that deconstruct these undifferentiated EM presentations for medical students. The objective of this study was to identify EM topics poorly understood by medical students to inform a novel Free Open Access Medical Education podcast curriculum for approaching undifferentiated EM patients for medical students.

Methods: An online survey-based needs assessment was distributed to key stakeholders through direct email, social media, and the blog CanadiEM. The survey included 32 EM topics graded on a five-point Likert scale according to how much participants believe medical students require further teaching.

Results: Over six weeks, a total of 74 participants completed the needs assessment survey, and 58 participants met the criteria for inclusion into our study: medical students (n=23) and EM educators (inclusive of resident physicians (n=19), and staff EM physicians (n=16)). A number of presentations (n=23) were prioritized by both students and EM educators to be of the greatest need for medical students. No presentations identified as high priority by students were not also identified as high priority by EM educators.

Conclusions: The greatest mean topic scores in both EM educators and medical student responses included critical care and acute medicine topics. Of the 32 topics in the survey, 23 topics were determined to be high priority for the development of future online educational resources. Analysis of free-text responses revealed nine topics not previously listed in our survey. Our findings will be used to inform the development of our new open access podcast and can be useful for developing medical student curricula in EM.

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<![CDATA[Chronic Abdominal Pain: A Case of Giant Fecalith in the Distal Jejunum]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N435bcd89-1765-4534-92c7-a634c2247911

A fecalith is a mass of an accumulation of hardened fecal matter that is seen in patients with Chagas disease, Hirschsprung’s disease, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this article, we report a case of a 53-year-old female with chronic abdominal pain who was admitted with progressive weight loss, near syncope episode, and serum potassium of 2.6 mg/dL. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan revealed a left lower quadrant complex mass measuring 10.3 cm, with asymmetrical wall thickening and inflammatory stranding, non-discarding the compromise of the small bowel and consequent mild small bowel distention. A fecalith of 10.3 x 10.9 x 8.7 cm was found during an exploratory laparotomy in the small intestine. We report this rare case of distal jejunum fecalith accompanied by chronic pain.

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<![CDATA[Maintenance of Skill Proficiency for Emergency Skills With and Without Adjuncts Despite the Use of Level C Personal Protective Equipment]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=Nb80e63b2-0cc8-4fcb-9cb1-0d78914457a8

Objective

To determine the impact of Level C personal protective equipment (PPE) on the time to perform intravenous (IV) cannulation and endotracheal intubation, both with and without the use of adjuncts.

Methods

This prospective, case-control study of emergency medicine resident physicians was designed to assess the time taken by each subject to perform endotracheal intubation using both direct laryngoscopy (DL) and video laryngoscopy (VL), as well as peripheral IV cannulation both with and without ultrasound guidance and with and without PPE.

Results

While median times were higher using VL as compared to DL, there was no significant difference between intubation with either DL or VL in subjects with and without Level C PPE. Similarly, no significant difference in time was found for intravenous cannulation in the PPE and no-PPE groups, both with and without ultrasound guidance.

Conclusions

Existing skill proficiency was maintained despite wearing PPE and there was no advantage with the addition of adjuncts such as video-assisted laryngoscopy and ultrasound-guided intravenous cannulation. A safe and cost-effective strategy might be to conduct basic, just-in-time PPE training to enhance familiarity with donning, doffing, and mobility, and couple this with the use of personnel who have maximal proficiency in the relevant emergency skill, instead of more expensive, continuous, skills-focused PPE training.

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<![CDATA[Precocious ischemia preceding bilateral adrenal hemorrhage: A case report]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2a58fff8-b432-49a1-b737-84fa87db1b86

We present a case of a middle-age male who presented in emergency room with nonspecific abdominal pain. A contrast-enhanced computer tomography (ceCT) scan showed a reduced perfusion of both adrenal glands. The clinical examinations and the laboratory tests were negative for an adrenal pathological process. To reassess the adrenal ischemia, a second ceCT scan was performed 5 days later showing an acute bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. These findings demonstrated that the previous adrenal hypoperfusion represented the prodromal manifestation of a hemorrhagic intraglandular process. This case suggests that adrenal hypoperfusion detected on tomographic imaging dictates a prompt clinical management finalized to strictly monitor the potential evolution towards a more aggressive pathological condition and confirms the pivotal role of imaging in the diagnosis of such uncommon disorder.

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<![CDATA[How to think like an emergency care provider: a conceptual mental model for decision making in emergency care]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N74ba1874-c8a3-4ff4-8fdd-f0c811796ffa

Background

General medicine commonly adopts a strategy based on the analytic approach utilizing the hypothetico-deductive method. Medical emergency care and education have been following similarly the same approach. However, the unique milieu and task complexity in emergency care settings pose a challenge to the analytic approach, particularly when confronted with a critically ill patient who requires immediate action. Despite having discussions in the literature addressing the unique characteristics of medical emergency care settings, there has been hardly any alternative structured mental model proposed to overcome those challenges.

Methods

This paper attempts to address a conceptual mental model for emergency care that combines both analytic as well as non-analytic methods in decision making.

Results

The proposed model is organized in an alphabetical mnemonic, A–H. The proposed model includes eight steps for approaching emergency cases, viz., awareness, basic supportive measures, control of potential threats, diagnostics, emergency care, follow-up, groups of particular interest, and highlights. These steps might be utilized to organize and prioritize the management of emergency patients.

Discussion

Metacognition is very important to develop practicable mental models in practice. The proposed model is flexible and takes into consideration the dynamicity of emergency cases. It also combines both analytic and non-analytic skills in medical education and practice.

Conclusion

Combining various clinical reasoning provides better opportunity, particularly for trainees and novices, to develop their experience and learn new skills. This mental model could be also of help for seasoned practitioners in their teaching, audits, and review of emergency cases.

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<![CDATA[Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome in Critically Ill Patients: a Retrospective Cohort Study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N2ef6d816-f9f6-4f19-8aa6-41e1e79e8c4a

Background

Opioid withdrawal syndrome (OWS) may occur following the reduction or discontinuation of opioid analgesics. In critically ill pediatric patients, OWS is a common and clinically significant condition. However, OWS in adult patients has not been assessed in detail. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical features of OWS in mechanically ventilated patients treated in an adult intensive care unit (ICU).

Methods

This study was a retrospective evaluation of data from patients treated in the medical ICU for > 3 days and who received only one type of opioid analgesic. OWS was assessed over a 24 hours period from discontinuation or reduction (by > 50%) of continuous opioid infusion. OWS was defined as the presence of ≥ 3 central nervous system or autonomic nervous system symptoms.

Results

In 126 patients treated with remifentanil (n = 58), fentanyl (n = 47), or morphine (n = 21), OWS was seen in 31.0%, 36.2%, and 9.5% of patients, respectively (P = 0.078). The most common symptom was a change in respiratory rate (remifentanil, 94.4%; fentanyl, 76.5%; morphine, 100%). Multivariate Cox-proportional hazards model showed that OWS was negatively associated with morphine treatment (hazard ratio [HR], 0.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.037–0.743) and duration of opioid infusion (HR, 0.566; 95% CI, 0.451–0.712).

Conclusion

OWS is not uncommon in mechanically ventilated adult patients who received continuous infusion of opioids for > 3 days. The use of morphine may be associated with a decreased risk of OWS.

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<![CDATA[Relationship between Use of Rehabilitation Resources and ICU Readmission and ER Visits in ICU Survivors: the Korean ICU National Data Study 2008-2015]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N34d8441b-cb47-4aa2-bd6b-af7f2e6bfcef

Background

Despite the increasing importance of rehabilitation for critically ill patients, there is little information regarding how rehabilitation therapy is utilized in clinical practice. Our objectives were to evaluate the implementation rate of rehabilitation therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU) survivors and to investigate the effects of rehabilitation therapy on outcomes.

Methods

A retrospective nationwide cohort study with including > 18 years of ages admitted to ICU between January 2008 and May 2015 (n = 1,465,776). The analyzed outcomes were readmission to ICU readmission and emergency room (ER) visit.

Results

During the study period, 249,918 (17.1%) patients received rehabilitation therapy. The percentage of patients receiving any rehabilitation therapy increased annually from 14% in 2008 to 20% in 2014, and the percentages for each type of therapy also increased over time. The most common type of rehabilitation was physical therapy (91.9%), followed by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (29.6%), occupational (28.6%), respiratory, (11.6%) and swallowing (10.3%) therapies. After adjusting for confounding variables, the risk of 30-day ICU readmission was lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy than in those who did not (P < 0.001; hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65–0.75). And, the risk of 30-day ER visit was also lower in patients who received rehabilitation therapy (P < 0.001; HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77–0.88).

Conclusion

In this nationwide cohort study in Korea, only 17% of all ICU patients received rehabilitation therapy. However, rehabilitation is associated with a significant reduction in the risk of 30-day ICU readmission and ER visit.

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<![CDATA[Association of weaning preparedness with extubation outcome of mechanically ventilated patients in medical intensive care units: a retrospective analysis]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N7206b26f-7976-4083-b76a-7f64164faba8

Background

Assessment of preparedness of weaning has been recommended before extubation for mechanically ventilated patients. We aimed to understand the association of a structured assessment of weaning preparedness with successful liberation.

Methods

We retrospectively investigated patients with acute respiratory failure who experienced an extubation trial at the medical intensive care units of a medical center and compared the demographic and clinical characteristics between those patients with successful and failed extubation. A composite score to assess the preparedness of weaning, the WEANSNOW score, was generated consisting of eight components, including Weaning parameters, Endotracheal tube, Arterial blood gas analysis, Nutrition, Secretions, Neuromuscular-affecting agents, Obstructive airway problems and Wakefulness. The prognostic ability of the WEANSNOW score for extubation was then analyzed.

Results

Of the 205 patients included, 138 (67.3%) patients had successful extubation. Compared with the failure group, the success group had a significantly shorter duration of MV before the weaning attempt (11.2 ± 11.6 vs. 31.7 ± 26.2 days, p < 0.001), more with congestive heart failure (42.0% vs. 25.4%, p = 0.020), and had different distribution of the types of acute respiratory failure (p = 0.037). The failure group also had a higher WEANSNOW score (1.22 ± 0.85 vs. 0.51 ± 0.71, p < 0.001) and worse Rapid Shallow Breathing Index (93.9 ± 63.8 vs. 56.3 ± 35.1, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a WEANSNOW Score = 1 or higher (OR = 2.880 (95% CI [1.291–6.426]), p = 0.010) and intubation duration >21 days (OR = 7.752 (95% CI [3.560–16.879]), p < 0.001) were independently associated with an increased probability of extubation failure.

Conclusion

Assessing the pre-extubation status of intubated patients in a checklist-based approach using the WEANSNOW score might provide valuable insights into extubation failure in patients in a medical ICU for acute respiratory failure. Further prospective studies are warranted to elucidate the practice of assessing weaning preparedness.

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<![CDATA[Association between boarding in the emergency department and in-hospital mortality: A systematic review]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48ef4c13-827b-4694-911d-7d7581473712

Importance

Boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a critical indicator of quality of care for hospitals. It is defined as the time between the admission decision and departure from the ED. As a result of boarding, patients stay in the ED until inpatient beds are available; moreover, boarding is associated with various adverse events.

Study objective

The objective of our systematic review was to determine whether ED boarding (EDB) time is associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).

Methods

A systematic search was conducted in academic databases to identify relevant studies. Medline, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL and PsychInfo were searched. We included all peer-reviewed published studies from all previous years until November 2018. Studies performed in the ED and focused on the association between EDB and IHM as the primary objective were included. Extracted data included study characteristics, prognostic factors, outcomes, and IHM. A search update in PubMed was performed in May 2019 to ensure the inclusion of recent studies before publishing.

Results

From the initial 4,321 references found through the systematic search, the manual screening of reference lists and the updated search in PubMed, a total of 12 studies were identified as eligible for a descriptive analysis. Overall, six studies found an association between EDB and IHM, while five studies showed no association. The last remaining study included both ICU and non-ICU subgroups and showed conflicting results, with a positive association for non-ICU patients but no association for ICU patients. Overall, a tendency toward an association between EDB and IHM using the pool random effect was observed.

Conclusion

Our systematic review did not find a strong evidence for the association between ED boarding and IHM but there is a tendency toward this association. Further well-controlled, international multicenter studies are needed to demonstrate whether this association exists and whether there is a specific EDB time cut-off that results in increased IHM.

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<![CDATA[Multiple criteria decision analysis approach to consider therapeutic innovations in the emergency department: The methoxyflurane organizational impact in acute trauma pain]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N48fe9543-bf7a-4bb3-b7f3-098351efee5f

Background

Acute trauma pain is poorly managed in the emergency department (ED). The reasons are partly organizational: ED crowding and rare trauma care pathways contribute to oligoanalgesia. Anticipating the organizational impact of an innovative care procedure might facilitate the decision-making process and help to optimize pain management.

Methods

We used a multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach to consider the organizational impact of methoxyflurane (self-administered) in the ED, introduced alone or supported by a trauma care pathway. A MCDA experiment was designed for this specific context, 8 experts in emergency trauma care pathways (leading physicians and pharmacists working in French urban tertiary hospitals) were recruited. The study involved four steps: (i) Selection of organizational criteria for evaluating the innovation’s impact; (ii) assessment of the relative weight of each criterion; (iii) choice of appropriate scenarios for exploring the organizational impact of MEOX under various contexts; and (iv) software-assisted simulation based on pairwise comparisons of the scenarios. The final outcome measure was the expected overall organizational impact of methoxyflurane on a 0-to-100 scale (score >50: positive impact).

Results

Nine organizational criteria were selected. "Mean length of stay in the ED" was the most weighted. Methoxyflurane alone obtained 59 as a total score, with a putative positive impact for eight criteria, and a neutral effect on one. When a trauma care pathway was introduced concomitantly, the impact of methoxyflurane was greater overall (score: 75) and for each individual criterion.

Conclusions

Our model highlighted the putative positive organizational impact of methoxyflurane in the ED—particularly when supported by a trauma care pathway—and the relevance of expert consensus in this particular pharmacoeconomic context. The MCDA approach could be extended to other research fields and healthcare challenges in emergency medicine.

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<![CDATA[Stepwise stroke recognition through clinical information, vital signs, and initial labs (CIVIL): Electronic health record-based observational cohort study]]> https://www.researchpad.co/product?articleinfo=N0f0adfcb-3c92-4db3-bdce-cd884fd183e7

Background

Stroke recognition systems have been developed to reduce time delays, however, a comprehensive triaging score identifying stroke subtypes is needed to guide appropriate management. We aimed to develop a prehospital scoring system for rapid stroke recognition and identify stroke subtype simultaneously.

Methods and findings

In prospective database of regional emergency and stroke center, Clinical Information, Vital signs, and Initial Labs (CIVIL) of 1,599 patients suspected of acute stroke was analyzed from an automatically-stored electronic health record. Final confirmation was performed with neuroimaging. Using multiple regression analyses, we determined independent predictors of tier 1 (true-stroke or not), tier 2 (hemorrhagic stroke or not), and tier 3 (emergent large vessel occlusion [ELVO] or not). The diagnostic performance of the stepwise CIVIL scoring system was investigated using internal validation. A new scoring system characterized by a stepwise clinical assessment has been developed in three tiers. Tier 1: Seven CIVIL-AS3A2P items (total score from –7 to +6) were deduced for true stroke as Age (≥ 60 years); Stroke risks without Seizure or psychiatric disease, extreme Sugar; “any Asymmetry”, “not Ambulating”; abnormal blood Pressure at a cut-off point ≥ 1 with diagnostic sensitivity of 82.1%, specificity of 56.4%. Tier 2: Four items for hemorrhagic stroke were identified as the CIVIL-MAPS indicating Mental change, Age below 60 years, high blood Pressure, no Stroke risks with cut-point ≥ 2 (sensitivity 47.5%, specificity 85.4%). Tier 3: For ELVO diagnosis: we applied with CIVIL-GFAST items (Gaze, Face, Arm, Speech) with cut-point ≥ 3 (sensitivity 66.5%, specificity 79.8%). The main limitation of this study is its retrospective nature and require a prospective validation of the CIVIL scoring system.

Conclusions

The CIVIL score is a comprehensive and versatile system that recognizes strokes and identifies the stroke subtype simultaneously.

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